Calcium-controlled conformational choreography in the N-terminal half of adseverin.
ABSTRACT: Adseverin is a member of the calcium-regulated gelsolin superfamily of actin-binding proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of the calcium-free N-terminal half of adseverin (iA1-A3) and the Ca(2+)-bound structure of A3, which reveal structural similarities and differences with gelsolin. Solution small-angle X-ray scattering combined with ensemble optimization revealed a dynamic Ca(2+)-dependent equilibrium between inactive, intermediate and active conformations. Increasing calcium concentrations progressively shift this equilibrium from a main population of inactive conformation to the active form. Molecular dynamics simulations of iA1-A3 provided insights into Ca(2+)-induced destabilization, implicating a critical role for the A2 type II calcium-binding site and the A2A3 linker in the activation process. Finally, mutations that disrupt the A1/A3 interface increase Ca(2+)-independent F-actin severing by A1-A3, albeit at a lower efficiency than observed for gelsolin domains G1-G3. Together, these data address the calcium dependency of A1-A3 activity in relation to the calcium-independent activity of G1-G3.
Project description:Adseverin is a member of the calcium-regulated gelsolin superfamily of actin severing and capping proteins. Adseverin comprises 6 homologous domains (A1-A6), which share 60% identity with the 6 domains from gelsolin (G1-G6). Adseverin is truncated in comparison to gelsolin, lacking the C-terminal extension that masks the F-actin binding site in calcium-free gelsolin. Biochemical assays have indicated differences in the interaction of the C-terminal halves of adseverin and gelsolin with actin. Gelsolin contacts actin through a major site on G4 and a minor site on G6, whereas adseverin uses a site on A5. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the activated C-terminal half of adseverin (A4-A6). This structure is highly similar to that of the activated form of the C-terminal half of gelsolin (G4-G6), both in arrangement of domains and in the 3 bound calcium ions. Comparative analysis of the actin-binding surfaces observed in the G4-G6/actin structure suggests that adseverin in this conformation will also be able to interact with actin through A4 and A6, whereas the A5 surface is obscured. A single residue mutation in A4-A6 located at the predicted A4/actin interface completely abrogates actin sequestration. A model of calcium-free adseverin, constructed from the structure of gelsolin, predicts that in the absence of a gelsolin-like C-terminal extension the interaction between A2 and A6 provides the steric inhibition to prevent interaction with F-actin. We propose that calcium binding to the N terminus of adseverin dominates the activation process to expose the F-actin binding site on A2.
Project description:We identified a number of upregulated genes by differential screening of interleukin-9-stimulated T-helper lymphocytes. Interestingly, two of these messengers encode proteins that are similar to proteins of the gelsolin family. The first displays a typical structure of six homologous domains and shows a high level of identity (90%) with bovine adseverin (or scinderin) and may therefore be considered the murine adseverin homolog. The second encodes a protein with only five segments. Sequence comparison shows that most of the fifth segment and a short amino-terminal part of the sixth segment (amino acids 528 to 628 of adseverin) are missing, and thus, this form may represent an alternatively spliced product derived from the same gene. The corresponding protein is called mouse adseverin (D5). We expressed both proteins in Escherichia coli and show that mouse adseverin displays the typical characteristics of all members of the gelsolin family with respect to actin binding (capping, severing, and nucleation) and its regulation by Ca2+. In contrast, mouse adseverin (D5) fails to nucleate actin polymerization, although like mouse adseverin and gelsolin, it severs and caps actin filaments in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Adseverin is present in all of the tissues and most of the cell lines tested, although at low concentrations. Mouse adseverin (D5) was found only in blood cells and in cell lines derived from T-helper lymphocytes and mast cells, where it is weakly expressed. In a gel filtration experiment, we demonstrated that mouse adseverin forms a 1:2 complex with G actin which is stable only in the presence of Ca2+, while no stable complex was observed for mouse adseverin (D5).
