Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension in the Polish arm of the HAPIEE cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Coffee consumption has been hypothesized to be associated with blood pressure (BP), but previous findings are not homogeneous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and the risk of developing hypertension.Data on coffee consumption, BP and use of anti-hypertensive medicament were derived from 2725 participants of the Polish arm of the HAPIEE project (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) who were free of hypertension at baseline and followed up for an average of 5 years. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariate logistic regression analyses and stratified for potential confounding factors.Coffee consumption was related to decreased age, smoking status and total energy intake. Compared with persons who drink <1 cup coffee per day, systolic BP was significantly associated with coffee consumption and the risk of hypertension was lower for individuals consuming 3-4 cups per day. Despite the analysis stratified by gender showed that the protective effect of coffee consumption on hypertension was significant only in women, the analysis after stratification by smoking status revealed a decreased risk of hypertension in non-smokers drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day in both sexes (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.79 for men and OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.99 for women). Upper category coffee consumption (>4 cups per day) was not related to significant increased risk of hypertension.Relation between coffee consumption and incidence of hypertension was related to smoking status. Consumption of 3-4 cups of coffee per day decreased the risk of hypertension in non-smoking men and women only.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To perform a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. METHODS:An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS:Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose-response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. METHODS AND RESULTS:We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were nonlinearly associated with mortality. Compared with nondrinkers, coffee consumption of 1 to 5 cups per day was associated with lower risk of mortality, whereas coffee consumption of more than 5 cups per day was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers compared with nondrinkers, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of mortality were 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for 1.0 or less cup per day, 0.92 (0.87-0.97) for 1.1 to 3.0 cups per day, 0.85 (0.79-0.92) for 3.1 to 5.0 cup per day, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for more than 5.0 cup per day (P value for nonlinearity = 0.32; P value for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (P value for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (P value for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease, neurologic diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. CONCLUSIONS:Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality.
Project description:Coffee consumption has previously been reported to reduce overall and cause-specific mortality. We aimed to further investigate this association by coffee brewing methods and in a population with heavy coffee consumers. The information on total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee consumption from self-administered questionnaires was available from 117,228 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We used flexible parametric survival models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality by total coffee consumption and brewing methods, and adjusted for smoking status, number of pack-years, age at smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, and duration of education. During 3.2 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 16,106 deaths occurred. Compared to light coffee consumers (??1 cup/day), we found a statistically significant inverse association with high-moderate total coffee consumption (more than 4 and up to 6 cups/day, HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.83-0.94) and all-cause mortality. The adverse association between heavy filtered coffee consumption (>?6 cups/day) and all-cause mortality observed in the entire sample (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.17) was not found in never smokers (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.70-1.05). During the follow-up, both high-moderate total and filtered coffee consumption were inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.94; HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.94, respectively). The association was stronger in the analyses of never smokers (>?6 cups of filtered coffee/day HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08-0.56). The consumption of more than 6 cups/day of filtered, instant, and coffee overall was found to increase the risk of cancer deaths during the follow-up. However, these associations were not statistically significant in the subgroup analyses of never smokers. The data from the NOWAC study indicate that the consumption of filtered coffee reduces the risk of cardiovascular deaths. The observed adverse association between coffee consumption and cancer mortality is most likely due to residual confounding by smoking.
Project description:There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake.We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank (N = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study (N = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) (N = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS. Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies.Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.002, 0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.20), but only weak evidence for an association with tea consumption (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.09). There was no clear evidence that rs16969968 was associated with coffee or tea consumption in never or former smokers or that the coffee-related variants were associated with cigarette consumption.Higher cigarette consumption causally increases coffee intake. This is consistent with faster metabolism of caffeine by smokers, but could also reflect a behavioural effect of smoking on coffee drinking.
