Combined effects of a high-fat diet and chronic valproic acid treatment on hepatic steatosis and hepatotoxicity in rats.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the potential interactive effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) and valproic acid (VPA) on hepatic steatosis and hepatotoxicity in rats.Male SD rats were orally administered VPA (100 or 500 mg·kg?¹·d?¹) combined with HFD or a standard diet for 8 weeks. Blood and liver samples were analyzed to determine lipid levels and hepatic function biomarkers using commercial kit assays. Low-molecular-weight compounds in serum, urine and bile samples were analyzed using a metabonomic approach based on GC/TOF-MS.HFD alone induced extensive hepatocyte steatosis and edema in rats, while VPA alone did not cause significant liver lesions. VPA significantly aggravated HFD-induced accumulation of liver lipids, and caused additional spotty or piecemeal necrosis, accompanied by moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver. Metabonomic analysis of serum, urine and bile samples revealed that HFD significantly increased the levels of amino acids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid, whereas VPA markedly decreased the levels of amino acids, FFAs and the intermediate products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) compared with the control group. HFD aggravated VPA-induced inhibition on lipid and amino acid metabolism.HFD magnifies VPA-induced impairment of mitochondrial ?-oxidation of FFAs and TCA, thereby increases hepatic steatosis and hepatotoxicity. The results suggest the patients receiving VPA treatment should be advised to avoid eating HFD.
Project description:Previous findings supported that fetuin B, a new hepatokine, may be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the role of fetuin B in hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 mice and HepG2 cells. 1) We found that the administration of recombinant fetuin B aggravated hepatic lipid accumulation caused by free fatty acids (FFAs) or high fat diet, in vivo and in vitro. It lowered the phosphorylated AMPK levels and activated the LXR-SREBP1c pathway, accompanied by the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation and upregulation of lipogenesis. Furthermore, in HepG2 cells exposed to recombinant fetuin B and FFAs, the AMPK agonist depressed the LXR-SREBP1c pathway and alleviated lipid accumulation. The knockdown of LXR protected against steatosis but failed to change phosphorylated AMPK. 2) The knockdown of fetuin B by siRNA or shRNA alleviated lipid accumulation, in vivo and in vitro. It enhanced phosphorylated AMPK and depressed the LXR-SREBP1c pathway, accompanied by upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and downregulation of lipogenesis. Moreover, in HepG2 cells exposed to fetuin B siRNA and FFAs, LXR agonist aggravated lipid accumulation but failed to influence AMPK. This study indicated that fetuin B aggravated LXR-mediated hepatic steatosis through AMPK. It might offer new insights into clinical management and biomarker research on fatty liver.
Project description:Conditional knockout mice with targeted disruption of B-cell associated protein (BAP)31 in adult mouse liver were generated and challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 36 or 96 days and markers of obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis were determined. Mutant mice were indistinguishable from WT littermates, but exhibited increased HFD-induced obesity. BAP31-deletion in hepatocytes increased the expression of SREBP1C and the target genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and HFD-induced liver steatosis. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that BAP31 interacts with SREBP1C and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1), and BAP31-deletion reduces INSIG1 expression, suggesting that BAP31 may regulate SREBP1C activity by modulating INSIG1 protein levels. Additionally, BAP31-deletion induced glucose and insulin intolerance, decreased Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? phosphorylation, and enhanced hepatic glucose production in mice. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers was significantly induced in BAP31-mutant mice. HFD-induced inflammation was aggravated in mutant mice, along with increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-?B activation. These findings demonstrate that BAP31-deletion induces SREBP activation and promotes hepatic lipid accumulation, reduces insulin signaling, impairs glucose/insulin tolerance, and increases ER stress and hepatic inflammation, explaining the protective roles of BAP31 in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-induced obesity in animal models.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD) in wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Additionally, HFD-fed IL-6(-/-) mice were also chronically treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6). Obesity in WT mice fed a HFD associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels, fatty liver, upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), increased AMP kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK), and downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1). The HFD-fed IL-6(-/-) mice showed severe steatosis, no changes in CPT1 levels or AMPK activity, no increase in STAT3 amounts, inactivated STAT3, and marked downregulation of the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC?/?), FAS and SCD1. The IL-6 chronic replacement in HFD-fed IL-6 -/-: mice restored hepatic STAT3 and AMPK activation but also increased the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACC?