Palladin is upregulated in kidney disease and contributes to epithelial cell migration after injury.
ABSTRACT: Recovery from acute kidney injury involving tubular epithelial cells requires proliferation and migration of healthy cells to the area of injury. In this study, we show that palladin, a previously characterized cytoskeletal protein, is upregulated in injured tubules and suggest that one of its functions during repair is to facilitate migration of remaining cells to the affected site. In a mouse model of anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody involving both tubular and glomerular disease, palladin is upregulated in injured tubular cells, crescents and capillary cells with angiitis. In human biopsies of kidneys from patients with other kidney diseases, palladin is also upregulated in crescents and injured tubules. In LLC-PK1 cells, a porcine proximal tubule cell line, stress induced by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) leads to palladin upregulation. Knockdown of palladin in LLC-PK1 does not disrupt cell morphology but does lead to a defect in cell migration. Furthermore, TGF-?1 induced increase in the 75 kDa palladin isoform occurs in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. These data suggest that palladin expression is induced in injured cells and contributes to proper migration of cells in proximal tubules, possibly by regulation of gene expression as part of the healing process after acute injury.
Project description:Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax species are comprised of non-polar C17 compounds, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antifungal activities. Panaxynol represents the major component of the essential oils of ginseng. We investigated whether panaxynol isolated from Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng, VG) could prevent cisplatin-induced renal damage induced in vitro and in vivo. Cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death was observed by staining with annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488, and western blotting evaluated the molecular mechanism. Panaxynol at concentrations above 0.25 ?M prevented cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 porcine renal proximal tubular cell death. LLC-PK1 cells treated with cisplatin demonstrated an increase in apoptotic cell death, whereas pretreatment with 2 and 4 ?M panaxynol decreased this effect. Cisplatin demonstrated a marked increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P38, and cleaved caspase-3. However, pretreatment with 2 and 4 ?M panaxynol reversed the upregulated phosphorylation of JNK, P38, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3. We confirmed that the protective effect of panaxynol isolated from P. vietnamensis in LLC-PK1 cells was at least partially mediated by reducing the cisplatin-induced apoptotic damage. In the animal study, panaxynol treatment ameliorated body weight loss and blood renal function markers and downregulated the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators.
Project description:Nephrotoxicity is common with the use of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, but the cellular mechanisms that modulate the extent of injury are unknown. Cisplatin downregulates expression of the taurine transporter gene (TauT) in LLC-PK1 proximal tubular renal cells, and forced overexpression of TauT protects against cisplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro. Because the S3 segments of proximal tubules are the sites of both cisplatin-induced injury and adaptive regulation of the taurine transporter, we hypothesized that TauT functions as an anti-apoptotic gene and protects renal cells from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo. Here, we studied the regulation of TauT in cisplatin nephrotoxicity in a human embryonic kidney cell line and in LLC-PK1 cells, as well as in TauT transgenic mice. Cisplatin-induced activation of p53 repressed TauT and overexpression of TauT prevented the progression of cisplatin-induced apoptosis and renal dysfunction in TauT transgenic mice. Although cisplatin activated p53 and PUMA (a p53-responsive proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein) in the kidneys of both wildtype and TauT transgenic mice, only wildtype animals demonstrated acute kidney injury. These data suggest that functional TauT plays a critical role in protecting against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly by attenuating a p53-dependent pathway.
Project description:Gap junctions play important roles in the regulation of cell phenotype and in determining cell survival after various insults. Here, we investigated the role of gap junctions in aminoglycoside-induced injury to renal tubular cells.Two tubular epithelial cell lines NRK-E52 and LLC-PK1 were compared for gap junction protein expression and function by immunofluorescent staining, Western blot and dye transfer assay. Cell viability after exposure to aminoglycosides was evaluated by WST assay. Gap junctions were modulated by transfection of the gap junction protein, connexin 43 (Cx43), use of Cx43 siRNA and gap junction inhibitors.NRK-E52 cells expressed abundant Cx43 and were functionally coupled by gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Exposure of NRK-E52 cells to aminoglycosides, G418 and hygromycin, increased Cx43 phosphorylation and GJIC. The aminoglycosides also decreased cell viability that was prevented by gap junction inhibitors and Cx43 siRNA. LLC-PK1 cells were gap junction-deficient and resistant to aminoglycoside-induced cytotoxicity. Over-expression of a wild-type Cx43 converted LLC-PK1 cells to a drug-sensitive phenotype. The gap junction inhibitor alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (alpha-GA) activated Akt in NRK-E52 cells. Inhibition of the Akt pathway enhanced cell toxicity to G418 and abolished the protective effects of alpha-GA. In addition, gentamycin-elicited cytotoxicity in NRK-E52 cells was also significantly attenuated by alpha-GA.Gap junctions contributed to the cytotoxic effects of aminoglycosides. Modulation of gap junctions could be a promising approach for prevention and treatment of aminoglycoside-induced renal tubular cell injury.
