Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia.
ABSTRACT: As gynaecologists frequently function as "general practitioners" for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain, without any obvious etiology, and it is often accompanied by a constellation of symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, to name a few. The syndrome may be associated with a variety of autoimmune and psychiatric conditions. Fibromyalgia can occur with other musculoskeletal pathologies and its symptoms can overlap with other chronic painful conditions such as chronic myofascial pain syndromes seen in cervical and lumbar spinal osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease. Gene polymorphisms have been related to a decreased pain threshold and an increased susceptibility to disorders associated with chronic pain. Some of those genetic variants might trigger the onset of fibromyalgia. Researchers are looking into the possible factors that might contribute to its pathophysiology. It is important to study the connections between pro-inflammatory cytokines and genetic variants in pain-related genes and their roles in predisposition and development of fibromyalgia. The objective of this review article is to provide a brief overview of the pro-inflammatory cytokines commonly associated with fibromyalgia, as well as to look into the genes that have shown some level of involvement in the development of fibromyalgia and its symptomatology.
Project description:Fibromyalgia (FM) patients were recently found to have more symptom burden from bothersome pelvic pain syndromes that women seeking care for pelvic floor disease at a urogynecology clinic. We sought to further characterize pelvic floor symptoms in a larger sample of FM patients using of validated questionnaires. Female listserv members of the Fibromyalgia Information Foundation completed an online survey of three validated questionnaires: the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory 20 (PFDI-20), the Pelvic Pain, Urgency and Frequency Questionnaire (PUF), and the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Scores were characterized using descriptive statistics. Patients (n = 204 with complete data on 177) were on average 52.3 ± 11.4 years with a mean parity of 2.5 ± 1.9. FM severity based on FIQR score (57.2 ± 14.9) positively correlated with PFDI-20 total 159.08 ± 55.2 (r = .34, p < .001) and PUF total 16.54 ± 7 (r = .36, p < .001). Women with FM report significantly bothersome pelvic floor and urinary symptoms. Fibromyalgia management should include evaluation and treatment of pelvic floor disorders recognizing that pelvic distress and urinary symptoms are associated with more severe FM symptoms. Validated questionnaires, like the ones used in this study, are easily incorporated into clinical practice.
Project description:This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients' lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general.
Project description:The purposes of this study were to determine the coexistence of mastalgia and fibromyalgia, to investigate the effects of this combination on pain patterns, and to discuss the status of breast pain in the diagnostic algorithm of fibromyalgia syndrome.Sixty-one female patients reporting breast pain during the last three months and 53 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome were enrolled in this study. The Breast Pain Questionnaire was administered to all participants in the mastalgia group and to those in the fibromyalgia syndrome group who had experienced mastalgia during the past three months. The patients in the fibromyalgia syndrome group were evaluated using the 2010 preliminary American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. All of the patients in the mastalgia group were evaluated for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome by a single physiatrist. The coexistence and pain patterns of mastalgia and fibromyalgia were assessed statistically.Approximately half of the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (47.2%) reported having mastalgia at the time of admission and 37.7% of the patients with mastalgia met the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome. The patients with mastalgia in the fibromyalgia syndrome group had significantly higher total breast pain scores compared with the women in the mastalgia group. In addition, the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome in the mastalgia group had significantly higher Widespread Pain Index and Symptom Severity Scale scores than the patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.We suggest that mastalgia can be an aspect of the central sensitivity syndrome and can be added to the somatic symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Project description:Although trazodone is frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, its efficacy on this disease has not been adequately studied. If effective, pregabalin, whose beneficial effects on pain and sleep quality in fibromyalgia have been demonstrated, could complement the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of trazodone. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of trazodone alone and in combination with pregabalin in the treatment of fibromyalgia.This was an open-label uncontrolled study. Trazodone, flexibly dosed (50-300 mg/day), was administered to 66 fibromyalgia patients during 12 weeks; 41 patients who completed the treatment accepted to receive pregabalin, also flexibly dosed (75-450 mg/day), added to trazodone treatment for an additional 12-week period. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Patients' Global Improvement scale (PGI). Emergent adverse reactions were recorded. Data were analyzed with repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t test.Treatment with trazodone significantly improved global fibromyalgia severity, sleep quality, and depression, as well as pain interference with daily activities although without showing a direct effect on bodily pain. After pregabalin combination additional and significant improvements were seen on fibromyalgia severity, depression and pain interference with daily activities, and a decrease in bodily pain was also apparent. During the second phase of the study, only two patients dropped out due to side effects.Trazodone significantly improved fibromyalgia severity and associated symptomatology. Its combination with pregabalin potentiated this improvement and the tolerability of the drugs in association was good.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00791739.
Project description:Background:Work and workplace factors are important in fibromyalgia management. We investigated factors associated with sick leave in professionally active women living with fibromyalgia. Methods:A questionnaire for fibromyalgia patients in employment was developed by pain and occupational physicians and patients' organizations. Women in full-time work, screened for fibromyalgia with the FiRST questionnaire, were recruited for a national online survey. Sick leave over the preceding year was analyzed. Results:In 5 months, we recruited 955 women, with a mean of 37 days of sick leave in the previous year: no sick leave (36%), up to 1 month (38%), 1 to 2 months (14%), more than 2 months (12%). In the groups displayed no differences in demographic characteristics, fibromyalgia symptoms, functional severity and psychological distress were observed. However, they differed in workplace characteristics, commute time, stress and difficulties at work, repetitive work, noisy conditions, career progression problems and lack of recognition, which were strong independent risk factors for longer sick leave. Sedentary positions, an extended sitting position, heavy loads, exposure to thermal disturbances and the use of vibrating tools did not increase the risk of sick leave. Conclusions:Women with fibromyalgia frequently take sick leave, the risk factors for which are related to the workplace rather than fibromyalgia characteristics. Perspective:This is the first study to assess the impact of occupational and clinical factors on sick leave in women living with fibromyalgia. Risk factors were found to be related to the workplace rather than fibromyalgia and personal characteristics. Workplace interventions should be developed for women with fibromyalgia.
