Biochemical Characterization of VIM-39, a VIM-1-Like Metallo-?-Lactamase Variant from a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from Greece.
ABSTRACT: VIM-39, a VIM-1-like metallo-?-lactamase variant (VIM-1 Thr33Ala His224Leu) was identified in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to sequence type 147. VIM-39 hydrolyzed ampicillin, cephalothin, and imipenem more efficiently than did VIM-1 and VIM-26 (a VIM-1 variant with the His224Leu substitution) because of higher turnover rates.
Project description:VIM-27 metallo-β-lactamase, an Ala(57) → Ser variant of VIM-1, was identified in three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to sequence type 147. bla(VIM-27) was part of a class 1 integron carried by non-self-transferable plasmids. Kinetic parameters and MIC determinations indicated that VIM-27 hydrolyzed most β-lactams, especially imipenem and cefoxitin, less effectively than VIM-1.
Project description:The metallo-?-lactamase VIM-4, mainly found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii, was produced in Escherichia coli and characterized by biochemical and X-ray techniques. A detailed kinetic study performed in the presence of Zn²+ at concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 100 ?M showed that VIM-4 exhibits a kinetic profile similar to the profiles of VIM-2 and VIM-1. However, VIM-4 is more active than VIM-1 against benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, nitrocefin, and imipenem and is less active than VIM-2 against ampicillin and meropenem. The crystal structure of the dizinc form of VIM-4 was solved at 1.9 Å. The sole difference between VIM-4 and VIM-1 is found at residue 228, which is Ser in VIM-1 and Arg in VIM-4. This substitution has a major impact on the VIM-4 catalytic efficiency compared to that of VIM-1. In contrast, the differences between VIM-2 and VIM-4 seem to be due to a different position of the flapping loop and two substitutions in loop 2. Study of the thermal stability and the activity of the holo- and apo-VIM-4 enzymes revealed that Zn²+ ions have a pronounced stabilizing effect on the enzyme and are necessary for preserving the structure.
Project description:A total of 209 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas (193 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 P. putida, 4 P. stutzeri, and 2 P. fluorescens isolates) with reduced susceptibilities to imipenem and/or ceftazidime were subjected to PCR assays with primers specific for bla(IMP-1), bla(IMP-2), bla(VIM-1), and bla(VIM-2) and sequence analysis to identify the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) prevalent among these organisms in Taiwan; and 21 isolates gave positive results. Five isolates including two P. putida and three P. stutzeri isolates were found to carry bla(IMP-1), and six isolates including five P. putida and one P. stutzeri isolates harbored bla(VIM-2). The remaining 10 isolates were P. aeruginosa, and all were found to carry a novel variant of bla(VIM-2), designated bla(VIM-3). There are only two nucleotide differences between bla(VIM-2) and bla(VIM-3), leading to two amino acid alterations. Our findings indicate that VIM-2 and its variant have become the most prevalent metalloenzymes in Pseudomonas in Taiwan. Southern hybridization with the bla(VIM-2)-, bla(VIM-3)-, and bla(IMP-1 )-specific probes revealed that only two VIM-2-producing P. putida isolates appeared to carry the MBL gene on plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that six VIM-3-producing P. aeruginosa isolates and two IMP-1-producing P. stutzeri isolates were genetically related, suggesting that the spread of these MBL genes in Taiwan could be due to clonal dissemination as well as genetic exchange between different clones.
Project description:Seventeen Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates carrying the bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase gene were collected in the intensive care units of three hospitals in Athens, Greece, in 2002. They exhibited various carbapenem resistance levels (Etest MICs of imipenem ranged from 4 to 32 microg/ml). All isolates gave positive results by the imipenem-EDTA synergy Etest. The isolates were classified into four main types by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; the majority of the isolates (5 and 10 isolates) belonged to two types. The bla(VIM-1) gene cassette was part of the variable region of a class 1 integron that also included aac6, dhfrI, and aadA. This structure was carried by transferable plasmids.
Project description:Fifty-eight imipenem-nonsusceptible (MIC >or= 8 microg/ml) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated during May 2001 in 15 Greek hospitals were studied. Thirty-six isolates derived from nine hospitals carried VIM-type metallo-beta-lactamase genes, as found by PCR. In 34 isolates, bla(VIM) was associated with class 1 integrons of various sizes. DNA sequencing indicated the presence of bla(VIM-2) gene cassettes in a variety of integron structures. Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing suggested diversity of the bla(VIM)-positive strains. Synergy between 2-mercaptoacetic acid and imipenem indicated carbapenemase activity in 26 bla(VIM)-positive strains.