Project description:We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC-PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain.
Project description:The AMBP [A1M (alpha1-microglobulin)/bikunin precursor] gene encodes two plasma glycoproteins: A1M, an immunosuppressive lipocalin, and bikunin, a member of plasma serine proteinase inhibitor family with prototypical Kunitz-type domain. Although previously believed to be constitutively expressed exclusively in liver, the present study demonstrates the induction of this gene by oxalate in porcine proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells and rat kidney. In liver, the precursor protein is cleaved in the Golgi network by a furin-like enzyme to release constituent proteins, which undergo glycosylation before their export from the cell. In the renal tubular cells, A1M and bikunin co-precipitate, indicating lack of cleavage of the precursor protein. As the expression of the AMBP gene is regulated by A1M-specific cis elements and transcription factors, A1M protein was studied as a representative of AMBP gene expression in renal cells. Oxalate treatment (500 microM) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent induction of A1M protein in LLC-PK1 cells. Of the four transcription factors, HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor-4) has been reported previously to be a major regulator of AMBP gene expression in liver. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, supershift assay, immunoreactivity assay and transfection-based studies showed the presence of an HNF-4 or an HNF-4-like protein in the kidney, which can affect the expression of the AMBP gene. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies showed that the expression of this gene in kidney was mainly restricted to cells lining the renal tubular system.
Project description:Forskolin, a naturally occurring activator of adenylate cyclase, inhibits total and high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in soluble and particulate fractions of cultured LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. The naturally occurring forskolin analogue 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which does not stimulate adenylate cyclase activity, is a more potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity than forskolin. To clarify the structural feature of the forskolin molecule responsible for inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity, the effects of two agents which share structural identity with portions of the forskolin ring were tested. The steroid 5-pregnenolone, but not the hexose alpha-D-galactose, inhibited cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in LLC-PK1 cells. Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin both stimulate protein kinase C activity in LLC-PK1 cells. The effect of 1,9-dideoxyforskolin in stimulating LLC-PK1 protein kinase C activity can be attenuated by staurosporine. Both 5-pregnenolone and alpha-D-galactose also stimulate protein kinase C activity in LLC-PK1 cells. 5-Pregnenolone and the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate cause translocation of protein kinase C from a soluble to a particulate fraction, while both 1,9-dideoxyforskolin and alpha-D-galactose increase protein kinase C activity in both soluble and particulate fractions. Our results demonstrate that forskolin exerts diverse enzymic effects in cultured LLC-PK1 cells.
Project description:The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (gadd) genes are co-ordinately activated by a variety of genotoxic agents and/or growth-cessation signals. The regulation of gadd153 mRNA was investigated in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) cultured in a nutrient- and serum-deprived medium. The addition of glutamine alone to LLC-PK1 cells cultured in Earl's balanced salt solution (EBSS) is sufficient to suppress gadd153 mRNA expression, and the removal of only glutamine from Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) is also sufficient to induce gadd153 mRNA expression. Consistent with these findings, the inhibition of glutamine utilization with acivicin and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) in cells grown in a glutamine-containing medium effectively induces gadd153 expression. Glutamine can be used as an energy source in cultured mammalian cells. However, it is unlikely that deficits in cellular energy stores (ATP) are coupled to gadd153 mRNA expression, because concentrations of ATP, UTP and GTP are all elevated in EBSS-exposed cells, and the addition of alpha-oxoglutarate to cells grown in EBSS has no effect on gadd153 mRNA expression. In contrast, concentrations of CTP decline substantially in EBSS and glutamine-deprived DMEM-cultured cells. Glutamine also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of protein and DNA. The addition of glutamine to cells grown in EBSS partly restores CTP concentrations. The addition of pyrimidine ribonucleosides (cytidine and uridine) to LLC-PK1 cells also restores CTP concentrations, in a manner commensurate with their relative abilities to overcome gadd153 expression. Finally, glutamine does not completely suppress DNA damage-induced gadd153 expression, suggesting that multiple signalling pathways lead to the expression of gadd153 mRNA under conditions of nutrient deprivation and DNA damage.
