Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice.
ABSTRACT: Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.
Project description:Beige and brown fat consume glucose and lipids to produce heat, using uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It is thought that full activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) may increase total daily energy expenditure by 20%. Humans normally have more beige and potentially beige-able fat than brown fat. Strategies to increase beige fat differentiation and activation may be useful for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without the iron chelator deferasirox. Animals fed HFD + deferasirox were markedly lighter than their HFD controls with increased energy expenditure (12% increase over 24 h, p < 0.001). Inguinal fat from HFD + deferasirox mice showed increased beige fat quantity with greater Ucp1 and Prdm16 expression. Inguinal adipose tissue explants were studied in a Seahorse bioanalyser and energy expenditure was significantly increased. Deferasirox was also effective in established obesity and in ob/ob mice, indicating that intact leptin signalling is not needed for efficacy. These studies identify iron chelation as a strategy to preferentially activate beige fat. Whether activating brown/beige fat is effective in humans is unproven. However, depleting iron to low-normal levels is a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity and related metabolic disorders, and human studies may be warranted.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the responses of individual tissues to high-fat feeding as a function of mass, fat composition, and transcript abundance. We examined a panel of eight tissues [5 white adipose tissues (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), liver, muscle] obtained from DBA/2J mice on either a standard breeding diet (SBD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD led to weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity, and tissue-specific responses, including inflammation, in these mice. The dietary fatty acids were partially metabolized and converted in both liver and fat tissues. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) were converted in the liver to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and oleic acid (C18:1) was the preferred MUFA for storage of excess energy in all tissues of HFD-fed mice. Transcriptional changes largely reflected the tissue-specific fat deposition. SFA were negatively correlated with genes in the collagen family and processes involving the extracellular matrix. We propose a novel role of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in adipose tissues of diet-induced obesity. Tissue-specific responses to HFD were identified. Liver steatosis was evident in HFD-fed mice. Gonadal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissue and BAT exhibited severe inflammatory and immune responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was the most metabolically active adipose tissue. Gluteal adipose tissue had the highest mass gain but was sluggish in its metabolism. In HFD conditions, BAT functioned largely like WAT in its role as a depot for excess energy, whereas WAT played a role in thermogenesis.
Project description:Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner.
Project description:Adipose browning leads to increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity and has, therefore, become an attractive therapeutic strategy for obesity. In this study, we elucidated the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTAE) on the browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (Ing-WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The main phytochemical components identified in GTAE through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) included (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate. Daily supplementation with 1% GTAE for 12 weeks markedly reduced bodyweight gain, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and improved insulin resistance. Additionally, histological analysis revealed that dietary supplementation with 1% GTAE reversed HFD-induced adipocyte size and hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with activation of browning in the Ing-WAT and BAT, which mediate systemic metabolic dysfunction in HFD-fed mice. Taken together, our data support the use of GTAE, a natural product, for the attenuation of obesity through the activation of fat browning.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Hypomagnesaemia (blood Mg2+ <0.7 mmol/l) is a common phenomenon in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown how a low blood Mg2+ concentration affects lipid and energy metabolism. Therefore, the importance of Mg2+ in obesity and type 2 diabetes has been largely neglected to date. This study aims to determine the effects of hypomagnesaemia on energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS:Mice (n?=?12/group) were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) (10% or 60% of total energy) in combination with a normal- or low-Mg2+ content (0.21% or 0.03% wt/wt) for 17 weeks. Metabolic cages were used to investigate food intake, energy expenditure and respiration. Blood and tissues were taken to study metabolic parameters and mRNA expression profiles, respectively. RESULTS:We show that low dietary Mg2+ intake ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice (47.00?±?1.53 g vs 38.62?±?1.51 g in mice given a normal Mg2+-HFD and low Mg2+-HFD, respectively, p?<?0.05). Consequently, fasting serum glucose levels decreased and insulin sensitivity improved in low Mg2+-HFD-fed mice. Moreover, HFD-induced liver steatosis was absent in the low Mg2+ group. In hypomagnesaemic HFD-fed mice, mRNA expression of key lipolysis genes was increased in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), corresponding to reduced lipid storage and high blood lipid levels. Low Mg2+-HFD-fed mice had increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) Ucp1 mRNA expression and a higher body temperature. No difference was observed in energy expenditure between the two HFD groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Mg2+-deficiency abrogates HFD-induced obesity in mice through enhanced eWAT lipolysis and BAT activity.
