Coherent Generation of Photo-Thermo-Acoustic Wave from Graphene Sheets.
ABSTRACT: Many remarkable properties of graphene are derived from its large energy window for Dirac-like electronic states and have been explored for applications in electronics and photonics. In addition, strong electron-phonon interaction in graphene has led to efficient photo-thermo energy conversions, which has been harnessed for energy applications. By combining the wavelength independent absorption property and the efficient photo-thermo energy conversion, here we report a new type of applications in sound wave generation underlined by a photo-thermo-acoustic energy conversion mechanism. Most significantly, by utilizing ultrafast optical pulses, we demonstrate the ability to control the phase of sound waves generated by the photo-thermal-acoustic process. Our finding paves the way for new types of applications for graphene, such as remote non-contact speakers, optical-switching acoustic devices, etc.
Project description:The ability to generate, amplify, mix, and modulate sound with no harmonic distortion in a passive opto-acoustic device would revolutionize the field of acoustics. The photo-thermo-acoustic (PTA) effect allows to transduce light into sound without any bulk electro-mechanically moving parts and electrical connections, as for conventional loudspeakers. Also, PTA devices can be integrated with standard silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication techniques. Here, we demonstrate that the ultimate PTA efficiency of graphene aerogels, depending on their particular thermal and optical properties, can be experimentally achieved by reducing their mass density. Furthermore, we illustrate that the aerogels behave as an omnidirectional pointsource throughout the audible range with no harmonic distortion. This research represents a breakthrough for audio-visual consumer technologies and it could pave the way to novel opto-acoustic sensing devices.
Project description:All-optical signal processing avoids the conversion between optical signals and electronic signals and thus has the potential to achieve a power efficient photonic system. Micro-scale all-optical devices for light manipulation are the key components in the all-optical signal processing and have been built on the semiconductor platforms (e.g., silicon and III-V semiconductors). However, the two-photon absorption (TPA) effect and the free-carrier absorption (FCA) effect in these platforms deteriorate the power handling and limit the capability to realize complex functions. Instead, silicon nitride (Si3N4) provides a possibility to realize all-optical large-scale integrated circuits due to its insulator nature without TPA and FCA. In this work, we investigate the physical dynamics of all-optical control on a graphene-on-Si3N4 chip based on thermo-optic effect. In the experimental demonstration, a switching response time constant of 253.0?ns at a switching energy of ~50?nJ is obtained with a device dimension of 60??m?×?60??m, corresponding to a figure of merit (FOM) of 3.0?nJ?mm. Detailed coupled-mode theory based analysis on the thermo-optic effect of the device has been performed.
Project description:Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.
Project description:Opto-mechanical interactions in planar photonic integrated circuits draw great interest in basic research and applications. However, opto-mechanics is practically absent in the most technologically significant photonics platform: silicon on insulator. Previous demonstrations required the under-etching and suspension of silicon structures. Here we present surface acoustic wave-photonic devices in silicon on insulator, up to 8 GHz frequency. Surface waves are launched through absorption of modulated pump light in metallic gratings and thermo-elastic expansion. The surface waves are detected through photo-elastic modulation of an optical probe in standard race-track resonators. Devices do not involve piezo-electric actuation, suspension of waveguides or hybrid material integration. Wavelength conversion of incident microwave signals and acoustic true time delays up to 40 ns are demonstrated on-chip. Lastly, discrete-time microwave-photonic filters with up to six taps and 20 MHz-wide passbands are realized using acoustic delays. The concept is suitable for integrated microwave-photonics signal processing.
Project description:Active control of transparency/color is the key to many functional optoelectric devices. Applying an electric field to an electrochromic or liquid crystal material is the typical approach for optical property control. In contrast to the conventional electrochromic method, we developed a new concept of smart glass using new driving mechanisms (based on mechanical stimulus and thermal energy) to control optical properties. This mechano-thermo-chromic smart glass device with an integrated transparent microheater uses a sodium acetate solution, which shows a unique marked optical property change under mechanical impact (mechanochromic) and heat (thermochromic). Such mechano-thermo-chromic devices may provide a useful approach in future smart window applications that could be operated by external environment conditions.