Project description:Enteric coronaviruses (CoVs) are major pathogens that cause diarrhea in piglets. To date, four porcine enteric CoVs have been identified: transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and HKU2-like porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV). In this study, we investigated the replicative capacity of these four enteric CoVs in LLC-PK1 cells, a porcine kidney cell line. The results showed that LLC-PK1 cells are susceptible to all four enteric CoVs, particularly to TGEV and PDCoV infections, indicating that LLC-PK1 cells can be applied to porcine enteric CoV research in vitro, particularly for coinfection studies.
Project description:Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause the edema disease in pigs by releasing the swine-pathogenic Stx2e subtype as the key virulence factor. Stx2e targets endothelial cells of animal organs including the kidney harboring the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Glc?1-1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Glc?1-1Cer). Since the involvement of renal epithelial cells in the edema disease is unknown, in this study, we analyzed the porcine kidney epithelial cell lines, LLC-PK1 and PK-15, regarding the presence of Stx-binding GSLs, their sensitivity towards Stx2e, and the inhibitory potential of Gb3- and Gb4-neoglycolipids, carrying phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as the lipid anchor, towards Stx2e. Immunochemical and mass spectrometric analysis revealed various Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms as the dominant Stx-binding GSLs in both LLC-PK1 and PK-15 cells. A dihexosylceramide with proposed Gal?1-4Gal-sequence (Gal2Cer) was detected in PK-15 cells, whereas LLC-PK1 cells lacked this compound. Both cell lines were susceptible towards Stx2e with LLC-PK1 representing an extremely Stx2e-sensitive cell line. Gb3-PE and Gb4-PE applied as glycovesicles significantly reduced the cytotoxic activity of Stx2e towards LLC-PK1 cells, whereas only Gb4-PE exhibited some protection against Stx2e for PK-15 cells. This is the first report identifying Stx2e receptors of porcine kidney epithelial cells and providing first data on their Stx2e-mediated damage suggesting possible involvement in the edema disease.
Project description:Acute tubular damage is a major cause of renal failure, especially at the early phase of kidney transplant when ischemia-reperfusion injury and cyclosporin A toxicity may coexist. The mechanisms of the latter are largely unknown. Using an mRNA microarray on microdissected tubules from a rat model of cyclosporin A toxicity to describe the related epithelial-specific transcriptional signature in vivo, we found that cyclosporin A induces pathways dependent on the transcription factor ATF4 and identified nuclear protein transcriptional regulator 1 (Nupr1), a stress response gene induced by ATF4, as the gene most strongly upregulated. Upon cyclosporin A treatment, Nupr1-deficient mice exhibited worse renal tubular lesions than wild-type mice. In primary cultures treated with cyclosporin A, renal tubular cells isolated from Nupr1-deficient mice exhibited more apoptosis and ATP depletion than cells from wild-type mice. Furthermore, cyclosporin A decreased protein synthesis and abolished proliferation in wild-type tubular cells, but only reduced proliferation in Nupr1-deficient cells. Compared with controls, mouse models of ischemia-reperfusion injury, urinary obstruction, and hypertension exhibited upregulated expression of renal NUPR1, and cyclosporin A induced Nupr1 expression in cultured human tubular epithelial cells. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of NUPR1 in the nuclei of renal proximal tubules of injured human kidney allografts, but not in those of stable allografts. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial expression of NUPR1 has a protective role in response to injury after renal transplant and, presumably, in other forms of acute tubular damage.