The associations between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 E670G polymorphism and the risk of coronary artery disease and serum lipid levels: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Studies had investigated the associations between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) and lipid levels, but the results were controversial. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels and the susceptibility to CAD.All relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to analyze the strength of the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and the susceptibility to CAD. At the same time, the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % CI was used for the meta-analysis of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels. The publication bias was examined by using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. For CAD association, the pooled effects indicated that the G allele carriers had higher risk of CAD than non-carriers in dominant genetic model (OR:1.601, 95 % CI: 1.314-1.951, P?
Project description:Objective: Research has shown a possible relationship between the E670G polymorphism of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene and an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is no clear consensus on the subject because of conflicting results in the literature. The current meta-analysis was performed to better elucidate the potential relationship between the PCSK9 gene E670G polymorphism and CAD. Methods: There were 5,484 subjects from 13 individual studies who were included in the current meta-analysis. The fixed- or random-effects models were used to evaluate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The current meta-analysis found a significant association between PCSK9 gene E670G polymorphism and CAD under allelic (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.42-2.27, P = 1.00 × 10-6), dominant (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.61-2.89, P = 2.22 × 10-7), heterozygous (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.55-2.64, P = 2.47 × 10-7), and additive genetic models (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.49-2.49, P = 6.70 × 10-7). Conclusions: PCSK9 gene E670G polymorphism was associated with an elevated risk of CAD, especially in the Chinese population. More specifically, carriers of the G allele carriers of the PCSK9 gene may be predisposed to developing CAD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic and environment factors affect the occurrence and development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), has been investigated extensively in the field of lipid metabolism and CAD. We performed this case-control study to investigate the relationship between serum PCSK9 levels and PCSK9 polymorphisms and lipid levels and CAD risk in a southern Chinese population. METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study with 1, 096 subjects, including 626 CAD patients and 470 controls, were conducted. Genotyping of PCSK9 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. RESULTS:The frequencies of the AA, AG and GG genotypes of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were 90.58, 9.27, and 0.16% in the CAD patients, compared with 88.72, 10.85 and 0.43% in the controls, respectively. No R46L variant was detected in this population. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of PCSK9E670G polymorphism between the CAD group and the controls. Serum lipid levels were not significantly different in carriers with the G allele and those with the AA genotype. The median (QR) of PCSK9 concentration was 1205.00 ng/l (577.28-1694.13 ng/l) in cases and 565.87 ng/l (357.17-967.50 ng/l) in controls, respectively. Compared with controls, CAD patients had significantly higher PCSK9 levels (z = 4.559, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, essential hypertension, diabetic mellitus, smoking and lipid profiles, PCSK9 levels remain significantly associated with increased CAD susceptibility (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.001-1.002, P < 0.001). The correlation analyses showed that serum PCSK9 levels were positively associated with triglyceride (TG), Apo B and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels in controls. No significant association between the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and serum PCSK9 levels was observed in the CAD group and the controls. CONCLUSIONS:The present study shows that serum PCSK9 levels, but not PCSK9 polymorphisms, are associated with CAD risk in Southern Chinese Han population, and that serum PCSK9 levels are positively associated with AIP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The associations of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) rs1801133 polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) and plasma lipid levels have been widely investigated, but the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the relationships of the rs1801133 polymorphism with CAD and plasma lipid levels. METHODS:By searching in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, VIP and CNKI databases, 123 studies (87,020 subjects) and 65 studies (85,554 subjects) were identified for the CAD association analysis and the lipid association analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to determine the effects of the rs1801133 polymorphism on CAD risk and lipid levels, respectively. RESULTS:The variant T allele of the rs1801133 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CAD under allelic model [OR?=?1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.06-1.17, P?<?0.01], additive model (OR?=?1.25, 95% CI?=?1.14-1.37, P?<?0.01), dominant model (OR?=?1.11, 95% CI?=?1.04-1.17, P?<?0.01), and recessive model (OR?=?1.22, 95% CI?=?1.12-1.32, P?<?0.01). The T carriers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (SMD?=?0.04, 95% CI?=?0.01-0.07, P?=?0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD?=?0.07, 95% CI?=?0.01-0.12, P?=?0.01) than the non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS:The meta-analysis suggested that the T allele of the rs1801133 polymorphism is a risk factor for CAD, which is possibly and partly mediated by abnormal lipid levels.