Project description:Carbon nanotube-Graphene (CNT-Gr) hybrids were prepared on stainless steel substrates by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to make the thermo-electrochemical cell (TEC) electrodes. The as-obtained TEC electrodes were investigated by the SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, tensile, and surface resistance tests. These hybrid electrodes exhibited significant improved TEC performances compared to the pristine CNT electrode. In addition, these hybrid electrodes could be optimized by tuning the contents of the graphene in the hybrids, and the CNT-Gr-0.1 hybrid electrode showed the best TEC performance with the current density of 62.8 A·m-2 and the power density of 1.15 W·m-2, 30.4% higher than the CNT electrode. The enhanced TEC performance is attributed to improvements in the electrical and thermal conductivities, as well as the adhesion between the CNT-Gr hybrid and the substrate. Meanwhile, the relative conversion efficiency of the TECs can reach 1.35%. The investigation suggests that the growth of CNT-Gr hybrid electrodes by the EPD technique may offer a promising approach for practical applications of the carbon nanomaterial-based TEC electrodes.
Project description:In this paper, we developed a photo-thermo staged-responsive shape-memory polymer network which has a unique ability of being spontaneously photo-responsive deformable and thermo-responsive shape recovery. This new type of shape-memory polyurethane network (A-SMPUs) was successfully synthesized with 4,4-azodibenzoic acid (Azoa), hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and polycaprolactone (PCL), followed by chemical cross-linking with glycerol (Gl). The structures, morphology, and shape-memory properties of A-SMPUs have been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that the A-SMPUs form micro-phase separation structures consisting of a semi-crystallized PCL soft phase and an Azoa amorphous hard phase that could influence the crystallinity of PCL soft phases. The chemical cross-linking provided a stable network and good thermal stability to the A-SMPUs. All A-SMPUs exhibited good triple-shape-memory properties with higher than 97% shape fixity ratio and 95% shape recovery ratio. Additionally, the A-SMPUs with higher Azoa content exhibited interesting photo-thermo two-staged responsiveness. A pre-processed film with orientated Azoa structure exhibited spontaneous curling deformation upon exposing to ultraviolet (UV) light, and curling deformation is constant even under Vis light. Finally, the curling deformation can spontaneously recover to the original shape by applying a thermal stimulus. This work demonstrates new synergistically multi-responsive SMPUs that will have many applications in smart science and technology.
Project description:We develop an acousto-thermo-mechanical theory for nonlinear (large) deformation of temperature-sensitive hydrogels subjected to temperature and ultrasonic inputs, with diffusion mass transport driven by osmotic pressure accounted for. On the basis of the strain energy due to network stretching, the mixing energy of polymers and small molecules, the Cauchy stress of the deformed hydrogel can be obtained. The acoustic radiation stress generated by the ultrasonic inputs is incorporated into the Cauchy stress to give the constitutive equations of the acousto-thermal-mechanical hydrogel. The mixing energy contains an interaction parameter as a function of temperature and polymer concentration so that hydrogel deformation is temperature dependent. By employing the incompressible condition of polymers and molecules, both the temperature and acoustic radiation stress contribute to osmotic pressure, inducing hydrogel swelling (or shrinking). Specifically, for a temperature-sensitive hydrogel layer immersed in solvent, its acoustic-triggered large deformation is comprehensively analysed under different boundary conditions (e.g. free swelling, uniaxial constraint and biaxial constraint).
Project description:Acoustic holographic rendering in complete analogy with optical holography are useful for various applications, ranging from multi-focal lensing, multiplexed sensing and synthesizing three-dimensional complex sound fields. Conventional approaches rely on a large number of active transducers and phase shifting circuits. In this paper we show that by using passive metamaterials as subwavelength pixels, holographic rendering can be achieved without cumbersome circuitry and with only a single transducer, thus significantly reducing system complexity. Such metamaterial-based holograms can serve as versatile platforms for various advanced acoustic wave manipulation and signal modulation, leading to new possibilities in acoustic sensing, energy deposition and medical diagnostic imaging.
Project description:Considerable interest has been devoted to converting mechanical energy into electricity using polymer nanofibres. In particular, piezoelectric nanofibres produced by electrospinning have shown remarkable mechanical energy-to-electricity conversion ability. However, there is little data for the acoustic-to-electric conversion of electrospun nanofibres. Here we show that electrospun piezoelectric nanofibre webs have a strong acoustic-to-electric conversion ability. Using poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a model polymer and a sensor device that transfers sound directly to the nanofibre layer, we show that the sensor devices can detect low-frequency sound with a sensitivity as high as 266?mV?Pa(-1). They can precisely distinguish sound waves in low to middle frequency region. These features make them especially suitable for noise detection. Our nanofibre device has more than five times higher sensitivity than a commercial piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) film device. Electrospun piezoelectric nanofibres may be useful for developing high-performance acoustic sensors.