Project description:Gelsolin consists of six homologous domains (G1-G6), each containing a conserved Ca-binding site. Occupation of a subset of these sites enables gelsolin to sever and cap actin filaments in a Ca-dependent manner. Here, we present the structures of Ca-free human gelsolin and of Ca-bound human G1-G3 in a complex with actin. These structures closely resemble those determined previously for equine gelsolin. However, the G2 Ca-binding site is occupied in the human G1-G3/actin structure, whereas it is vacant in the equine version. In-depth comparison of the Ca-free and Ca-activated, actin-bound human gelsolin structures suggests G2 and G6 to be cooperative in binding Ca(2+) and responsible for opening the G2-G6 latch to expose the F-actin-binding site on G2. Mutational analysis of the G2 and G6 Ca-binding sites demonstrates their interdependence in maintaining the compact structure in the absence of calcium. Examination of Ca binding by G2 in human G1-G3/actin reveals that the Ca(2+) locks the G2-G3 interface. Thermal denaturation studies of G2-G3 indicate that Ca binding stabilizes this fragment, driving it into the active conformation. The G2 Ca-binding site is mutated in gelsolin from familial amyloidosis (Finnish-type) patients. This disease initially proceeds through protease cleavage of G2, ultimately to produce a fragment that forms amyloid fibrils. The data presented here support a mechanism whereby the loss of Ca binding by G2 prolongs the lifetime of partially activated, intermediate conformations in which the protease cleavage site is exposed.
Project description:The importance of actin organization in controlling the chondrocyte phenotype is well established, but little is known about the cytoskeletal components regulating chondrocyte differentiation. Previously, we have observed up-regulation of an actin-binding gelsolin-like protein in hypertrophic chondrocytes. We have now identified it as adseverin (scinderin). Adseverin is drastically up-regulated during chondrocyte maturation, as shown by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and real-time RT-PCR. Its expression is positively regulated by PKC and MEK signaling as shown by inhibitory analyses. Over-expression of adseverin in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes causes rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, a change in cell morphology, a dramatic (3.5-fold) increase in cell volume, and up-regulation of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and of collagen type X--all indicative of chondrocyte differentiation. These changes are mediated by ERK1/2 and p38 kinase pathways. Thus, adseverin-induced rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton may mediate the PKC-dependent activation of p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathways necessary for chondrocyte hypertrophy, as evidenced by changes in cell morphology, increase in cell size and expression of the chondrocyte maturation markers. These results demonstrate that interdependence of cytoskeletal organization and chondrogenic gene expression is regulated, at least in part, by actin-binding proteins such as adseverin.
Project description:The actin filament-severing functionality of gelsolin resides in its N-terminal three domains (G1-G3). We have determined the structure of this fragment in complex with an actin monomer. The structure reveals the dramatic domain rearrangements that activate G1-G3, which include the replacement of interdomain interactions observed in the inactive, calcium-free protein by new contacts to actin, and by a novel G2-G3 interface. Together, these conformational changes are critical for actin filament severing, and we suggest that their absence leads to the disease Finnish-type familial amyloidosis. Furthermore, we propose that association with actin drives the calcium-independent activation of isolated G1-G3 during apoptosis, and that a similar mechanism operates to activate native gelsolin at micromolar levels of calcium. This is the first structure of a filament-binding protein bound to actin and it sets stringent, high-resolution limitations on the arrangement of actin protomers within the filament.
Project description:The gelsolin family of actin regulatory proteins is activated by Ca(2+) to sever and cap actin filaments. Gelsolin has six homologous gelsolin-like domains (G1-G6), and Ca(2+)-dependent conformational changes regulate its accessibility to actin. Caenorhabditis elegans gelsolin-like protein-1 (GSNL-1) has only four gelsolin-like domains (G1-G4) and still exhibits Ca(2+)-dependent actin filament-severing and -capping activities. We found that acidic residues (Asp-83 and Asp-84) in G1 of GSNL-1 are important for its Ca(2+) activation. These residues are conserved in GSNL-1 and gelsolin and previously implicated in actin-severing activity of the gelsolin family. We found that alanine mutations at Asp-83 and Asp-84 (D83A/D84A mutation) did not disrupt actin-severing or -capping activity. Instead, the mutants exhibited altered Ca(2+) sensitivity when compared with wild-type GSNL-1. The D83A/D84A mutation enhanced Ca(2+) sensitivity for actin severing and capping and its susceptibility to proteolytic digestion, suggesting a conformational change. Single mutations caused minimal changes in its activity, whereas Asp-83 and Asp-84 were required to stabilize Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound conformations, respectively. On the other hand, the D83A/D84A mutation suppressed sensitivity of GSNL-1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate inhibition. The structure of an inactive form of gelsolin shows that the equivalent acidic residues are in close contact with G3, which may maintain an inactive conformation of the gelsolin family.