/?, FAS and SCD1. Furthermore, rIL-6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of rIL-6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:Hepatic injury is a hallmark adverse reaction to Valproate (VPA), a common used drug in the management of numerous CNS disorders, including epilepsy. DHA has a myriad of health benefits, including renal- and hepato-protective effects. Unfortunately, however, the underpinnings of such liver-pertinent VPA- and DHA-actions remain largely undefined. Accordingly, this study attempted to unveil the cellular and molecular triggers whereby VPA evokes, while DHA abates, hepatotoxicity. METHODS:We evaluated activity and/or expression of cellular markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rat liver, following treatment with VPA (500 mg/kg/day) with and without concurrent treatment with DHA (250 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:VPA promoted hepatic oxidative stress as evidenced by enhancing activity/expression of NADPH-oxidase and its subunits, a ROS-generator, and by accumulation of lipid-peroxides. Moreover, VPA enhanced hepatic phosphorylation/activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), as proinflammatory signals. Besides, VPA promoted hepatocellular apoptosis, as attested by enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-9 and increased number of TUNEL-positive hepatocytes. Lastly, VPA upregulated levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1?), a multifaceted modulator of hepatocytic biology, and activity of its downstream antioxidant enzyme heme-oxygenase-1(HO-1). These changes were significantly blunted by co-administration of DHA. Our findings demonstrate that VPA activated NADPH-oxidase and HIF-1? to induce oxidative-stress and hypoxia as initiators of hepatic injury. These changes were further aggravated by up-regulation of inflammatory (MAPK and COX-2) and apoptotic cascades, but could be partly lessened by HO-1 activation. Concurrent administration of DHA mitigated all VPA-induced anomalies.
Project description:Previous studies presented various beneficial effects of mogrosides extract from Siraitia grosvenorii, which has been included in the list of Medicine Food Homology Species in China. Mogroside V (MV) is one of the main ingredients in mogrosides extract; however, whether and how MV improves impaired lipid metabolism in the liver remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the therapeutic effects of mogroside V upon hepatic steatosis in vivo and in vitro and explored the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MV significantly ameliorated hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice. Furthermore, the increased protein expression of PPAR-?, SREBP-1, and FASN and mRNA expression of pparg, srebp1, scd1, and fasn in the liver in HFD-fed mice, which contribute to de novo lipogenesis, were dose-dependently reversed by MV treatment. Meanwhile, MV counteracted the suppressed expression of PPAR-? and CPT-1A and mRNA expression of atgl, hsl, ppara, and cpt1a, thus increasing lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, in free fatty acids- (FFAs-) incubated LO2 cells MV downregulated de novo lipogenesis and upregulated lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation, thereby attenuating lipid accumulation, which was significantly abrogated by treatment with Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Taken together, these results suggested that MV exerted a pronounced effect upon improving hepatic steatosis through regulating the disequilibrium of lipid metabolism in the liver via an AMPK-dependent pathway, providing a potential lead compound candidate for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Project description:Our previous studies have shown that DJ-1 play important roles in progression of liver diseases through modulating hepatic ROS production and immune response, but its role in hepatic steatosis remains obscure. In the present study, by adopting a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced mice model, we found that DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 <i><sup>-/-</sup></i> ) mice showing decreased HFD-induced obesity and visceral adipose accumulation. In line with these changes, there were also reduced liver weight and ameliorated hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in DJ-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. And there were also decreased blood glucose levels and insulin resistance and reduced glucose metabolic disorder in DJ-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice, whereas there were no significant differences in total cholesterol (TC) and serum lipid in two groups of mice. Mechanistically, we found that there were no differences in food intake in these two genotypes of mice. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis, but the expression of key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, such as <i>Cpt1?, Ppar?, Acox1, Cs, Idh1</i> and <i>Idh2</i>, was increased in DJ-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice liver, suggesting that there was enhanced fatty acids oxidation and TCA cycle in DJ-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Our data indicate that deletion of DJ-1 enhancing fatty acids oxidation resulting in lower hepatic TG accumulation in mice, which protecting mice hepatic steatosis.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or from healthy persons (HL) and then fed a standard diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD). We found that the epididymal fat weight, hepatic steatosis, multifocal necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration significantly increased in the NASH-HFD group. These findings were consistent with markedly elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, endotoxin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (Mcp1), and hepatic triglycerides. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-?), Mcp1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Ppar-?) significantly increased. Only abundant lipid accumulation and a few inflammatory reactions were observed in group HL-HFD. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes shifted in the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae was the highest in group NASH-HFD. Nevertheless, obesity-related Lactobacillaceae were significantly upregulated in HL-HFD mice. Our results revealed that the gut microbiota from NASH Patients aggravated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. These findings might partially explain the NAFLD progress distinctly was related to different compositions of gut microbiota.