Project description:Considerable controversy exists on the association between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship of long-term coffee consumption with CVD risk.PubMed and EMBASE were searched for prospective cohort studies of the relationship between coffee consumption and CVD risk, which included coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and CVD mortality. Thirty-six studies were included with 1 279 804 participants and 36 352 CVD cases. A nonlinear relationship of coffee consumption with CVD risk was identified (P for heterogeneity=0.09, P for trend <0.001, P for nonlinearity <0.001). Compared with the lowest category of coffee consumption (median, 0 cups per day), the relative risk of CVD was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.03) for the highest category (median, 5 cups per day) category, 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) for the second highest category (median, 3.5 cups per day), and 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.94) for the third highest category (median, 1.5 cups per day). Looking at separate outcomes, coffee consumption was nonlinearly associated with both coronary heart disease (P for heterogeneity=0.001, P for trend <0.001, P for nonlinearity <0.001) and stroke (P for heterogeneity=0.07, P for trend <0.001, P for nonlinearity <0.001; P for trend differences >0.05) risks.A nonlinear association between coffee consumption and CVD risk was observed in this meta-analysis. Moderate coffee consumption was inversely significantly associated with CVD risk, with the lowest CVD risk at 3 to 5 cups per day, and heavy coffee consumption was not associated with elevated CVD risk.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Coffee and tea consumption is associated with a decreased type 2 diabetes risk in non-pregnant adults. We examined the relation between first trimester coffee and tea consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk.<h4>Design</h4>Population-based cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Denmark 1996-2002.<h4>Population</h4>Non-diabetic women with singleton pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 71,239).<h4>Methods</h4>Estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between first trimester coffee and tea or estimated total caffeine and GDM.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>GDM ascertained from the National Hospital Discharge Register or maternal interview.<h4>Results</h4>Coffee or tea intake was reported in 81.2% (n = 57,882) and 1.3% (n = 912) of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among non-consumers, 1.5% of pregnancies were complicated by GDM. Among coffee drinkers, GDM was highest among women who drank ?8 cups/day (1.8%) with no significant difference across intake levels (P = 0.10). Among tea drinkers, there was no difference in GDM across intake levels (1.2%; P = 0.98). After adjustment for age, socio-occupational status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, and cola, there was suggestion of a protective, but non-significant association with increasing coffee (RR ?8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.89 [95%CI 0.64-1.25]) and tea (RR ?8 versus 0 cups/day = 0.77 [95%CI 0.55-1.08]). Results were similar by smoking status, except a non-significant 1.45-fold increased risk with ?8 coffee cups/day for non-smokers. There was a non-significant reduced GDM risk with increasing total caffeine.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that moderate first trimester coffee and tea intake were not associated with GDM increased risk and possibly may have a protective effect.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies have reported coffee consumption to be associated with various health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan.We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). Here, we analyzed a total of 58 221 persons (23 607 men, 34 614 women) followed from 1988 to the end of 2009. During 738 669 person-years of follow-up for the analysis of colorectal cancer risk with coffee consumption at baseline, we identified 687 cases of colon cancer (355 males and 332 females) and 314 cases of rectal cancer (202 males and 112 females). We used the Cox proportional-hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratio (HR).Compared to those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day, men who consumed 2-3 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.70), and men who consumed more than 4 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.01-3.18). A statistically significant increase in the risk of colon cancer was associated with increasing coffee consumption among men (P for trend = 0.03). On the other hand, coffee consumption in women was not associated with incident risk of colon cancer. Coffee consumption was also not associated with rectal cancer incidence in men or women.This large-scale population-based cohort study showed that coffee consumption increases the risk of colon cancer among Japanese men.
Project description:Meta-analyses have reported higher levels of coffee consumption to be associated with lower mortality. In contrast, some systematic reviews have linked coffee consumption to increased risks for lung cancer and hypertension. Given these inconsistencies, this narrative review critically evaluated the methods and analyses of cohort studies investigating coffee and mortality. A specific focus was adjustment for confounding related to smoking, healthy and unhealthy foods, and alcohol. Assessment of 36 cohort samples showed that many did not adequately adjust for smoking. Consuming 1-5 cups of coffee per day was related to lower mortality among never smokers, in studies that adjusted for pack-years of smoking, and in studies adjusting for healthy and unhealthy foods. Possible reduced health benefits for coffee with added sugar have not been adequately investigated. Research on coffee and health should report separate analyses for never smokers, adjust for consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, and for sugar added to coffee.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. Caffeine has chemopreventive properties, but whether caffeine is responsible for the coffee-HCC association is not well studied. In addition, few studies have examined the relationship by sex, and no studies have examined whether there is an association between coffee and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. METHODS:In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of U.S.-based cohort studies, data from 1,212,893 individuals (HCC, n = 860; ICC, n = 260) in nine cohorts were pooled. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS:Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of HCC (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; Ptrend cups/day = <0.0001). More notable reduced risk was seen among women than men (Pinteraction = 0.07). Women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day were at a 54% lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), whereas men had more modest reduced risk of HCC (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). The associations were stronger for caffeinated coffee (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.01) than decaffeinated coffee (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54). There was no association between coffee consumption and ICC. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that, in a U.S. population, coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC. IMPACT:Further research into specific coffee compounds and mechanisms that may account for these associations is needed.
Project description:Coffee has been linked to both beneficial and harmful health effects, but data on its relationship with cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes are sparse.This was a prospective cohort study including 7,170 women with diagnosed type 2 diabetes but free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Coffee consumption was assessed in 1980 and then every 2-4 years using validated questionnaires. A total of 658 incident cardiovascular events (434 coronary heart disease and 224 stroke) and 734 deaths from all causes were documented between 1980 and 2004.After adjustment for age, smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risks were 0.76 (95% CI 0.50-1.14) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.09) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.55-1.14) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.05) for the consumption of >or=4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared with non-drinkers. Similarly, multivariable RRs were 0.96 (95% CI 0.66-1.38) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.84) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.54-1.07) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.08) for the consumption of >or=2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee compared with non-drinkers. Higher decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with lower concentrations of HbA(1c) (6.2% for >or=2 cups/day versus 6.7% for <1 cup/month; p trend = 0.02).These data provide evidence that habitual coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases or premature mortality among diabetic women.