Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire.
ABSTRACT: c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with pH45min and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of pH45min and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs.
Project description:Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) is a nuclear serine/threonine kinase involved in transcriptional regulation. We investigated the expression and association of the BRD2 gene as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. BRD2 mRNA was expressed at relatively high levels in muscle tissue. Statistical analysis revealed that the c.1709G>C polymorphism of the BRD2 gene was significantly associated with carcass weight, meat color (a*, redness), protein content, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, carcass temperatures 4, 12 and 24 h postmortem, and the 24 h postmortem pH in 384 Berkshire pigs. Therefore, this polymorphism in the porcine BRD2 gene may be used as a candidate genetic marker to improve meat quality traits in pigs.
Project description:Litter size is an economically important trait in the pig industry. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with litter size, which can be used in breeding programs for improving reproductive traits. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Berkshire pigs in the N-acetyltransferase 9 (NAT9) and Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) genes were from RNA sequencing results, and already exist in the databank (NCBI), and were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 272 Berkshire sows were used to examine the genotype, and their association with litter size traits was analyzed. The NAT9 SNP was located in chromosome 12 exon 640 mRNA (A? > ?G) and the MAP3K3 SNP was located in chromosome 12 intron 11 (80, C? > ?T). Association analysis indicated that the GG genotype of NAT9 and the CT genotype of MAP3K3 had the highest values for litter size traits. The GG genotype expressed higher levels of NAT9 mRNA in the endometrium than the other genotypes did, and a positive correlation was found between litter size traits and NAT9, but not MAP3K3 expression level. These results indicate that the NAT9 and MAP3K3 can be used as candidate genes applicable in breeding program for the improvement of litter size traits in Berkshire pigs.
Project description:Objective:Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) were identified in Berkshire selective sweep regions and then were investigated to discover genetic nsSNP mechanisms that were potentially associated with Berkshire domestication and meat quality. We further used bioinformatics tools to predict damaging amino-acid substitutions in Berkshire-related nsSNPs. METHODS:nsSNPs were examined in whole genome resequencing data of 110 pigs, including 14 Berkshire pigs, generated using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform to identify variations that might affect meat quality in Berkshire pigs. RESULTS:Total 65,550 nsSNPs were identified in the mapped regions; among these, 319 were found in Berkshire selective-sweep regions reported in a previous study. Genes encompassing these nsSNPs were involved in lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty-acid deposition, and muscle development. The effects of amino acid change by nsSNPs on protein functions were predicted using sorting intolerant from tolerant and polymorphism phenotyping V2 to reveal their potential roles in biological processes that may correlate with the unique Berkshire meat-quality traits. CONCLUSION:Our nsSNP findings confirmed the history of Berkshire pigs and illustrated the effects of domestication on generic-variation patterns. Our novel findings, which are generally consistent with those of previous studies, facilitated a better understanding of Berkshire domestication. In summary, we extensively investigated the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic traits by scanning for nsSNPs in large-scale whole-genome sequencing data.
Project description:Domesticated organisms have experienced strong selective pressures directed at genes or genomic regions controlling traits of biological, agricultural or medical importance. The genome of native and domesticated pigs provide a unique opportunity for tracing the history of domestication and identifying signatures of artificial selection. Here we used whole-genome sequencing to explore the genetic relationships among the European native pig Berkshire and breeds that are distributed worldwide, and to identify genomic footprints left by selection during the domestication of Berkshire. Numerous nonsynonymous SNPs-containing genes fall into olfactory-related categories, which are part of a rapidly evolving superfamily in the mammalian genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian pigs rather than between domestic and wild pigs. Admixture analysis exhibited higher portion of Chinese genetic material for the Berkshire pigs, which is consistent with the historical record regarding its origin. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection affecting genomic regions that harbor genes underlying economic traits such as disease resistance, pork yield, fertility, tameness and body length. These discoveries confirmed the history of origin of Berkshire pig by genome-wide analysis and illustrate how domestication has shaped the patterns of genetic variation.
Project description:Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data.We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism.Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.
