Low-dose aspirin and survival from lung cancer: a population-based cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Preclinical evidence suggests that aspirin may inhibit lung cancer progression. In a large cohort of lung cancer patients, we investigated whether low-dose aspirin use was associated with a reduction in the risk of lung cancer-specific mortality.We identified lung cancer patients from English cancer registries diagnosed between 1998 to 2009 from the National Cancer Data Repository. Medication usage was obtained from linkages to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and lung cancer-specific deaths were identified from Office of National Statistics mortality data. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between low-dose aspirin use (before and after diagnosis) and risk of lung cancer-specific mortality were calculated using Cox regression models.A total of 14,735 lung cancer patients were identified during the study period. In analysis of 3,635 lung cancer patients, there was no suggestion of an association between low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). Similarly, no association was evident for low-dose aspirin use before diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.05). Associations were comparable by duration of use and for all-cause mortality.Overall, we found little evidence of a protective association between low-dose aspirin use and cancer-specific mortality in a large population-based lung cancer cohort.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aspirin has been proposed as a novel adjuvant agent in colorectal cancer (CRC). Six observational studies have reported CRC-specific survival outcomes in patients using aspirin after CRC diagnosis but the results from these studies have been conflicting. Using a population-based cohort design this study aimed to assess if low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis reduced CRC-specific mortality. METHODS:A cohort of 8391 patients with Dukes' A-C CRC (2009-2012) was identified from the Scottish Cancer Registry and linked to national prescribing and death records. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CRC-specific mortality were calculated using time-dependent Cox regression. RESULTS:There were 1064 CRC-specific deaths after a median follow-up of 3.6 years. Post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use was not associated with a reduction in CRC-specific mortality either before or after adjustment for confounders (adjusted HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.36). In sensitivity analysis pre-diagnostic low-dose aspirin was also not associated with reduced CRC-specific mortality (adjusted HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.05). CONCLUSION:Low-dose aspirin use, either before or after diagnosis, did not prolong survival in this population-based CRC cohort.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing data suggest that aspirin use may improve cancer survival; however, the evidence is sparse for ovarian cancer. METHODS:We examined the association between postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and mortality in a nationwide cohort of women with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2012. Information on filled prescriptions of low-dose aspirin, dates and causes of death, and potential confounding factors was obtained from nationwide Danish registries. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer-specific or other-cause mortality associated with low-dose aspirin use. RESULTS:Among 4117 patients, postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin was associated with HRs of 1.02 (95% CI: 0.87-1.20) for ovarian cancer mortality and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.77-1.47) for other-cause mortality. Hazard ratios remained neutral according to patterns of low-dose aspirin use, including prediagnosis use or established mortality predictors. CONCLUSIONS:Low-dose aspirin use did not reduce mortality among ovarian cancer patients.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that daily aspirin use decreases cancer risk, particularly for colorectal cancer, but evidence for alternate-day use is scant.To examine the association between long-term, alternate-day, low-dose aspirin and cancer in healthy women.Observational follow-up of a randomized trial.Female health professionals.39,876 women aged 45 years or older in the Women's Health Study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00000479), 33 682 of whom continued observational follow-up.100 mg of alternate-day aspirin or placebo through March 2004, with a median 10-year follow-up. Posttrial follow-up continued through March 2012.Cancer incidence.A total of 5071 cancer cases (including 2070 breast, 451 colorectal, and 431 lung cancer cases) and 1391 cancer deaths were confirmed. Over the entire follow-up, aspirin had no association with total (hazard ratio [HR], 0.97 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.03]; P = 0.31), breast (HR, 0.98 [CI, 0.90 to 1.07]; P = 0.65), or lung (HR, 1.04 [CI, 0.86 to 1.26]; P = 0.67) cancer. Colorectal cancer was reduced in the aspirin group (HR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.97]; P = 0.021), primarily for proximal colon cancer (HR, 0.73 [CI, 0.55 to 0.95]; P = 0.022). The difference emerged after 10 years, with a posttrial reduction of 42% (HR, 0.58 [CI, 0.42 to 0.80]; P < 0.001). There was no extended effect on cancer deaths or colorectal polyps. More gastrointestinal bleeding (HR, 1.14 [CI, 1.06 to 1.22]; P < 0.001) and peptic ulcers (HR, 1.17 [CI, 1.09 to 1.27]; P < 0.001) occurred in the aspirin group.Not all women received extended follow-up, and posttrial ascertainment bias cannot be ruled out. Gastrointestinal bleeding, peptic ulcers, and polyps were self-reported during extended follow-up.Long-term use of alternate-day, low-dose aspirin may reduce risk for colorectal cancer in healthy women.