Comparing Medical Costs and Use After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE:There is conflicting evidence about how different bariatric procedures impact health care use. OBJECTIVE:To compare the impact of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on health care use and costs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Retrospective interrupted time series with comparison series study using a national claims data set. The data analysis was initiated in September 2011 and completed in January 2015. We identified bariatric surgery patients aged 18 to 64 years who underwent a first AGB or RYGB between 2005 and 2011. We propensity score matched 4935 AGB to 4935 RYGB patients according to baseline age group, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic variables, comorbidities, year of procedure and baseline costs, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospital days. Median postoperative follow-up time was 2.5 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Quarterly and yearly total health care costs, ED visits, hospital days, and prescription drug costs. We used segmented regression to compare pre-to-post changes in level and trend of these measures in the AGB vs the RYGB groups and difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the magnitude of difference by year. RESULTS:Both AGB and RYGB were associated with downward trends in costs; however, by year 3, AGB patients had total annual costs that were 16% higher than RYGB patients (P?
Project description:Background:There has been a dramatic shift in use of bariatric procedures, but little is known about their long-term comparative effectiveness. Objective:To compare weight loss and safety among bariatric procedures. Design:Retrospective observational cohort study, January 2005 to September 2015. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02741674). Setting:41 health systems in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Participants:65 093 patients aged 20 to 79 years with body mass index (BMI) of 35 kg/m2 or greater who had bariatric procedures. Intervention:32 208 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 29 693 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and 3192 adjustable gastric banding (AGB) procedures. Measurements:Estimated percent total weight loss (TWL) at 1, 3, and 5 years; 30-day rates of major adverse events. Results:Total numbers of eligible patients with weight measures at 1, 3, and 5 years were 44 978 (84%), 20 783 (68%), and 7159 (69%), respectively. Thirty-day rates of major adverse events were 5.0% for RYGB, 2.6% for SG, and 2.9% for AGB. One-year mean TWLs were 31.2% (95% CI, 31.1% to 31.3%) for RYGB, 25.2% (CI, 25.1% to 25.4%) for SG, and 13.7% (CI, 13.3% to 14.0%) for AGB. At 1 year, RYGB patients lost 5.9 (CI, 5.8 to 6.1) percentage points more weight than SG patients and 17.7 (CI, 17.3 to 18.1) percentage points more than AGB patients, and SG patients lost 12.0 (CI, 11.6 to 12.5) percentage points more than AGB patients. Five-year mean TWLs were 25.5% (CI, 25.1% to 25.9%) for RYGB, 18.8% (CI, 18.0% to 19.6%) for SG, and 11.7% (CI, 10.2% to 13.1%) for AGB. Patients with diabetes, those with BMI less than 50 kg/m2, those aged 65 years or older, African American patients, and Hispanic patients lost less weight than patients without those characteristics. Limitation:Potential unobserved confounding due to nonrandomized design; electronic health record databases had missing outcome data. Conclusion:Adults lost more weight with RYGB than with SG or AGB at 1, 3, and 5 years; however, RYGB had the highest 30-day rate of major adverse events. Small subgroup differences in weight loss outcomes were observed. Primary Funding Source:Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Hepatic insulin clearance is a significant regulator of glucose homestasis. We hypothesized that the improvement in insulin clearance rates (ICRs) under fasting conditions and in response to oral and intravenous (IV) glucose would improve similarly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) as a function of weight loss; the difference in ICR after oral and IV glucose stimulation will be enhanced after RYGB compared with AGB, an effect mediated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In study 1, the ICR was calculated under fasting condition (F-ICR), after oral glucose (O-ICR), and after an isoglycemic IV glucose clamp (IV-ICR) in individuals from an established cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) before, after 10% matched weight loss, and 1 year after either RYGB (n = 22) or AGB (n = 12). In study 2, O-ICR was studied in a separate cohort of individuals with T2DM (n = 22), before and 3 months after RYGB, with and without exendin(9-39) infusion. RESULTS:In study 1, age, BMI, T2DM duration and control, and ICR did not differ between RYGB and AGB preintervention. Weight loss at 1 year was two times greater after