Peripheral limb vascular malformations: an update of appropriate imaging and treatment options of a challenging condition.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral vascular malformations encompass a wide spectrum of lesions that can present as an incidental finding or produce potentially life- or limb-threatening complications. They can have intra-articular and intraosseous extensions that will result in more diverse symptomology and present greater therapeutic challenges. Developments in classification, imaging and interventional techniques have helped to improve outcome. The onus is now placed on appropriate detailed preliminary imaging, diagnosis and classification to direct management and exclude other more common mimics. Radiologists are thus playing an increasingly important role in the multidisciplinary teams charged with the care of these patients. By fully understanding the imaging characteristics and image-guided procedures available, radiologists will be armed with the tools to meet these responsibilities. This review highlights the recent advances made in imaging and the options available in interventional therapy.
Project description:Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with significant clinical complications. These lesions are commonly seen in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (formerly Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Interventional radiologists are a key part of the treatment team in this complex disease, and a thorough understanding of the disease process is critical to providing good patient care. In this article, the authors review the disease course and its association with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, discusses the clinical evaluation and treatment of these complex patients, and outlines complications and follow-up.
Project description:Malformations of cortical development are a group of rare disorders commonly manifesting with developmental delay, cerebral palsy or seizures. The neurological outcome is extremely variable depending on the type, extent and severity of the malformation and the involved genetic pathways of brain development. Neuroimaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of these malformations, but several issues regarding malformations of cortical development definitions and classification remain unclear. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide standardized malformations of cortical development terminology and classification for neuroradiological pattern interpretation. A committee of international experts in paediatric neuroradiology prepared systematic literature reviews and formulated neuroimaging recommendations in collaboration with geneticists, paediatric neurologists and pathologists during consensus meetings in the context of the European Network Neuro-MIG initiative on Brain Malformations (https://www.neuro-mig.org/). Malformations of cortical development neuroimaging features and practical recommendations are provided to aid both expert and non-expert radiologists and neurologists who may encounter patients with malformations of cortical development in their practice, with the aim of improving malformations of cortical development diagnosis and imaging interpretation worldwide.
Project description:Recent common interest in molecular imaging among both diagnostic and interventional radiologists has led to the establishment of a concept that could be called interventional molecular imaging. This concept, by combining interventional radiology with molecular imaging, is aiming to fully apply the advantages of both imaging fields. Interventional radiology can extend the capabilities of currently available molecular imaging techniques to (a) reach deep-seated targets, (b) enable a close look at small targets, (c) precisely guide delivery of nontargeted imaging tracers or therapeutic agents, and (d) superselectively enhance the effectiveness of targeted imaging and treatment. Interventional molecular imaging is becoming one of the frameworks for bringing molecular imaging from benches and small-animal laboratories to large-animal suites and, ultimately, to certain clinical applications in humans. (c) RSNA, 2010.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the differences in imaging characteristics and the diagnostic accuracy of 225 intraosseous jaw lesions on panoramic radiographs (PAN) versus cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).<h4>Methods</h4>225 sets of PAN and CBCT images with biopsy-proven histopathological diagnoses were retrospectively compared in terms of radiographic features and diagnostic accuracy. The imaging characteristics of PAN and CBCT were independently evaluated by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists who were required to answer 12 questions and provided up to three differential diagnoses with their confidence scores.<h4>Results</h4>Odds ratios (ORs) were statistically significant for border cortication (OR = 1.521; <i>p</i> = .003) and border continuity (OR = 0.421; <i>p</i> = .001), involvement on neurovascular canals (OR = 2.424; <i>p</i> < .001), expansion (OR = 7.948; <i>p</i> < .001), cortical thinning (OR = 20.480; <i>p</i> < .001) as well as its destruction (OR = 25.022; <i>p</i> < .001) and root resorption (OR = 2.477; <i>p</i> < .001). Furthermore, imaging features in the posterior and mandibular regions showed better agreement than those in the anterior and maxillary regions, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the first differential diagnosis was higher on CBCT than on PAN (Observer 1:78.7 <i>vs</i> 64.4%; Observer 2: 78.7 <i>vs</i> 70.2% (<i>p</i> < .001)). The observers' confidence scores were also higher at CBCT interpretation compared with PAN.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CBCT demonstrated a greater number of imaging characteristics of intraosseous jaw lesions compared with PAN, especially in the anterior regions of both jaws and in the maxilla. Diagnostic accuracy is improved with CBCT compared to PAN, especially for lesions in the maxilla. Radiologists have greater confidence when using CBCT.
Project description:Lower extremity venous insufficiency affects over half of all women. Interventional radiologists should be aware of the clinical evaluation of women with venous insufficiency and classification of disease. Endovascular therapies available for treatment of lower extremity venous insufficiency include: endovenous laser ablation, radiofrequency endovascular ablation, and sclerotherapy. The interventional radiologist should be versed on which therapy to select in each clinical presentation and the procedural techniques. The authors review the role of the interventional radiologist in managing this lower extremity venous disorder.