Project description:We investigated the phenotypic and genetic properties of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas isolates collected at a tertiary-care hospital in Korea since 1995. The prevalence of imipenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates reached 16% in 1997, when 9% of the resistant organisms were found to produce VIM-2 beta-lactamase, a class B enzyme previously found only in P. aeruginosa isolates from Europe. VIM-2-producing isolates of Pseudomonas putida were also detected. Resistance was transferable from both these species to P. aeruginosa PAO4089Rp by filter mating, although the resistance determinant could not be found on any detectable plasmid. Serotyping showed that many of the VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to serotypes O:11 and O:12, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNA revealed that many had identical profiles, whereas the P. putida isolates were diverse. Sequencing showed that the bla(VIM-2) genes resided as cassettes in class 1 integrons. In contrast to previous VIM-encoding integrons, the integron sequenced from a P. aeruginosa isolate had bla(VIM) located downstream of a variant of aacA4. bla(VIM) also lay in a class 1 integron in a representative P. putida strain, but the organization of this integron was different from that sequenced from the P. aeruginosa strain. In conclusion, the metallo-beta-lactamase produced by these imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas isolates was VIM-2, and the accumulation of producers reflected clonal dissemination as well as horizontal spread. Strict measures are required in order to control a further spread of resistance.
Project description:Metallo-ß-lactamases (MBL) are an emerging cause of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment. The VIM-2 ß-lactamase is the most commonly encountered MBL in clinical isolates worldwide. Described here are potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of VIM-2 containing the arylsulfonyl-NH-1,2,3-triazole chemotype that potentiate the efficacy of the ß-lactam, imipenem, in E. coli.
Project description:To understand the evolution of Verona integron-encoded metallo-?-lactamase (VIM) genes (bla VIM) and their clinical impact, microbiological, biochemical, and structural studies were conducted. Forty-five clinically derived VIM variants engineered in a uniform background and expressed in Escherichia coli afforded increased resistance toward all tested antibiotics; the variants belonging to the VIM-1-like and VIM-4-like families exhibited higher MICs toward five out of six antibiotics than did variants belonging to the widely distributed and clinically important VIM-2-like family. Generally, maximal MIC increases were observed when cephalothin and imipenem were tested. Additionally, MIC determinations under conditions with low zinc availability suggested that some VIM variants are also evolving to overcome zinc deprivation. The most profound increase in resistance was observed in VIM-2-like variants (e.g., VIM-20 H229R) at low zinc availability. Biochemical analyses reveal that VIM-2 and VIM-20 exhibited similar metal binding properties and steady-state kinetic parameters under the conditions tested. Crystal structures of VIM-20 in the reduced and oxidized forms at 1.25?Å and 1.37?Å resolution, respectively, show that Arg229 forms an additional salt bridge with Glu171. Differential scanning fluorimetry of purified proteins and immunoblots of periplasmic extracts revealed that this difference increases thermostability and resistance to proteolytic degradation when zinc availability is low. Therefore, zinc scarcity appears to be a selective pressure driving the evolution of multiple metallo-?-lactamase families, although compensating mutations use different mechanisms to enhance resistance.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical threat. One of the most serious areas of concern is the ability of some bacteria to degrade carbapenems, drugs that are often reserved as last-resort antibiotics. Resistance to carbapenems can be conferred by a large group of related enzymes called metallo-?-lactamases that rely on zinc ions for function and for overall stability. Here, we studied an extensive panel of 45 different metallo-?-lactamases from a subfamily called VIM to discover what changes are emerging as resistance evolves in clinical settings. Enhanced resistance to some antibiotics was observed. We also found that at least one VIM variant developed a new ability to remain more stable under conditions where zinc availability is limited, and we determined the origin of this stability in atomic detail. These results suggest that zinc scarcity helps drive the evolution of this resistance determinant.
Project description:Carbapenem resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Colombia, as in many South American countries, are high for reasons that remain unclear. From our nationwide network, we describe the first detection of the metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from multiple cities within Colombia. Metallo-beta-lactamases were not detected in the two centers with the highest imipenem resistance rates. Clonality was noted in five of the eight centers with strains meeting the criteria for molecular typing. The high carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa in Colombia may be attributable to a combination of factors, including the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases and nosocomial transmission.
Project description:One hundred sixty-nine nonreplicate imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in a large hospital on the coastal region of Croatia were studied. The most active antibiotics were colistin and amikacin. Most of the isolates were multiresistant. The most prevalent serotype was O12, followed by O11. Six strains carried the bla(VIM-2) gene located in a novel class 1 integron composed in its variable part of the bla(VIM-2)-bla(oxa-10)-?qacF-aacA4 genes. Metallo-?-lactamase-producing strains belonged to sequence types ST235 and ST111.