RYGB than after AGB (31.6 ± 5.9% vs. 16.6 ± 9.8%; P < 0.05). RYGB and AGB both significantly increased F-ICR, O-ICR, and IV-ICR at 1 year. ICR was inversely associated with insulinemia. The difference between IV-ICR and O-ICR was significantly greater after RYGB versus AGB. GLP-1 antagonism with exendin(9-39) led to an increase in O-ICR in subjects post-RYGB. CONCLUSIONS:Weight loss increased ICR, an effect more pronounced after RYGB compared with AGB. Our data support a potential role for endogenous GLP-1 in the control of postprandial ICR after RYGB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intraoperative testing of anastomoses and staples lines is commonly performed to minimize the risk of postoperative leaks in bariatric surgery, but its impact is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between leak testing and 30-d postoperative leak, bleed, reoperation, and readmission rates for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS:This is a retrospective observational study utilizing 2015-2016 data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database. Postoperative outcomes were compared using ?2 test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-d outcomes. RESULTS:We included 237,081 patients. Leak testing was performed on 73.0% and 92.1% of LSG and RYGB patients, respectively. LSG was associated with lower rates of leak, bleed, reoperation, and readmission than RYGB. On multivariable analysis, intraoperative leak testing was associated with increased rates of postoperative leak for LSG and RYGB (OR 1.48 and 1.90, respectively) and lower rates of bleed for LSG (OR 0.76). There were no significant associations between leak testing and rates of reoperation or readmission. CONCLUSIONS:Use of intraoperative leak testing was not associated with improved outcomes for either LSG or RYGB. A prospective trial investigating leak testing is warranted to better elucidate its impact.
Project description:Bariatric surgery induces significant weight loss for severely obese patients, but there is limited evidence of the durability of weight loss compared with nonsurgical matches and across bariatric procedures.To examine 10-year weight change in a large, multisite, clinical cohort of veterans who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with nonsurgical matches and the 4-year weight change in veterans who underwent RYGB, adjustable gastric banding (AGB), or sleeve gastrectomy (SG).In this cohort study, differences in weight change up to 10 years after surgery were estimated in retrospective cohorts of 1787 veterans who underwent RYGB from January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2011 (573 of 700 eligible [81.9%] with 10-year follow-up), and 5305 nonsurgical matches (1274 of 1889 eligible [67.4%] with 10-year follow-up) in mixed-effects models. Differences in weight change up to 4 years were compared among veterans undergoing RYGB (n?=?1785), SG (n?=?379), and AGB (n?=?246). Data analysis was performed from September 9, 2014, to February 12, 2016.Bariatric surgical procedures and usual care.Weight change up to 10 years after surgery through December 31, 2014.The 1787 patients undergoing RYGB had a mean (SD) age of 52.1 (8.5) years and 5305 nonsurgical matches had a mean (SD) age of 52.2 (8.4) years. Patients undergoing RYGB and nonsurgical matches had a mean body mass index of 47.7 and 47.1, respectively, and were predominantly male (1306 [73.1%] and 3911 [73.7%], respectively). Patients undergoing RYGB lost 21% (95% CI, 11%-31%) more of their baseline weight at 10 years than nonsurgical matches. A total of 405 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (71.8%) had more than 20% estimated weight loss, and 224 of 564 (39.7%) had more than 30% estimated weight loss at 10 years compared with 134 of 1247 (10.8%) and 48 of 1247 (3.9%), respectively, of nonsurgical matches. Only 19 of 564 patients undergoing RYGB (3.4%) regained weight back to within an estimated 5% of their baseline weight by 10 years. At 4 years, patients undergoing RYGB lost 27.5% (95% CI, 23.8%-31.2%) of their baseline weight, patients undergoing AGB lost 10.6% (95% CI, 0.6%-20.6%), and patients undergoing SG lost 17.8% (95% CI, 9.7%-25.9%). Patients undergoing RYGB lost 16.9% (95% CI, 6.2%-27.6%) more of their baseline weight than patients undergoing AGB and 9.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-18.6%) more than patients undergoing SG.Patients in the Veterans Administration health care system lost substantially more weight than nonsurgical matches and sustained most of this weight loss in the long term. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass induced significantly greater weight loss among veterans than SG or AGB at 4 years. These results provide further evidence of the beneficial association between surgery and long-term weight loss that has been demonstrated in shorter-term studies of younger, predominantly female populations.
