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Bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of the novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor tolsultazolamide in rats.


ABSTRACT:

Aim

Tolsultazolamide, a novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is designed for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of tolsultazolamide and the sex difference in pharmacokinetics in rats.

Methods

For pharmacokinetic study, rats were intravenously injected tolsultazolamide at 1 and 2 mg/kg or orally administered tolsultazolamide at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) in a pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of tolsultazolamide in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, with a liquid-liquid extraction. For tissue distribution study, tolsultazolamide (80 mg/kg) was orally administered to overnight fasted rats (six per group and three per sex). Samples were collected from the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, muscle, kidney, stomach, fat, intestines, pancreas and sexual gland. For excretion study, tolsultazolamide (40 mg/kg) was orally administered to 6 rats (three per sex). The urine, feces, and bile samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h.

Results

After its intravenous administration, tolsultazolamide was rapidly eliminated from the plasma, with T1/2 of about 60-90 min. The AUC0-t and the initial concentration (C0) values were proportional to the intravenous doses. After its oral administration, tolsultazolamide showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics, with Tmax and T1/2 of approximately 2 h and 5-7 h, respectively, and good oral absolute bioavailability of about 60%. Tolsultazolamide was distributed widely in various tissues. The highest tolsultazolamide levels were detected in the stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, and kidney. Total excretion of unchanged tolsultazolamide in the urine, feces, and bile was less than 2%. The Cmax and AUC of tolsultazolamide were significantly higher in female rats than those in male rats. Clearance and volume of distribution were greater in male rats than those in female rats. The oral absolute bioavailability was also significantly different between female rats (about 83%) and male rats (about 37%).

Conclusion

Tolsultazolamide was well absorbed and widely distributed in the rat, and very little of the unchanged form was excreted. Sex had a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of tolsultazolamide.

SUBMITTER: Wang JD 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4651221 | BioStudies | 2014-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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