Project description:Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD, also known as Sobokchugeo-tang), a classical prescription drug in traditional East Asian medicine, has been used to treat blood stasis syndrome (BSS). Hepatic steatosis is the result of excess caloric intake, and its pathogenesis involves internal retention of phlegm and dampness, blood stasis, and liver Qi stagnation. To evaluate the effects of treatment with SFZYD on obesity-induced inflammation and hepatic steatosis, we fed male C57BL/6N mice a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and then treated them with SFZYD by oral gavage for an additional 4 weeks. The results of histological and biochemical examinations indicated that SFZYD treatment ameliorates systemic inflammation and hepatic steatosis. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores plot of serum metabolites showed that HFD mice began to produce metabolites similar to those of normal chow (NC) mice after SFZYD administration. We noted significant alterations in the levels of twenty-seven metabolites, alterations indicating that SFZYD regulates the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and aromatic amino acid metabolism. Increases in the levels of TCA cycle intermediate metabolites, such as 2-oxoglutaric acid, isocitric acid, and malic acid, in the serum of obese mice were significantly reversed after SFZYD treatment. In addition to inducing changes in the above metabolites, treatment with SFZYD also recovered the expression of genes related to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, including Ucp2, Cpt1?, and Ppargc1?, as well as the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, without affecting glucose uptake or insulin signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that treatment with SFZYD ameliorated obesity-induced systemic inflammation and hepatic steatosis by regulating inflammatory cytokine and adipokine levels in the circulation and various tissues. Moreover, treatment with SFZYD also reversed alterations in the levels of metabolites of the TCA cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and aromatic amino acid metabolism.
Project description:The aim of our work was to investigate the role of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 in the progression of diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice, and the characteristic expression in livers of patients with NASH. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or methionine-choline 4-deficient diet (MCD) and injected intraperitoneally with IL-33. Both mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-33 and ST2 were up-regulated in the livers of mice fed with HFD or MCD. Treatment with IL-33 attenuated diet-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced activities of ALT in serum, as well as ameliorated HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, while aggravated hepatic fibrosis in diet-induced NASH. Furthermore, treatment with IL-33 can also promote Th2 response and M2 macrophage activation and beneficial modulation on expression profiles of fatty acid metabolism genes in livers. ST2 deficiency did not affect hepatic steatosis and fibrosis when fed with controlling diet. IL-33 did not affect diet-induced hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in ST2 knockout mice. Meanwhile, in the livers of patients with NASH, IL-33 was mainly located in hepatic sinusoid, endothelial cells, and hepatic stellate cells. The mRNA expression level of IL-33 and ST2 was elevated with the progression of NASH. In conclusion, treatment with IL-33 attenuated diet-induced hepatic steatosis, but aggravated hepatic fibrosis, in a ST2-dependent manner.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but estrogen has undesirable side effects, which negate its beneficial effects in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis. ER? has several mechanisms for signal transduction: (1) inducing gene transcription by direct binding to specific DNA sequences, (2) inducing tethered transcription with other DNA-binding factors, and (3) stimulating nongenomic action through membrane-associated ER?. However, it is still unclear which mechanisms mediate ER?-dependent protection against hepatic steatosis. METHODS:To understand the mechanisms of estrogen signaling for protection against hepatic steatosis in females, we analyzed the global ER? knockout mouse (?ERKO), ER? DNA-binding domain mutant mouse (KIKO) and liver-specific ER? knockout mouse (LERKO) fed high-fat diets (HFD). The KIKO mouse disrupts the direct DNA-binding transcription activity but retains tethered transcription regulation and nongenomic action. Hepatic steatosis was evaluated by scoring the macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis as well as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. We analyzed serum testosterone to assess its correlation with hepatic steatosis. RESULTS:Liver fat accumulation was far greater in HFD-fed ?ERKO and KIKO females than in HFD-fed wild-type (WT) controls. Conversely, HFD-fed LERKO females did not accumulate excess liver fat. HFD-fed ?ERKO and KIKO females showed higher microvesicular steatosis and ALT levels than WT controls that correlated with increased serum testosterone levels. CONCLUSIONS:ER?-mediated direct transcription in non-hepatic tissues is essential for estrogen-mediated protection against hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed females. The balance between non-hepatic estrogen signaling and hepatic or non-hepatic testosterone action may control hepatic steatosis.