Project description:The morbidity and mortality associated with COPD exacts a considerable economic burden. Comorbidities in COPD are associated with poor health outcomes and increased costs. Our objective was to assess the impact of comorbidities on COPD-associated costs in a large administrative claims dataset.This was a retrospective observational study of data from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and the MarketScan Medicare Supplemental Databases from January 1, 2009, to September 30, 2012. Resource consumption was measured from the index date (date of first occurrence of non-rule-out COPD diagnosis) to 360 days after the index date. Resource use (all-cause and disease-specific [ie, COPD- or asthma-related] ED visits, hospitalizations, office visits, other outpatient visits, and total length of hospital stay) and health-care costs (all-cause and disease-specific costs for ED visits, hospitalizations, office visits, and other outpatient visits and medical, prescription, and total health-care costs) were assessed. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the impact of comorbidities on total health-care costs, adjusting for age, sex, geographic location, baseline health-care use, employment status, and index COPD medication.Among 183,681 patients with COPD, the most common comorbidities were cardiovascular disease (34.8%), diabetes (22.8%), asthma (14.7%), and anemia (14.2%). Most patients (52.8%) had one or two comorbidities of interest. The average all-cause total health-care costs from the index date to 360 days after the index date were highest for patients with chronic kidney disease ($41,288) and anemia ($38,870). The impact on total health-care costs was greatest for anemia ($10,762 more, on average, than a patient with COPD without anemia).Our analysis demonstrated that high resource use and costs were associated with COPD and multiple comorbidities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether robotic ventral hernia repair is associated with fewer days in the hospital 90 days after surgery compared with laparoscopic repair. DESIGN:Pragmatic, blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING:Multidisciplinary hernia clinics in Houston, USA. PARTICIPANTS:124 patients, deemed appropriate candidates for elective minimally invasive ventral hernia repair, consecutively presenting from April 2018 to February 2019. INTERVENTIONS:Robotic ventral hernia repair (n=65) versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (n=59). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was number of days in hospital within 90 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included emergency department visits, operating room time, wound complications, hernia recurrence, reoperation, abdominal wall quality of life, and costs from the healthcare system perspective. Outcomes were pre-specified before data collection began and analyzed as intention to treat. RESULTS:Patients from both groups were similar at baseline. Ninety day follow-up was completed in 123 (99%) patients. No evidence was seen of a difference in days in hospital between the two groups (median 0 v 0 days; relative rate 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 2.19; P=0.82). For secondary outcomes, no differences were noted in emergency department visits, wound complications, hernia recurrence, or reoperation. However, robotic repair had longer operative duration (141 v 77 min; mean difference 62.89, 45.75 to 80.01; P?0.001) and increased healthcare costs ($15?865 (£12?746; €14?125) v $12?955; cost ratio 1.21, 1.07 to 1.38; adjusted absolute cost difference $2767, $910 to $4626; P=0.004). Among patients with robotic ventral hernia repair, two had an enterotomy compared none with laparoscopic repair. The median one month postoperative improvement in abdominal wall quality of life was 3 with robotic ventral hernia repair compared with 15 following laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION:This study found no evidence of a difference in 90 day postoperative hospital days between robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, robotic repair increased operative duration and healthcare costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03490266.