Project description:Adseverin is a Ca2+-dependent actin filament-severing protein that has been reported to regulate exocytosis via rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton in secretory cells. However, the role of adseverin in bone cells has not yet been well characterized. Here, we investigated the role of adseverin in osteoclastogenesis using primary osteoclast precursor cells. Adseverin expression was upregulated during RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)-induced osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, genetic silencing of adseverin decreased the number of osteoclasts generated by RANKL. Adseverin knockdown also suppressed the RANKL-mediated induction of nuclear factor of activated T-cell c1 (NFATc1), which is a key transcription factor in osteoclastogenesis. In addition, adseverin knockdown impaired bone resorption and the secretion of bone-degrading enzymes from osteoclasts. These effects were accompanied by decreased NFATc1 expression and the activation of nuclear factor-κB. Collectively, our results indicate that adseverin has a crucial role in osteoclastogenesis by regulating NFATc1.
Project description:Gelsolin is a key actin cytoskeleton-modulating protein primarily regulated by calcium and phosphoinositides. In addition, low pH has also been suggested to activate gelsolin in the absence of Ca(2+) ions, although no structural insight on this pathway is available except for a reported decrement in its diffusion coefficient at low pH. We also observed ~1.6-fold decrease in the molecular mobility of recombinant gelsolin when buffer pH was lowered from 9 to 5. Analysis of the small angle x-ray scattering data collected over the same pH range indicated that the radius of gyration and maximum linear dimension of gelsolin molecules increased from 30.3 to 34.1 ? and from 100 to 125 ?, respectively. Models generated for each dataset indicated that similar to the Ca(2+)-induced process, low pH also promotes unwinding of this six-domain protein but only partially. It appeared that pH is able to induce extension of the G1 domain from the rest of the five domains, whereas the Ca(2+)-sensitive latch between G2 and G6 domains remains closed. Interestingly, increasing the free Ca(2+) level to merely ~40 nM, the partially open pH 5 shape "sprung open" to a shape seen earlier for this protein at pH 8 and 1 mm free Ca(2+). Also, pH alone could induce a shape where the g3-g4 linker of gelsolin was open when we truncated the C-tail latch from this protein. Our results provide insight into how under physiological conditions, a drop in pH can fully activate the F-actin-severing shape of gelsolin with micromolar levels of Ca(2+) available.
Project description:Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion.
Project description:In the disease familial amyloidosis, Finnish type (FAF), also known as AGel amyloidosis (AGel), the mechanism by which point mutations in the calcium-regulated actin-severing protein gelsolin lead to furin cleavage is not understood in the intact protein. Here, we provide a structural and biochemical characterization of the FAF variants. X-ray crystallography structures of the FAF mutant gelsolins demonstrate that the mutations do not significantly disrupt the calcium-free conformations of gelsolin. Small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) studies indicate that the FAF calcium-binding site mutants are slower to activate, whereas G167R is as efficient as the wild type. Actin-regulating studies of the gelsolins at the furin cleavage pH (6.5) show that the mutant gelsolins are functional, suggesting that they also adopt relatively normal active conformations. Deletion of gelsolin domains leads to sensitization to furin cleavage, and nanobody-binding protects against furin cleavage. These data indicate instability in the second domain of gelsolin (G2), since loss or gain of G2-stabilizing interactions impacts the efficiency of cleavage by furin. To demonstrate this principle, we engineered non-FAF mutations in G3 that disrupt the G2-G3 interface in the calcium-activated structure. These mutants led to increased furin cleavage. We carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the FAF and non-FAF mutant G2-G3 fragments of gelsolin. All mutants showed an increase in the distance between the center of masses of the 2 domains (G2 and G3). Since G3 covers the furin cleavage site on G2 in calcium-activated gelsolin, this suggests that destabilization of this interface is a critical step in cleavage.