In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order.
ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (? 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (? 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (? 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for posaconazole. However, in the clinical setting this may be compensated for by the higher exposure at standard dosing.
Project description:Recently, the species concept of opportunistic <i>Mucor circinelloides</i> and its relatives has been revised, resulting in the recognition of its classical formae as independent species and the description of new species. In this study, we used isolates of all clinically relevant <i>Mucor</i> species and performed susceptibility testing using the EUCAST reference method to identify potential species-specific susceptibility patterns. <i>In vitro</i> susceptibility profiles of 101 mucoralean strains belonging to the genus <i>Mucor</i> (72), the closely related species <i>Cokeromyces recurvatus</i> (3), <i>Rhizopus</i> (12), <i>Lichtheimia</i> (10), and <i>Rhizomucor</i> (4) to six antifungals (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbina?ne, isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole) were determined. The most active drug for all Mucorales was amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of pathogenic <i>Mucor</i> species were specific for isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole. The species formerly united in <i>M. circinelloides</i> showed clear differences in their antifungal susceptibilities. <i>Cokeromyces recurvatus</i>, <i>Mucor ardhlaengiktus</i>, <i>Mucor lusitanicus</i> (<i>M. circinelloides</i> f. <i>lusitanicus</i>), and <i>Mucor ramosissimus</i> exhibited high MICs to all azoles tested. <i>Mucor indicus</i> presented high MICs for isavuconazole and posaconazole, and <i>Mucor amphibiorum</i> and <i>Mucor irregularis</i> showed high MICs for isavuconazole. MIC values of <i>Mucor</i> spp. for posaconazole, isavuconazole, and itraconazole were high compared to those for <i>Rhizopus</i> and the Lichtheimiaceae (<i>Lichtheimia</i> and <i>Rhizomucor</i>). Molecular identification combined with <i>in vitro</i> susceptibility testing is recommended for <i>Mucor</i> species, especially if azoles are applied in treatment.
Project description:We compared EUCAST and CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) methods for triazoles and amphotericin B against 124 clinical Mucorales isolates. The EUCAST method yielded MIC values 1- to 3-fold dilutions higher than those of the CLSI method for amphotericin B. The essential agreements between the two methods for triazoles were high, i.e., 99.1% (voriconazole), 98.3% (isavuconazole), and 87% (posaconazole), whereas it was significantly lower for amphotericin B (66.1%). Strategies for harmonization of the two methods for Mucorales AFST are warranted.
Project description:ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus is emerging globally.
Project description:Mucorales can cause cutaneous to deep-seated infections, mainly in the immunocompromised host, resulting in high mortality rates due to late and inefficient treatment. In this study, Galleria mellonella larvae were evaluated as a heterologous invertebrate host to study pathogenicity of clinically relevant mucormycetes (Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor spp., Lichtheimia spp., Mucor spp.). All tested species were able to infect G. mellonella larvae. Virulence potential was species-specific and correlated to clinical relevance. Survival of infected larvae was dependent on (a) the species (growth speed and spore size), (b) the infection dose, (c) the incubation temperature, (d) oxidative stress tolerance, and (e) iron availability in the growth medium. Moreover, we exploited the G. mellonella system to determine antifungal efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole, isavuconazole, and nystatin-intralipid. Outcome of in vivo treatment was strongly dependent upon the drug applied and the species tested. Nystatin-intralipid exhibited best activity against Mucorales, followed by posaconazole, while limited efficacy was seen for liposomal amphotericin B and isavuconazole. Pharmacokinetic properties of the tested antifungals within this alternative host system partly explain the limited treatment efficacy. In conclusion, G. mellonella represents a useful invertebrate infection model for studying virulence of mucormycetes, while evaluation of treatment response was limited.
Project description:The filamentous basidiomycete Ceriporia lacerata, an agent of white rot on wood, has never been reported in human disease and its clinical significance is not yet known. We describe 4 patients with respiratory diseases where C. lacerata was implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from saprobic colonization to fungal pneumonia. The isolates did not show the morphological characteristics that facilitate recognition of filamentous basidiomycetes, such as the presence of clamp connections, spicules along hyphae, or fruiting bodies. The identity of the mold was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 4 (ITS-1 and ITS-4) and D1/D2 regions of the rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited the lowest MICs of posaconazole and isavuconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.125 μg/ml), followed by itraconazole (MIC range, 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml), voriconazole (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC range, 0.25 to 1 μg/ml). The infections reported here occurred in patients with preexisting lung damage induced by tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic, sometimes fatal infections by the ascomycete Aspergillus fumigatus and the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are well established in the presence of an anatomical pulmonary defect or in the background of immunodeficiency. It is postulated that C. lacerata, a novel opportunist basidiomycete, may be involved in similar pathological processes.
Project description:Triazoles are first-line agents for treating aspergillosis. The prevalence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasing, and cross-resistance is a growing concern. In this study, the susceptibilities of 40 A. fumigatus clinical isolates were tested by using the CLSI method with amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the new triazole isavuconazole. Isavuconazole MICs were higher in strains with reduced susceptibilities to other triazoles, mirroring changes in voriconazole susceptibility. Isavuconazole MICs differed depending on the Cyp51A substitution.