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Long-term daily use of aspirin has been associated with reduced cancer mortality. To explore this association, we compared tumour TNM characteristics among aspirin users with those among non-users. METHODS: From the Swedish Cancer Register, we identified patients diagnosed with colorectal, lung, prostate and breast cancers between 2006 and 2009 and matched them to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to obtain information on low-dose aspirin use prior to diagnosis. Contingency table and logistic regression analyses were used to test for association and obtain odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified 17,041 colorectal, 9766 lung, 29,770 prostate and 20,299 breast cancer patients. The proportion of low-dose aspirin users was ~26% among colorectal, lung and prostate cancer patients and ~14% among breast cancer patients. Adjusted for age, gender, education level and place of residence, low-dose aspirin use was associated with lower tumour extent (T) for colorectal and lung cancers (P<0.0001) but not for prostate and breast cancers. The adjusted OR of aspirin use for the T4 vs T1 categories was ~0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-0.8). For all cancers, we found no evidence of association of aspirin use with nodal involvement (N). Except for a borderline result in prostate cancer (OR ~0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), aspirin use was associated with a lower rate of metastatic disease (ORs ~0.6-0.8). Among the histological subgroups of lung cancer, significant differences in tumour extent were observed most clearly within the adenocarcinoma subgroup (OR ~0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8), although numbers of other subtypes were more limited; and there was a significant reduction of ~20-30% in the odds of metastasis among the aspirin users across the subgroups. CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose aspirin in the year prior to diagnosis was found to be associated with lower tumour extent and fewer metastatic disease for colorectal and lung cancers. For these cancers, the benefit of aspirin use appears to be during both early and late cancer progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Results from previous studies indicate that use of low-dose aspirin may improve breast cancer prognosis. We evaluated aspirin use and breast cancer outcomes in relation to clinical characteristics as well as dose and duration of aspirin use.<h4>Methods</h4>We used information from the Regional Breast Cancer Quality-of-Care Registries in three Swedish regions to identify 21,414 women diagnosed with a first stage I-III breast cancer between 1 April 2006 and 31 December 2012. The cohort was further linked to nationwide registers to retrieve information about dispensing low-dose aspirin before and after breast cancer diagnosis, comorbidity and causes of death. In a separate analysis, we investigated time to breast cancer death among 621 women with stage IV disease at diagnosis. Associations were evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.<h4>Results</h4>Among women with stage I-III breast cancer, 2660 (12.4%) used low-dose aspirin shortly before breast cancer diagnosis and 4091 (19.1%) were users during follow-up. Women were followed for a median of 3.8 years after diagnosis. There was no association between aspirin use and breast cancer-specific death in multivariable analyses (use before diagnosis: hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.12; use after diagnosis: HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74-1.37). Similarly, aspirin use was not associated with risk of first recurrence/metastases in a subgroup of stage I-III breast cancer patients (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.10). However, in analyses stratified by stage, an inverse association between low-dose aspirin use after diagnosis and breast cancer death was found for women with stage I tumors (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.96). Among women with stage IV disease at diagnosis, aspirin use was not associated with time to breast cancer death (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.23).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this large population-based cohort study there was no evidence that low-dose aspirin use before or after breast cancer diagnosis is associated with a reduced risk of adverse outcomes overall in breast cancer. However, a potential benefit was noted among women with stage I tumors, warranting further investigation.