Project description:Background Typically, in-person follow-up in clinic is utilized after outpatient inguinal hernia repair. Studies have shown that phone follow-up may be successfully used for the detection of postoperative hernia recurrences. However, no studies have evaluated the detection rates of other postoperative complications, such as emergency department visits and readmissions, with the utilization of phone follow-up after inguinal hernia repair. The objective of our study was to investigate the safety of a phone follow-up care pathway following elective, outpatient inguinal hernia repair. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients who underwent elective, outpatient inguinal hernia repair between 2013 and 2019 at a large academic health system in the Midwest United States were identified from the electronic health record. Patients were categorized by type of postoperative follow-up: in-person or phone follow-up. Baseline demographics, operative, and postoperative data were compared between follow-up groups. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate predictors of having any related emergency department (ED) visit/readmission/reoperation within 90 days. Results We included 2009 patients who underwent elective inguinal hernia repair during the study period. 321 patients had in-person follow-up only, while 1,688 patients had phone follow-up. There was a higher rate of laparoscopic repair in the phone follow-up group (85.4% vs. 53.0% for in-person follow-up). There were no differences in rates of related 90-day ED visits, readmissions, and reoperations between the phone and in-person follow-up groups. On multivariable logistic regression, receipt of phone follow-up was not a predictor of having 90-day ED visits, readmissions, or reoperations (OR 1.30, 95% CI [0.83, 2.05]). Conclusions Patients who underwent phone follow-up had similarly low rates of adverse outcomes to those with in-person follow-up. Phone follow-up protocols may be implemented as an alternative for patients and provide a means to decrease healthcare utilization following inguinal hernia repair. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s00464-020-08005-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study examined postoperative heart failure (HF) and respiratory failure (RF) complications and related healthcare utilization for one year following cardiac surgery. METHODS:This study identified adult patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve procedures from the Cerner Health Facts® database. It included patients experiencing postoperative HF or RF complications. We quantified healthcare utilization using the frequency of inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits with or without hospital admission, and outpatient visits. We then determined direct hospital costs from the determined healthcare utilization. We analyzed trends over time for both HF and RF and evaluated the association between surgery type and HF complication. RESULTS:Of 10,298 patients with HF complications, 1,714 patients (16.6%) developed persistent HF; of the 10,385 RF patients, 175 (1.7%) developed persistent RF. Healthcare utilization for those with persistent complications over the one-year period following index hospital discharge comprised an average number of the following visit types: Inpatient (1.49 HF; 1.55 RF), Outpatient (2.02, 0.51), ED without hospital admission (0.33, 0.13), ED + Inpatient (0.08, 0.06). Per patient annual costs related to persistent complications of HF and RF were $20,857 and $30,745, respectively. There was a significant association between cardiac surgical type and the incidence of HF, with risk for isolated valve procedures (adjusted OR 2.60; 95% CI: 2.35-2.88) and CABG + valve procedures (adjusted OR 2.38; 95% CI: 2.17-2.61) exceeding risk for isolated CABG procedures. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that HF and RF complication rates post cardiac surgery are substantial, and complication-related healthcare utilization over the first year following surgery results in significant incremental costs. Given the need for both payers and providers to focus on healthcare cost reduction, this study fills an important gap in quantifying the mid-term economic impact of postoperative cardiac surgical complications.
Project description:Background:Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is associated with improved postoperative outcomes compared to open surgery; however, economic studies have yielded contradictory results. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and economic outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for patients with rectal cancer. Methods:Propensity score matching analysis was performed in a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent elective low anterior resection for rectal cancer treatment by laparoscopic and open surgery in a single Brazilian cancer center. Matched covariates included age, gender, body mass index, pTNM stage, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, type of anesthesia, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and index surgery. The clinical and economic outcomes were evaluated. The follow-up period was within 30 days of the index procedure. The clinical outcomes were reoperation, postoperative complications, operative time, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and postoperative hospital stay. For economic outcomes, a cost analysis was used to compare the costs. Results:Initially, 220 patients were evaluated. After propensity score matching, 100 patients were included in the analysis (50 patients in the open surgery group and 50 patients in the laparoscopic surgery group). There were no differences in patients' baseline characteristics. Operative time was longer for laparoscopic surgery (247 minutes vs 285 minutes, P=0.006). There were no significant differences in other clinical outcomes. The hospital costs were similar between the two groups (Brazilian reais 21,233.15 vs Brazilian reais 21,529.28, P=0.115), although the intraoperative costs were higher for laparoscopic surgery, mainly owing to the surgical devices and the theater-related costs. The postoperative costs were lower for laparoscopic surgery, owing to lower intensive care unit, ward, and reoperation costs. Conclusion:Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is not costlier than open surgery from the health care provider's perspective, since the intraoperative costs were offset by lower postoperative costs. Open surgery tends to have a longer length of stay.