Project description:Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (? 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (? 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (? 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (? 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05) in males, and serum ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05) in females.The PCSK9 E670G polymorphism is mainly associated with some serum lipid parameters in the Han population. The G allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males, and lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in females than the G allele noncarriers.
Project description:Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a hepatic secretory protein which promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptors leading to reduced hepatic uptake of plasma cholesterol. Non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in its gene have been linked to hypo- or hyper- cholesterolemia, depending on whether they decrease or increase PCSK9 activity, respectively. Since the proliferation and the infectivity of Plasmodium spp. partially depend on cholesterol from the host, we hypothesize that these PCSK9 genetic polymorphisms could influence the course of malaria infection in individuals who carry them. Here we examined the frequency distribution of one dominant (C679X) and two recessive (A443T, I474V) hypocholesterolemic polymorphisms as well as that of one recessive hypercholesterolemic polymorphism (E670G) among healthy and malaria-infected Malian children.Dried blood spots were collected in Bandiagara, Mali, from 752 age, residence and ethnicity-matched children: 253 healthy controls, 246 uncomplicated malaria patients and 253 severe malaria patients. Their genomic DNA was extracted and genotyped for the above PCSK9 polymorphisms using Taqman assays. Associations of genotype distributions and allele frequencies with malaria were evaluated.The minor allele frequency of the A443T, I474V, E670G, and C679X polymorphisms in the study population sample was 0.12, 0.20, 0.26, and 0.02, respectively. For each polymorphism, the genotype distribution among the three health conditions was statistically insignificant, but for the hypercholesterolemic E670G polymorphism, a trend towards association of the minor allele with malaria severity was observed (P = 0.035). The association proved to be stronger when allele frequencies between healthy controls and severe malaria cases were compared (Odd Ratio: 1.34; 95% Confidence Intervals: 1.04-1.83); P = 0.031).Carriers of the minor allele of the E670G PCSK9 polymorphism might be more susceptible to severe malaria. Further investigation of the cholesterol regulating function of PCSK9 in the pathophysiology of malaria is needed.
Project description:Both alcohol consumption and the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene polymorphism modulate serum lipid levels, but their interactions on serum lipid profiles are still unknown. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G in 1352 unrelated subjects (785 non-drinkers and 567 drinkers) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions between PCSK9 E670G genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum lipid parameters were detected by using a factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.The levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.01 for all), whereas the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB were lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.001 for all). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of PCSK9 E670G were not different between non-drinkers and drinkers (P > 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype in non-drinkers had higher serum LDL-C levels than the subjects with AG genotype, whereas the subjects with AG genotype in drinkers had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with AA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The effects of alcohol consumption on TC and LDL-C levels depended upon genotypes, the subjects with AA genotype had lower serum TC and LDL-C levels in drinkers than in non-drinkers.Alcohol consumption can modify the effects of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism on serum TC and LDL-C levels. The subjects with AA genotype of the PCSK9 E670G benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with AG genotype in decreasing serum TC and LDL-C levels.
Project description:PCSK9 rs505151 and rs11591147 polymorphisms are identified as gain- and loss-of-function mutations, respectively. The effects of these polymorphisms on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular risk remain to be elucidated.In this meta-analysis, we explored the association of PCSK9 rs505151 and rs11591147 polymorphisms with serum lipid levels and cardiovascular risk by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Pooled results analyzed under a dominant genetic model indicated that the PCSK9 rs505151 G allele was related to higher levels of triglycerides (SMD: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.26, P = 0.021, I2 = 0) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.35, P = 0.046, I2 = 75.9%) and increased cardiovascular risk (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.89, P = 0.0006, I2 = 48%). The rs11591147 T allele was significantly associated with lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C (TC, SMD: -0.45, 95% CI: -0.57 to -0.32, P = 0.000, I2 = 0; LDL-C, SMD: -0.44, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.33, P = 0.000, I2 = 0) and decreased cardiovascular risk (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.98, P = 0.031, I2 = 59.9) in Caucasians.This study indicates that the variant G allele of PCSK9 rs505151 confers increased triglyceride (TG) and LDL-C levels, as well as increased cardiovascular risk. Conversely, the variant T allele of rs11591147 protects carriers from cardiovascular disease susceptibility and lower TC and LDL-C levels in Caucasians. These findings provide useful information for researchers interested in the fields of PCSK9 genetics and cardiovascular risk prediction not only for designing future studies, but also for clinical and public health applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have investigated the associations of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) rs854560 polymorphism with plasma lipid levels, but the results are inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations of the rs854560 polymorphism with plasma lipid levels. METHODS:A comprehensive search of the literature was carried out by using the databases which include Medline, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and VIP database up till August 2018. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the differences in lipid levels between the genotypes. Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test were used to examine the publication bias. RESULTS:A total of 41 studies (22,844 subjects) were identified for the associations of rs854560 polymorphism with plasma lipid levels. The M carriers had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) (SMD = - 0.15, 95% CI = - 0.23--0.07, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) (SMD = - 0.67, 95% CI = - 0.93--0.41, P < 0.01) than the non-carriers. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed that the effect on HDL level was significant in Caucasians and the subjects of other ethnic origins. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS:The meta-analysis suggests that the PON1 rs854560 polymorphism is associated with a lower HDL-C level in Caucasians and subjects of other ethnic origins.