Project description:Lymph node-positive breast tumors are more likely to express COX2 than node-negative tumors. In preclinical studies, COX2 inhibition prevents breast tumor spread to lymph nodes. Therefore, we examined the association between recent (1 year) prediagnostic use of aspirin (COX1/COX2 inhibitor), lymph node involvement at breast cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer-specific mortality. Women with stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 (N = 2,796) were identified from Ireland's National Cancer Registry. These data were linked to prescription refill and mammographic screening databases. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for associations between prediagnostic aspirin use and lymph node-positive status at diagnosis. HRs were estimated for associations between pre- and postdiagnostic aspirin use and 5-year mortality, stratified by lymph node status. Women with prediagnostic aspirin use were statistically significantly less likely to present with a lymph node-positive tumor than nonusers [RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-0.97], particularly those with larger (Pinteraction = 0.036), progesterone receptor (PR)-negative (Pinteraction < 0.001) or estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (Pinteraction = 0.056) tumors. The magnitude of this association increased with dose (Ptrend < 0.01) and dosing intensity (Ptrend < 0.001) and was similar in women with or without screen-detected tumors (Pinteraction = 0.70). Prediagnostic aspirin use was associated with lower 5-year breast cancer-specific mortality among women with lymph node-negative tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.92) but not node-positive tumors (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.37-1.22). Tests for effect-modification were, however, not statistically significant (Pinteraction = 0.087). Postdiagnostic aspirin use was not associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.68-1.45). Our findings indicate that recent prediagnostic aspirin use is protective against lymph node-positive breast cancer. This is a plausible explanation for reductions in breast cancer mortality reported in observational studies of aspirin use.
Project description:Importance:Low-dose aspirin use for chemoprevention of lung cancer risk remains controversial. Objectives:To investigate the association between low-dose aspirin use and lung cancer risk, and to identify specific subgroups that may derive the most benefit from low-dose aspirin use. Design, Setting, and Participants:This nationwide, retrospective, cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Information Database from 2002 to 2015. Data analyses were performed from October 2016 to December 2018. Eligible participants (n = 12 969 400) were people aged 40 to 84 years who had undergone national health screening between 2009 and 2010 and had no history of lung cancer between 2006 and 2010 and no standard-dose aspirin use for 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Main Outcomes and Measures:The duration of low-dose aspirin use between January 2002 and December 2010 was calculated for each participant. Lung cancer was defined as the first recorded diagnosis of lung cancer-using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes and expanding benefit coverage-between January 2011 and December 2015. Results:A total of 63 040 participants with a mean (SD) age of 66.4 (9.3) years received a diagnosis of lung cancer. Of these, 45 156 (71.6%) were men. The incidence rate of lung cancer was 98.8 per 100 000 person-years. The duration of low-dose aspirin use was none for 10 987 417 participants (84.7%), 1 to 2 years for 750 992 participants (5.8%), 3 to 4 years for 506 945 participants (3.9%), 5 to 6 years for 371 062 participants (2.9%), 7 to 8 years for 240 528 participants (1.9%), and 9 years for 112 456 participants (0.9%). Compared with no aspirin use, 5 to 6 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-0.99]), 7 to 8 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.90-0.99]), and 9 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.84-0.94]) of aspirin use were significantly associated with reduced lung cancer risk. After stratified analysis, a significant reduction of lung cancer risk was observed among people aged 65 years or older and among people without diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance:Although the use of low-dose aspirin for more than 5 years was associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among elderly participants and among people without diabetes, the observed effect size was quite modest. Future prospective studies are needed to determine whether there is a causal association.
Project description:Background:Celecoxib and low-dose aspirin might decrease risk of breast cancer recurrence. Methods:In the Canadian Cancer Trials Group MA.27, postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients were randomly assigned (2?×?2) to adjuvant exemestane or anastrozole, and celecoxib or placebo. Low-dose aspirin of 81 mg or less was a stratification factor. Due to concerns about cardiac toxicity, celecoxib use was stopped in December 2004, while stratification by aspirin use was removed through protocol amendment. We examined the effects of celecoxib and low-dose aspirin on event-free survival (EFS), defined as time from random assignment to time of locoregional or distant disease recurrence, new primary breast cancer, or death from any cause; distant disease-free survival (DDFS); and overall survival (OS). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results:Random assignment to celecoxib (n = 811, 50.0%) or placebo (n = 811, 50.0%) was discontinued after 18 months (n = 1622). At a median of 4.1 years' follow-up, among 1622 patients, 186 (11.5%) patients had an EFS event: 80 (4.9%) had distant relapse, and 125 (7.7%) died from any cause. Celecoxib did not statistically significantly impact EFS, DDFS, or OS in univariate analysis (respectively, P = .92, P = .55, and P = .56) or multivariable analysis (respectively, P = .74, P = .60, and P = .76). Low-dose aspirin use (aspirin users n = 476, 21.5%; non-aspirin users n = 1733, 78.5%) was associated in univariate analyses with worse EFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 1.96, P = 0.006) and worse OS (HR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.35 to 2.61, P < .001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and treatment arm, aspirin use showed no statistical association with EFS (P = .08) and DDFS (P = .82), but was associated with statistically worse OS (HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.49, P = .01). Conclusion:Random assignment to short-term (?18 months) celecoxib as well as use of low-dose aspirin showed no effect on DDFS and EFS in multivariable analysis. Low-dose aspirin increased "all-cause" mortality, presumably because of higher preexisting cardiovascular risks.
Project description:Few studies have evaluated the chemopreventive effect of aspirin on the cancer risk in elderly women. We examined associations between frequency, dose, and duration of aspirin use with incidence of 719 aspirin-sensitive cancers (cancers of colon, pancreas, breast, and ovaries) in the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS), a prospective cohort of women over 70 years old.Aspirin frequency, dose, and duration were self-reported in the 2004 IWHS questionnaire. Women were followed-up to 2011. Cancer cases were ascertained by linkage to the Iowa State Health Registry. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI).Among the 14,386 women, 30 % were nonusers of aspirin; 34 % used low-dose aspirin, and 36 % used regular- or high-dose aspirin. Compared with nonuse of aspirin, the HRs (95 % CI) for incidence of aspirin-sensitive cancers were 0.87 (0.72-1.06) for regular to high doses of aspirin use, 0.95 (0.80-1.13) for aspirin use 6+ times per week, and 0.93 (0.74-1.17) for aspirin use for 10+ years. For cumulative aspirin use, HR (95 % CI) was 0.87 (0.70-1.09) for >60,000 mg of aspirin per year and 0.95 (0.75-1.21) for >280,000 mg of aspirin in their lifetime, versus nonuse of aspirin. Results were similar for the all-cause cancer death as an endpoint, with a significant inverse association observed between lifetime aspirin dose and cancer mortality [<95,000 mg vs nonuser HR 0.76 (0.61-0.95)].These findings suggest that aspirin use may prevent incident breast, colon, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer in elderly women.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Aspirin use has been associated with reduced risk of cancer mortality, particularly of the colorectum. However, aspirin efficacy may be influenced by biological characteristics, such as obesity and age. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and conflicting data regarding the effect of aspirin in older adults, understanding the potential association of aspirin use with cancer mortality according to body mass index (BMI) and age is imperative.<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the association of aspirin use with risk of all-cause, any cancer, gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality among older adults and to perform an exploratory analysis of the association of aspirin use with mortality stratified by BMI.<h4>Design, setting, participants</h4>This cohort study evaluated aspirin use among participants aged 65 years and older in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial at baseline (November 8, 1993, to July 2, 2001) and follow-up (2006-2008). Analysis began in late 2018 and was completed in September 2019.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>All-cause, any cancer, GI cancer, or CRC mortality. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, adjusting for additional factors.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 146?152 individuals (mean [SD] age at baseline, 66.3 [2.4] years; 74?742 [51.1%] women; 129?446 [88.6%] non-Hispanic white) were included in analysis. The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 12.5 (8.7-16.4) years, encompassing 1?822?164 person-years. Compared with no use, aspirin use 1 to 3 times per month was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88; P?<?.001) and cancer mortality (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94; P?<?.001). Aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with decreased risk of mortality of all causes (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.83; P?<?.001), any cancer (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.88; P?<?.001), GI cancer (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84; P?<?.001), and CRC (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.84; P?<?.001). When stratified by BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), aspirin use 3 or more times per week among individuals with BMI 20 to 24.9 was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.85; P?<?.001) and any cancer mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82; P?<?.001). Among individuals with BMI 25 to 29.9, aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85; P?<?.001), any cancer mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91; P?<?.001), GI cancer mortality (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86; P?<?.001), and CRC mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.85; P?=?.001).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this cohort study, aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with a reduction in all-cause, cancer, GI cancer and CRC mortality in older adults.