Project description:Pathogenic mucormycetes induce diseases with considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Virulence data comparing different Mucorales species and various underlying risk factors are limited. We therefore compared the pathogenesis of inhalative infection by Rhizopus (R.) arrhizus and Lichtheimia (L.) corymbifera in murine models for predominant risk factors for onset of infection. Mice with diabetes or treated with cyclophosphamide or cortisone acetate were challenged via the intranasal route with an isolate of R. arrhizus or L. corymbifera, respectively. Clinical, immunological and inflammation parameters as well as efficacy of posaconazole prophylaxis were monitored over 14 days. Whereas immunocompetent mice showed no clinical symptoms after mucormycete infection, mice treated with either cyclophosphamide (CP) or cortisone acetate (CA) were highly susceptible. Animals infected with the isolate of R. arrhizus showed prolonged survival and lower mortality, compared to those exposed to the L. corymbifera isolate. This lower virulence of R. arrhizus was risk factor-dependent, since diabetic mice died only after infection with Rhizopus, whereas all Lichtheimia-infected diabetic animals survived. Under posaconazole prophylaxis, both mucormycetes were able to establish breakthrough infections in CA- and CP-treated mice, but the course of infection was significantly delayed. Detailed analysis revealed that susceptibility of CA- and CP-treated mice could not be mimicked by exclusive lack or downmodulation of neutrophils, platelets or complement, but can be supposed to be the consequence of a broad immunosuppressive effect induced by the drugs. Both Lichtheimia corymbifera and Rhizopus arrhizus induce invasive mycoses in immunocompromised hosts after inhalative infection. Key parameters such as virulence and immunopathogenesis vary strongly according to fungal species and underlying risk group. Selected neutropenia is no sufficient risk factor for onset of inhalative mucormycosis.
Project description:Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery and evaluate the capability of susceptibility methods to identify candin resistance. The susceptibility of C. albicans to caspofungin and anidulafungin was investigated by Etest, microdilution (European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing [EUCAST] and CLSI), disk diffusion, agar dilution, and FKS1 sequencing and in a mouse model. Tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and sequencing for the presence of A. fumigatus and resistance mutations. The MICs for the C. albicans isolate were as follows: >32 microg/ml caspofungin and 0.5 microg/ml anidulafungin by Etest, 2 microg/ml caspofungin and 0.125 microg/ml anidulafungin by EUCAST methods, and 1 microg/ml caspofungin and 0.5 microg/ml anidulafungin by CLSI methods. Sequencing of the FKS1 gene revealed a mutation leading to an S645P substitution. Caspofungin and anidulafungin failed to reduce kidney CFU counts in animals inoculated with this isolate (P > 0.05 compared to untreated control animals), while both candins completely sterilized the kidneys in animals infected with a control isolate. Disk diffusion and agar dilution methods clearly separated the two isolates. Immunohistochemistry and sequencing confirmed the presence of A. fumigatus without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from the sensitive control isolate as well as did the Etest and agar methods.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening disease with limited treatment options and is associated with delays in effective treatment and significant early mortality. Posaconazole (POS) is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal, that exhibits potent activity against yeasts and molds. We evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates collected during a randomized, prospective, phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy study comparing posaconazole with voriconazole (1:1 randomization) given for ?12 weeks in the primary treatment of IA (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01782131; EudraCT, 2011-003938-14) using CLSI and EUCAST reference testing methodologies. <h4>Methods</h4> More than 90 study sites located in 23 countries enrolled subjects in the clinical trial. A total of 127 isolates were recovered from documented infections during 2013 through 2019. Fungal isolates were identified using molecular methods and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods. The following antifungal agents tested were: posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B <h4>Results</h4> Of the 127 samples tested, 119 were identified as Aspergillus species. Aspergillus fumigatus (N=76) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. flavus species complex (N=19), A. section Nigri (N=10), A. section Terrei (N=7). Overall, posaconazole (MIC50/MIC 90, 0.5/1 mg/L) displayed similar activity to voriconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/1 mg/L) and itraconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 1/2 mg/L) against 119 Aspergillus species Isolates, by both, CLSI and EUCAST method. Posaconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/0.5 mg/L) and voriconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 0.25/0.5 mg/L) inhibited all 76 A. fumigatus isolates at MIC of 1 mg/L. Among 19 A. flavus species complex isolates recovered from this study, posaconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/1 mg/L), voriconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 1/1 mg/L) and itraconazole (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/1 mg/L) displayed equivalent activity. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Posaconazole displayed good activity against all Aspergillus species isolates included in this study. In addition, posaconazole in vitro activity against Aspergillus species was similar to that observed by voriconazole and itraconazole. <h4>Disclosures</h4> Mariana Castanheira, PhD, 1928 Diagnostics (Research Grant or Support)A. Menarini Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.R.L. (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Allergan (Research Grant or Support)Amplyx Pharmaceuticals (Research Grant or Support)Cidara Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support)Cidara Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Cipla Ltd. (Research Grant or Support)Fox Chase Chemical Diversity Center (Research Grant or Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck (Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support)Paratek Pharma, LLC (Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Qpex Biopharma (Research Grant or Support) Leah Woosley, n/a, Merck & Co, Inc. (Research Grant or Support) Mary Motyl, PhD, Merck & Co, Inc (Employee, Shareholder) Seongah Han, PhD, Merck & Co, Inc. (Employee) Havilland Campbell, BS, Merck & Co, Inc. (Employee)
Project description:Forty-four isolates belonging to human pathogenic species of Lichtheimia were tested against nine antifungal agents by using the EUCAST methodology. No remarkable differences were found between the clinical species, although L. ramosa showed slightly higher MICs for all drugs. Amphotericin B was the most active drug. Among azole drugs, posaconazole had the best activity in vitro and voriconazole was inactive. Echinocandins showed activity for some isolates, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy.