Mild Glucose Starvation Induces KDM2A-Mediated H3K36me2 Demethylation through AMPK To Reduce rRNA Transcription and Cell Proliferation.
ABSTRACT: Environmental conditions control rRNA transcription. Previously, we found that serum and glucose deprivation induces KDM2A-mediated H3K36me2 demethylation in the rRNA gene (rDNA) promoter and reduces rRNA transcription in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. However, the molecular mechanism and biological significance are still unclear. In the present study, we found that glucose starvation alone induced the KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription. The treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, reduced rRNA transcription and H3K36me2 in the rDNA promoter, both of which were completely dependent on KDM2A in low concentrations of 2-deoxy-d-glucose, that is, mild starvation conditions. The mild starvation induced these KDM2A activities through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) but did not affect another AMPK effector of rRNA transcription, TIF-IA. In the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, the mild starvation also reduced rRNA transcription in a KDM2A-dependent manner. We detected KDM2A in breast cancer tissues irrespective of their estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status, including triple-negative cancer tissues. In both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, mild starvation reduced cell proliferation, and KDM2A knockdown suppressed the reduction of cell proliferation. These results suggest that under mild glucose starvation AMPK induces KDM2A-dependent reduction of rRNA transcription to control cell proliferation.
Project description:We previously reported that lysine-demethylase 2A (KDM2A), a Jumonji-C histone demethylase, is activated by gallic acid to reduce H3K36me2 levels in the rRNA gene promoter and consequently inhibit rRNA transcription and cell proliferation in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Gallic acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to activate KDM2A. Esters of gallic acid, propyl gallate (PG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and other chemicals, reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, whether these compounds activate KDM2A has yet to be tested. In this study, we found that PG and EGCG decreased rRNA transcription and cell proliferation through KDM2A in MCF-7 cells. The activation of both AMPK and ROS production by PG or EGCG was required to activate KDM2A. Of note, while the elevation of ROS production by PG or EGCG was limited in time, it was sufficient to activate KDM2A. Importantly, the inhibition of rRNA transcription and cell proliferation by gallic acid, PG, or EGCG was specifically observed in MCF-7 cells, whereas it was not observed in non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells. Altogether, these results suggest that the derivatization of gallic acid may be used to obtain new compounds with anti-cancer activity.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and lacks specific therapeutic targets. Ribosome RNAs (rRNAs) are central components of ribosomes and transcribed in nucleoli, and the level of rRNA transcription greatly affects ribosome production and cell proliferation. We have reported that an epigenetic protein, KDM2A, exists in nucleoli and reduces rRNA transcription on glucose starvation. However, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the KDM2A-dependent regulation mechanism of rRNA transcription. In this study, we turned our attention to the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A. We found that KDM2A had multiple regions for its nucleolar localization, and one of the regions was directly bound by heterochromatin protein 1? (HP1?) using valine 801 in the LxVxL motif of KDM2A. A knockdown of HP1? or a point mutation of valine 801 in KDM2A decreased the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A, and suppressed the reduction of rRNA transcription on glucose starvation. These results uncovered a novel function of HP1?: the regulation of rRNA transcription, and suggested that HP1? stimulates the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A to support the KDM2A-dependent regulation of rRNA transcription. HP1? was expressed in cancer cells in all breast carcinoma tissues examined, including TNBC tissues. A knockdown of HP1? in a TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231 cells, reduced the nucleolar accumulation of KDM2A, and suppressed the reductions of rRNA transcription and cell proliferation on glucose starvation. These results suggest that the KDM2A-dependent regulation of rRNA transcription requires HP1?, and thus may be applicable to the treatment of TNBC.
Project description:Metformin, which is suggested to have anti-cancer effects, activates KDM2A to reduce rRNA transcription and proliferation of cancer cells. Thus, the specific activation of KDM2A may be applicable to the treatment of cancers. In this study, we screened a food-additive compound library to identify compounds that control cell proliferation. We found that gallic acid activated KDM2A to reduce rRNA transcription and cell proliferation in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Gallic acid accelerated ROS production and activated AMPK. When ROS production or AMPK activity was inhibited, gallic acid did not activate KDM2A. These results suggest that both ROS production and AMPK activation are required for activation of KDM2A by gallic acid. Gallic acid did not reduce the succinate level, which was required for KDM2A activation by metformin. Metformin did not elevate ROS production. These results suggest that the activation of KDM2A by gallic acid includes mechanisms distinct from those by metformin. Therefore, signals from multiple intracellular conditions converge in KDM2A to control rRNA transcription. Gallic acid did not induce KDM2A-dependent anti-proliferation activity in non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells. These results suggest that the mechanism of KDM2A activation by gallic acid may be applicable to the treatment of breast cancers.
Project description:Metformin is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Metformin activates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), which may contribute to the action of metformin. Metformin also shows anti-proliferation activity. However, the mechanism is remained unknown. We found that treatment of MCF-7 cells with metformin induced the demethylase activity of KDM2A in the rDNA promoter, which resulted in reductions of rRNA transcription and cell proliferation. AMPK activity was required for activation of KDM2A by metformin. Because demethylase activities of JmjC-type enzymes require a side reaction converting ?-ketoglutarate to succinate, these organic acids may affect their demethylase activities. We found that metformin did not induce KDM2A demethylase activity in conditions of a reduced level of ?-ketoglutarate. A four-hour treatment of metformin specifically reduced succinate, and the replenishment of succinate inhibited the activation of KDM2A by metformin, but did not inhibit the activation of AMPK. Metformin reduced succinate even in the conditions suppressing AMPK activity. These results indicate that metformin activates AMPK and reduces the intracellular succinate level, both of which are required for the activation of KDM2A to reduce rRNA transcription. The results presented here uncover a novel factor of metformin actions, reduction of the intracellular succinate, which contributes to the anti-proliferation activity of metformin.