Project description:In pigs, litter size is typically defined as the total number of piglets born (TNB) or the number of piglets born alive (NBA). Increasing pig litter size is of great economic interest as a means to increase productivity. The capacity of the uterus is a critical component of litter size and may play a central role in prolificacy. In this study, we investigated litter-size-related epigenetic markers in uterine tissue from Berkshire pigs with smaller litter size groups (SLGs) and larger litter size groups (LLGs) using genome-wide bisulfite sequencing (GWBS). A total of 3269 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified: 1566 were hypermethylated and 1703 hypomethylated in LLG compared to SLG. The zona pellucida binding protein (ZPBP) gene was significantly hypomethylated in the LLG promoter region, and its expression was significantly upregulated in uterine tissue. Thus, the methylation status of ZPBP gene was identified as a potential indicator of litter size. Furthermore, we verified its negative correlation with litter size traits (TNB and NBA) in whole blood samples from 172 Berkshire sows as a blood-based biomarker by a porcine methylation-specific restriction enzyme polymerase chain reaction (PMP) assay. The results suggest that the methylation status of the ZPBP gene can serve as a valuable epigenetic biomarker for hyperprolific sows.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Scanning of the genome for selection signatures between breeds may play important role in understanding the underlie causes for observable phenotypic variations. The discovery of high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provide a useful starting point to perform genome-wide scan in pig populations in order to identify loci/candidate genes underlie phenotypic variation in pig breeds and facilitate genetic improvement programs. However, prior to this study genomic region under selection in commercially selected Berkshire and Korean native pig breeds has never been detected using high density SNP markers. To this end, we have genotyped 45 animals using Porcine SNP60 chip to detect selection signatures in the genome of the two breeds by using the F ST approach.<h4>Results</h4>In the comparison of Berkshire and KNP breeds using the FDIST approach, a total of 1108 outlier loci (3.48%) were significantly different from zero at 99% confidence level with 870 of the outlier SNPs displaying high level of genetic differentiation (F ST ?0.490). The identified candidate genes were involved in a wide array of biological processes and molecular functions. Results revealed that 19 candidate genes were enriched in phosphate metabolism (GO: 0006796; ADCK1, ACYP1, CAMK2D, CDK13, CDK13, ERN1, GALK2, INPP1; MAK, MAP2K5, MAP3K1, MAPK14, P14KB, PIK3C3, PRKC1, PTPRK, RNASEL, THBS1, BRAF, VRK1). We have identified a set of candidate genes under selection and have known to be involved in growth, size and pork quality (CART, AGL, CF7L2, MAP2K5, DLK1, GLI3, CA3 and MC3R), ear morphology and size (HMGA2 and SOX5) stress response (ATF2, MSRB3, TMTC3 and SCAF8) and immune response ( HCST and RYR1).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Some of the genes may be used to facilitate genetic improvement programs. Our results also provide insights for better understanding of the process and influence of breed development on the pattern of genetic variations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patients with SCLC have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Because access to longitudinal tumor samples is very limited in patients with this disease, we chose to focus our studies on the characterization of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for rapid, noninvasive monitoring of disease burden. METHODS:We developed a liquid biopsy assay that quantifies somatic variants in cfDNA. The assay detects single nucleotide variants, copy number alterations, and insertions or deletions in 14 genes that are frequently mutated in SCLC, including tumor protein p53 gene (TP53), retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1), BRAF, KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase gene (KIT), notch 1 gene (NOTCH1), notch 2 gene (NOTCH2), notch 3 gene (NOTCH3), notch 4 gene (NOTCH4), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha gene (PIK3CA), phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene (FGFR1), v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (MYC), v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene lung carcinoma derived homolog gene (MYCL1), and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog gene (MYCN). RESULTS:Over the course of 26 months of peripheral blood collection, we examined 140 plasma samples from 27 patients. We detected disease-associated mutations in 85% of patient samples with mutant allele frequencies ranging from 0.1% to 87%. In our cohort, 59% of the patients had extensive-stage disease, and the most common mutations occurred in TP53 (70%) and RB1 (52%). In addition to mutations in TP53 and RB1, we detected alterations in 10 additional genes in our patient population (PTEN, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, NOTCH4, MYC, MYCL1, PIK3CA, KIT, and BRAF). The observed allele frequencies and copy number alterations tracked closely with treatment responses. Notably, in several cases analysis of cfDNA provided evidence of disease relapse before conventional imaging. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that liquid biopsies are readily applicable in patients with SCLC and can potentially provide improved monitoring of disease burden, depth of response to treatment, and timely warning of disease relapse in patients with this disease.
Project description:Increasing litter size is of great interest to the pig industry. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression, resulting in livestock phenotypes such as disease resistance, milk production, and reproduction. We classified Berkshire pigs into two groups according to litter size and estimated breeding value: smaller (SLG) and larger (LLG) litter size groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression were analyzed using placenta genomic DNA and RNA to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with litter size. The methylation levels of CpG dinucleotides in different genomic regions were noticeably different between the groups, while global methylation pattern was similar, and excluding intergenic regions they were found the most frequently in gene body regions. Next, we analyzed RNA-Seq data to identify DEGs between the SLG and LLG groups. A total of 1591 DEGs were identified: 567 were downregulated and 1024 were upregulated in LLG compared to SLG. To identify genes that simultaneously exhibited changes in DNA methylation and mRNA expression, we integrated and analyzed the data from bisulfite-Seq and RNA-Seq. Nine DEGs positioned in DMRs were found. The expression of only three of these genes (PRKG2, CLCA4, and PCK1) was verified by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, we observed the same methylation patterns in blood samples as in the placental tissues by PCR-based methylation analysis. Together, these results provide useful data regarding potential epigenetic markers for selecting hyperprolific sows.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The Jeju native pig (JNP) found on the Jeju Island of Korea is a unique black pig known for high-quality meat. To investigate the genetic uniqueness of JNP, we analyzed the selection signature of the JNP in comparison to commercial pigs such as Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs. METHODS:We surveyed the genetic diversity to identify the genetic stability of the JNP, using the linkage disequilibrium method. A selective sweep of the JNP was performed to identify the selection signatures. To do so, the population differentiation measure, Weir-Cockerham's Fst was utilized. This statistic directly measures the population differentiation at the variant level. Additionally, we investigated the gene ontologies (GOs) and genetic features. RESULTS:Compared to the Berkshire and Yorkshire pigs, the JNP had lower genetic diversity in terms of linkage disequilibrium decays. We summarized the selection signatures of the JNP as GO. In the JNP and Berkshire pigs, the most enriched GO terms were epithelium development and neuron-related. Considering the JNP and Yorkshire pigs, cellular response to oxygen-containing compound and generation of neurons were the most enriched GO. CONCLUSION:The selection signatures of the JNP were identified through the population differentiation statistic. The genes with possible selection signatures are expected to play a role in JNP's unique pork quality.