Project description:PURPOSE:Multiple clinical and epidemiological studies have provided estimates of fibromyalgia prevalence and sex ratio, but different criteria sets and methodology, as well as bias, have led to widely varying (0.4%->11%) estimates of prevalence and female predominance (>90% to <61%). In general, studies have failed to distinguish Criteria based fibromyalgia (CritFM) from Clinical fibromyalgia (ClinFM). In the current study we compare CritFM with ClinFM to investigate gender and other biases in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. METHODS:We used a rheumatic disease databank and 2016 fibromyalgia criteria to study prevalence and sex ratios in a selection biased sample of 1761 referred and diagnosed fibromyalgia patients and in an unbiased sample of 4342 patients with no diagnosis with respect to fibromyalgia. We compared diagnostic and clinical variables according to gender, and we reanalyzed a German population study (GPS) (n = 2435) using revised 2016 criteria for fibromyalgia. RESULTS:In the selection-biased sample of referred patients with fibromyalgia, more than 90% were women. However, when an unselected sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was studied for the presence of fibromyalgia, women represented 58.7% of fibromyalgia cases. Women had slightly more symptoms than men, including generalized pain (36.8% vs. 32.4%), count of 37 symptoms (4.7 vs. 3.7) and mean polysymptomatic distress scores (10.2 vs. 8.2). We also found a linear relation between the probability of being females and fibromyalgia and fibromyalgia severity. Women in the GPS represented 59.2% of cases. DISCUSSION:The perception of fibromyalgia as almost exclusively (?90%) a women's disorder is not supported by data in unbiased studies. Using validated self-report criteria and unbiased selection, the female proportion of fibromyalgia cases was ?60% in the unbiased studies, and the observed CritFM prevalence of fibromyalgia in the GPS was ~2%. ClinFM is the public face of fibromyalgia, but is severely affected by selection and confirmation bias in the clinic and publications, underestimating men with fibromyalgia and overestimating women. We recommend the use of 2016 fibromyalgia criteria for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology because of its updated scoring and generalized pain requirement. Fibromyalgia and generalized pain positivity, widespread pain (WPI), symptom severity scale (SSS) and polysymptomatic distress (PSD) scale should always be reported.
Project description:Researchers studying fibromyalgia strive to identify objective, measurable biomarkers that may identify susceptible individuals, may facilitate diagnosis, or that parallel activity of the disease. Candidate objective measures range from sophisticated functional neuroimaging to office-ready measures of the pressure pain threshold. A systematic literature review was completed to assess highly investigated, objective measures used in fibromyalgia studies. To date, only experimental pain testing has been shown to coincide with improvements in clinical status in a longitudinal study. Concerted efforts to systematically evaluate additional objective measures in research trials will be vital for ongoing progress in outcome research and translation into clinical practice.
Project description:Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from gallbladder calculosis represent an exacerbating factor for fibromyalgia symptoms and that laparoscopic cholecystectomy produces only a transitory worsening of these symptoms, largely compensated by the long-term improvement/desensitization due to gallbladder removal. This study provides new insights into the role of visceral pain comorbidities and the effects of their treatment on fibromyalgia pain/hypersensitivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A consistent line of investigation suggests that autonomic nervous system dysfunction may explain the multi-system features of fibromyalgia (FM); and that FM is a sympathetically maintained neuropathic pain syndrome. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are key sympathetic-nociceptive short-circuit sites. Sodium channels located in DRG (particularly Nav1.7) act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Nav1.7 is encoded in gene SCN9A of chromosome 2q24.3 and is predominantly expressed in the DRG pain-sensing neurons and sympathetic ganglia neurons. Several SCN9A sodium channelopathies have been recognized as the cause of rare painful dysautonomic syndromes such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder and primary erythromelalgia. The aim of this study was to search for an association between fibromyalgia and several SCN9A sodium channels gene polymorphisms. METHODS: We studied 73 Mexican women suffering from FM and 48 age-matched women who considered themselves healthy. All participants filled out the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Genomic DNA from whole blood containing EDTA was extracted by standard techniques. The following SCN9A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were determined by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays: rs4371369; rs4387806; rs4453709; rs4597545; rs6746030; rs6754031; rs7607967; rs12620053; rs12994338; and rs13017637. RESULTS: The frequency of the rs6754031 polymorphism was significantly different in both groups (P = 0.036) mostly due to an absence of the GG genotype in controls. Interestingly; patients with this rs6754031 GG genotype had higher FIQ scores (median = 80; percentile 25/75 = 69/88) than patients with the GT genotype (median = 63; percentile 25/75 = 58/73; P = 0.002) and the TT genotype (median = 71; percentile 25/75 = 64/77; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this ethnic group; a disabling form of FM is associated to a particular SCN9A sodium channel gene variant. These preliminary results raise the possibility that some patients with severe FM may have a dorsal root ganglia sodium channelopathy.