Project description:The purpose of this case series is to present the common features of intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (IMC) of the jaws in plain film and CT imaging. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists reviewed and characterized the common features of four biopsy-proven cases of IMC in the jaws in plain film and CT imaging obtained from the files of the Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. The common features are a well-defined sclerotic periphery, the presence of internal amorphous sclerotic bone and numerous small loculations, lack of septae bordering many of the loculations, and expansion and perforation of the outer cortical plate with extension into surrounding soft tissue. Other characteristics include tooth displacement and root resorption. The four cases of IMC reviewed have common imaging characteristics. All cases share some diagnostic imaging features with other multilocular-appearing entities of the jaws. However, the presence of amorphous sclerotic bone and malignant characteristics can be useful in the differential diagnosis.
Project description:The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. The anatomy of cranial nerves is complex and its knowledge is crucial to detect pathological alterations in case of nervous disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most frequent pathologies that may involve cranial nerves and recognize their typical characteristics of imaging. Cranial nerve dysfunctions may be the result of pathological processes of the cranial nerve itself or be related to tumors, inflammation, infectious processes, or traumatic injuries of adjacent structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard in the study of the cranial nerves. Computed tomography (CT) allows, usually, an indirect view of the nerve and is useful to demonstrate the intraosseous segments of cranial nerves, the foramina through which they exit skull base and their pathologic changes. The article is a complete pictorial overview of the imaging of cranial nerves, with anatomic and pathologic descriptions and great attention to illustrative depiction. We believe that it could be a useful guide for radiologists and neuroradiologists to review the anatomy and the most important pathologies that involve cranial nerves and their differential diagnosis.
Project description:PURPOSE:To systematically investigate the frequency and types of allegations related to radiology practice handled by the Dutch Medical Disciplinary Court in the past 10 years. METHODS:The Dutch Medical Disciplinary Court database was searched for verdicts concerning radiology practice between 2010 and 2019. The association between the number of verdicts and time (years) was assessed by Spearman's rho. Other data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:There were 48 verdicts (mean 4.8 per year). There was no significant association between the number of verdicts and time (Spearman's rho <?0.001, p?=?0.99). Most allegations were in breast imaging and musculoskeletal radiology (each 18.8%), followed by interventional radiology, head and neck imaging, and abdominal imaging (each 12.5%), neuroradiology and vascular imaging (each 10.4%), and chest imaging (4.2%). There were 46 allegations against radiologists (95.8%) and 2 against residents (4.2%). The most common allegation (37.5%) was error in diagnosis. In 20.8% of verdicts, the allegation was judged (partially) founded; disciplinary measures were warnings (n?=?8) and reprimands (n?=?2). An appeal was submitted by the patient in 11 cases and by the radiologist in 3 cases. All appeals by patients were rejected, whereas 2 of the 3 appeals by radiologists were granted and previously imposed disciplinary measures were reversed. CONCLUSION:Allegations against radiologists at the Dutch Medical Disciplinary Court are relatively few, their number has remained stable over the past 10 years, and a minority were judged to be (partially) founded. We can learn from the cases presented in this article, which may improve patient care. KEY POINTS:• The frequency of allegations against radiologists at the Dutch Medical Disciplinary Court is relatively low and has not exhibited any temporal change over the past 10 years. • These allegations reflect patient dissatisfaction, but this infrequently equals malpractice. • Knowledge of the circumstances under which these allegations have arisen may improve patient care.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To develop and validate a proof-of-concept convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning system (DLS) that classifies common hepatic lesions on multi-phasic MRI. METHODS:A custom CNN was engineered by iteratively optimizing the network architecture and training cases, finally consisting of three convolutional layers with associated rectified linear units, two maximum pooling layers, and two fully connected layers. Four hundred ninety-four hepatic lesions with typical imaging features from six categories were utilized, divided into training (n?=?434) and test (n?=?60) sets. Established augmentation techniques were used to generate 43,400 training samples. An Adam optimizer was used for training. Monte Carlo cross-validation was performed. After model engineering was finalized, classification accuracy for the final CNN was compared with two board-certified radiologists on an identical unseen test set. RESULTS:The DLS demonstrated a 92% accuracy, a 92% sensitivity (Sn), and a 98% specificity (Sp). Test set performance in a single run of random unseen cases showed an average 90% Sn and 98% Sp. The average Sn/Sp on these same cases for radiologists was 82.5%/96.5%. Results showed a 90% Sn for classifying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to 60%/70% for radiologists. For HCC classification, the true positive and false positive rates were 93.5% and 1.6%, respectively, with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.992. Computation time per lesion was 5.6 ms. CONCLUSION:This preliminary deep learning study demonstrated feasibility for classifying lesions with typical imaging features from six common hepatic lesion types, motivating future studies with larger multi-institutional datasets and more complex imaging appearances. KEY POINTS:• Deep learning demonstrates high performance in the classification of liver lesions on volumetric multi-phasic MRI, showing potential as an eventual decision-support tool for radiologists. • Demonstrating a classification runtime of a few milliseconds per lesion, a deep learning system could be incorporated into the clinical workflow in a time-efficient manner.
Project description:Interventional radiologists are playing an increasingly important role in pediatric urologic intervention, working closely with the pediatric urologist. Interventional radiologists are frequently asked to establish percutaneous access to the renal collecting system prior to nephrolithotomy. Additionally, procedures such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral stent placement and exchange, and renal parenchymal biopsy are frequently encountered requests. This article will review these common procedures and highlight techniques and pathology that are unique to the pediatric population.