Project description:Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen binding receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in atherosclerosis, fibrosis, and cancer. Our previous research showed that DDR1 could regulate smooth muscle cell trans-differentiation, fibrosis and calcification in the vascular system in cardiometabolic disease. This spectrum of activity led us to question whether DDR1 might also regulate adipose tissue fibrosis and remodeling. METHODS:We have used a diet-induced mouse model of cardiometabolic disease to determine whether DDR1 deletion impacts upon adipose tissue remodeling and metabolic dysfunction. Mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, followed by assessment of glucose and insulin tolerance, respiration via indirect calorimetry, and brown fat activity by FDG-PET. RESULTS:Feeding HFD induced DDR1 expression in white adipose tissue, which correlated with adipose tissue expansion and fibrosis. Ddr1-/- mice fed an HFD had improved glucose tolerance, reduced body fat, and increased brown fat activity and energy expenditure compared to Ddr1+/+ littermate controls. HFD-fed DDR1-/- mice also had reduced fibrosis, smaller adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets, and increased UCP-1 expression characteristic of beige fat formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In vitro, studying C3H10T1/2 cells stimulated to differentiate, DDR1 inhibition caused a shift from white to beige adipocyte differentiation, whereas DDR1 expression was increased with TGF?-mediated pro-fibrotic differentiation. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to identify a role for DDR1 as a driver of adipose tissue fibrosis and suppressor of beneficial beige fat formation.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between gut health, visceral fat dysfunction and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed control or high saturated fat diet (HFD). Circulating glucose, insulin and inflammatory markers were measured. Proximal colon barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins. Gut microbiota profile was determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA levels were measured in proximal colon, adipose tissue and liver using RT-qPCR. Adipose macrophage infiltration (F4/80?) was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. HFD mice had a higher insulin/glucose ratio (P?=?0.020) and serum levels of serum amyloid A3 (131%; P?=?0.008) but reduced circulating adiponectin (64%; P?=?0.011). In proximal colon of HFD mice compared to mice fed the control diet, transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of zona occludens 1 were reduced by 38% (P<0.001) and 40% (P?=?0.025) respectively and TNF-? mRNA level was 6.6-fold higher (P?=?0.037). HFD reduced Lactobacillus (75%; P<0.001) but increased Oscillibacter (279%; P?=?0.004) in fecal microbiota. Correlations were found between abundances of Lactobacillus (r?=?0.52; P?=?0.013) and Oscillibacter (r?=?-0.55; P?=?0.007) with transepithelial resistance of the proximal colon. HFD increased macrophage infiltration (58%; P?=?0.020), TNF-? (2.5-fold, P<0.001) and IL-6 mRNA levels (2.5-fold; P?=?0.008) in mesenteric fat. Increased macrophage infiltration in epididymal fat was also observed with HFD feeding (71%; P?=?0.006) but neither TNF-? nor IL-6 was altered. Perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no signs of inflammation in HFD mice. The current results implicate gut dysfunction, and attendant inflammation of contiguous adipose, as salient features of the metabolic dysregulation of diet-induced obesity.
Project description:Peripheral administration of a specific neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist to mice leads to reduced weight gain and circulating levels of insulin and leptin after high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we assessed the contribution of substance P (SP) and NK-1R in diet-induced obesity using NK-1R deficient [knockout (KO)] mice and extended our previous findings to show the effects of SP-NK-1R interactions on adipose tissue-associated insulin signaling and glucose metabolic responses. NK-1R KO and wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and obesity-associated responses were determined. Compared with WT, NK-1 KO mice show reduced weight gain and circulating levels of leptin and insulin in response to HFD. Adiponectin receptor mRNA levels are higher in mesenteric fat and liver in NK-1 KO animals compared with WT, after HFD. Mesenteric fat from NK-1R KO mice fed with HFD has reduced stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and protein kinase C activation compared with WT mice. After glucose challenge, NK-1R KO mice remove glucose from the circulation more efficiently than WT and pair-fed controls, suggesting an additional peripheral effect of NK-1R-mediated signaling on glucose metabolism. Glucose uptake experiments in isolated rat adipocytes showed that SP directly inhibits insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Our results further establish a role for SP-NK-1R interactions in adipose tissue responses, specifically as they relate to obesity-associated pathologies such as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Our results highlight this pathway as an important therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences in adipose tissue and liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and putative alterations between male and female mice in brain structure in relation to behavioral changes during the development of juvenile obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>In six-week-old male and female Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice (n = 48), the impact of 18 weeks of HFD-feeding was examined. Fat distribution, liver pathology and brain structure and function were analyzed imunohisto- and biochemically, in cognitive tasks and with MRI.<h4>Results</h4>HFD-fed female mice were characterized by an increased perigonadal fat mass, pronounced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation. Male mice on HFD displayed an increased mesenteric fat mass, pronounced adipose tissue inflammation and microvesicular hepatic steatosis. Only male HFD-fed mice showed decreased cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>At young age, male mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD than female mice. This study emphasizes the importance of sex-specific differences in obesity, liver pathology, and brain function.