Project description:We sought to determine the effects of PCSK9 variants on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, severity of coronary atherosclerosis, and response to statin therapy in the Lipoprotein Coronary Atherosclerosis Study (LCAS) population.Mutations in PCSK9 cause autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia. We hypothesized that PCSK9 variants could affect plasma LDL-C in individuals with polygenic hypercholesterolemia.We sequenced all 12 exons and boundaries to detect novel polymorphisms, and genotyped 372 subjects in LCAS and 319 subjects in a second independent population for six polymorphisms, including novel leucine repeats, by fluorescently tagged markers. We reconstructed haplotypes using a Bayesian algorithm.Permutation test results showed statistically significant differences in global haplotype distribution among the tertiles of LDL-C (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90 to 4.32, p = 0.005) and minimum lumen diameter of coronary lesions (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01 to 3.55, p = 0.045). Regression analysis identified haplotype 3 as an independent determinant of LDL-C levels (adjusted R2 = 2.2%, F = 9.37, p = 0.002). Haplotype structure analysis identified E670G as the determinant variant, exerting a dose effect (GG > EG > EE) and accounting for 3.5% of plasma LDL-C variability (F = 14.6, p < 0.001). Plasma total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) levels were also associated with the E670G variant. Distributions of the E670G genotypes in an independent normolipidemic and the hyperlipidemic LCAS populations were significantly different (F = 7.2, p = 0.027). No significant treatment-by-genotype interactions were detected. The false positive report probability was between 2% and 8%.Haplotype 3 encompassing the E670G variant is an independent determinant of plasma LDL-C levels and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.
Project description:Objectives:Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokine, and its genetic variations may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to investigate the role of -137G/C polymorphism and gene expression levels of IL-18 in patients with CAD. Methods:The study population included 100 patients with angiographically proven CAD and 100 matched controls. Total RNA and DNA were extracted from leukocytes using appropriate kits. The genotype of -137G/C polymorphism and gene expression level of IL-18 was determined using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time (RT)-PCR assay, respectively. Results:The genotypic and allelic distribution of IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism was not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.050). Moreover, the -137G/C polymorphism did not increase the risk of CAD in dominant and recessive genetic models (p > 0.050). However, subgroup analysis of CAD patients revealed that the IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of CAD in hypertensive patients (odds ratio (OR) = 7.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-25.17; p = 0.019) and smokers (OR = 4.90; 95% CI: 1.21-19.70; p = 0.031) but not in the diabetic subpopulation (p = 0.261). The genotype distribution of IL-18 -137G/C genetic polymorphism was significantly different among patients with one, two, and three stenotic vessels (p < 0.050). The gene expression level of IL-18 was significantly higher in the CAD group than the control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the carriers of CC genotype had significantly lower gene expression levels of IL-18 than carriers of GG genotype (p < 0.050). Conclusions:The -137G/C polymorphism of IL-18 may be associated with the CAD risk in hypertensive and smoker subgroup of CAD patients. The -137G/C polymorphism seems to play an important role in determining the severity of CAD. Increased IL-18 gene expression level is a significant risk factor for the development of CAD. The CC genotype of -137G/C polymorphism is associated with lower IL-18 gene expression levels.