Project description:Histone modifications have a profound impact on the chromatin structure and gene expression and their correct establishment and recognition is essential for correct cell functioning. Malfunction of histone modifying proteins is associated with developmental defects and diseases and detailed characterization of these proteins is therefore very important. The lysine specific demethylase KDM2A is a CpG island binding protein that has been studied predominantly for its ability to regulate CpG island-associated gene promoters by demethylating their H3K36me2. However, very little attention has been paid to the alternative KDM2A isoform that lacks the N-terminal demethylation domain, KDM2A-SF. Here we characterized KDM2A-SF more in detail and we found that, unlike the canonical full length KDM2A-LF isoform, KDM2A-SF forms distinct nuclear heterochromatic bodies in an HP1a dependent manner. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further showed that KDM2A binds to transcriptionally silent pericentromeric regions that exhibit high levels of H3K36me2. H3K36me2 is the substrate of the KDM2A demethylation activity and the high levels of this histone modification in the KDM2A-bound pericentromeric regions imply that these regions are occupied by the demethylation deficient KDM2A-SF isoform.
Project description:The rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis is the transcription of ribosomal RNA, which is controlled by environmental conditions. The JmjC enzyme KDM2A/JHDM1A/FbxL11 demethylates mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3, but its function is unclear. Here, we show that KDM2A represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA. KDM2A was localized in nucleoli and bound to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter. Overexpression of KDM2A repressed the transcription of ribosomal RNA in a demethylase activity-dependent manner. When ribosomal RNA transcription was reduced under starvation, a cell-permeable succinate that inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM2A prevented the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription. Starvation reduced the levels of mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks on the rDNA promoter, and treatment with the cell-permeable succinate suppressed the reduction of the marks during starvation. The knockdown of KDM2A increased mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks, and suppressed the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription under starvation. These results show a novel mechanism by which KDM2A activity is stimulated by starvation to reduce ribosomal RNA transcription.
Project description:When transcribed DNA is damaged, the transcription and DNA repair machineries must interact to ensure successful DNA repair. The mechanisms of this interaction in the context of chromatin are still being elucidated. Here we show that the SIRT6 protein enhances non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair by transiently repressing transcription. Specifically, SIRT6 mono-ADP ribosylates the lysine demethylase JHDM1A/KDM2A leading to rapid displacement of KDM2A from chromatin, resulting in increased H3K36me2 levels. Furthermore, we found that through HP1? binding, H3K36me2 promotes subsequent H3K9 tri-methylation. This results in transient suppression of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II and recruitment of NHEJ factors to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). These data reveal a mechanism where SIRT6 mediates a crosstalk between transcription and DNA repair machineries to promote DNA repair. SIRT6 functions in multiple pathways related to aging, and its novel function coordinating DNA repair and transcription is yet another way by which SIRT6 promotes genome stability and longevity.
Project description:Kdm2a catalyzes H3K36me2 demethylation to play an intriguing epigenetic regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Herein we found that myeloid-specific knockout of Kdm2a (LysM-Cre-Kdm2a<sup>f/f</sup>, Kdm2a<sup>-/-</sup>) promoted macrophage M2 program by reprograming metabolic homeostasis through enhancing fatty acid uptake and lipolysis. Kdm2a<sup>-/-</sup> increased H3K36me2 levels at the Pparg locus along with augmented chromatin accessibility and Stat6 recruitment, which rendered macrophages with preferential M2 polarization. Therefore, the Kdm2a<sup>-/-</sup> mice were highly protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, and featured by the reduced accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages and repressed chronic inflammation following HFD challenge. Particularly, Kdm2a<sup>-/-</sup> macrophages provided a microenvironment in favor of thermogenesis. Upon HFD or cold challenge, the Kdm2a<sup>-/-</sup> mice manifested higher capacity for inducing adipose browning and beiging to promote energy expenditure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the importance of Kdm2a-mediated H3K36 demethylation in orchestrating macrophage polarization, providing novel insight that targeting Kdm2a in macrophages could be a viable therapeutic approach against obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:The histone methyltransferases MLL and ASH1L are trithorax-group proteins that interact genetically through undefined molecular mechanisms to regulate developmental and hematopoietic gene expression. Here we show that the lysine 36-dimethyl mark of histone H3 (H3K36me2) written by ASH1L is preferentially bound in vivo by LEDGF, an MLL-associated protein that co-localizes with MLL, ASH1L and H3K36me2 on chromatin genome wide. Furthermore, ASH1L facilitates recruitment of LEDGF and wild type MLL proteins to chromatin at key leukemia target genes, and is a crucial regulator of MLL-dependent transcription and leukemic transformation. Conversely KDM2A, an H3K36me2 demethylase and Polycomb-group silencing protein, antagonizes MLL-associated leukemogenesis. Our studies illuminate the molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic interactions wherein placement, interpretation and removal of H3K36me2 contribute to the regulation of gene expression and MLL leukemia, and suggest ASH1L as a target for therapeutic intervention. Investigation of multiple transcription factors and histone modification marks in MV4-11 human leukemia cells.