Nucleotide binding interactions modulate dNTP selectivity and facilitate 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation by DNA polymerase lambda.
ABSTRACT: 8-Oxo-7,8,-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) is a major product of oxidative damage in the nucleotide pool. It is capable of mispairing with adenosine (dA), resulting in futile, mutagenic cycles of base excision repair. Therefore, it is critical that DNA polymerases discriminate against 8-oxo-dGTP at the insertion step. Because of its roles in oxidative DNA damage repair and non-homologous end joining, DNA polymerase lambda (Pol ?) may frequently encounter 8-oxo-dGTP. Here, we have studied the mechanisms of 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation and discrimination by Pol ?. We have solved high resolution crystal structures showing how Pol ? accommodates 8-oxo-dGTP in its active site. The structures indicate that when mispaired with dA, the oxidized nucleotide assumes the mutagenic syn-conformation, and is stabilized by multiple interactions. Steady-state kinetics reveal that two residues lining the dNTP binding pocket, Ala(510) and Asn(513), play differential roles in dNTP selectivity. Specifically, Ala(510) and Asn(513) facilitate incorporation of 8-oxo-dGMP opposite dA and dC, respectively. These residues also modulate the balance between purine and pyrimidine incorporation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation in Pol ? and on the importance of interactions with the incoming dNTP to determine selectivity in family X DNA polymerases.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species damage DNA bases to produce 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), which results in G:C to T:A transversions. To better understand mechanisms of dNTP incorporation opposite 8-oxoG, we performed pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of nucleotide incorporation using the catalytic core of yeast DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?core, residues 1-513) instead of full-length Pol ?, eliminating potential effects of the C-terminal C2H2 sequence motif on dNTP incorporation. Kinetic analysis showed that Pol ?core preferred to incorporate dCTP opposite 8-oxoG. A lack of a pre-steady-state kinetic burst for Pol ?core suggested that dCTP incorporation is slower than the dissociation of the polymerase from DNA. The extension products beyond the 8-oxoG were determined by LC-MS/MS and showed that 57% of the products corresponded to the correct incorporation (C) and 43% corresponded to dATP misincorporation. More dATP was incorporated opposite 8-oxoG with a mixture of dNTPs than predicted using only a single dNTP. The kinetic analysis of 8-oxoG bypass by yeast DNA Pol ?core provides further understanding of the mechanism of mutation at this oxidation lesion with yeast DNA polymerase ?.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative damage in DNA precursors, i.e. dNTPs, leading to point mutations upon incorporation. Escherichia coli mutT strains, deficient in the activity hydrolysing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP), display more than a 100-fold higher spontaneous mutation frequency over the wild-type strain. 8-oxo-dGTP induces A to C transversions when misincorporated opposite template A. Here, we report that DNA pol III incorporates 8-oxo-dGTP ??20 times more efficiently opposite template A compared with template C. Single, double or triple deletions of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V had modest effects on the mutT mutator phenotype. Only the deletion of all four polymerases led to a 70% reduction of the mutator phenotype. While pol III may account for nearly all 8-oxo-dGTP incorporation opposite template A, it only extends ??30% of them, the remaining 70% being extended by the combined action of pol I, pol II, pol IV or pol V. The unique property of pol III, a C-family DNA polymerase present only in eubacteria, to preferentially incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP opposite template A during replication might explain the high spontaneous mutation frequency in E.?coli mutT compared with the mammalian counterparts lacking the 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolysing activities.
Project description:Natural nucleic acid bases can form Watson-Crick (WC) or Hoogsteen (HG) base pairs. Importantly, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in DNA or 8-oxo-dG 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) favors a syn conformation because of the steric repulsion between O8 and O4' of the deoxyribose ring. 8-oxo-dGTP can be incorporated into DNA opposite the templating adenine (A) using HG pairing as the dominant mechanism. Both RNA and DNA can be methylated at the N6 position of A to form N6-methyladenine (m6A). It has been found that certain viral infections may trigger an increase in the production of both 8-oxo-dGTP and m6A. The current study aims to systematically explore the effects of m6A methylation on HG base pairs and the consequent nucleotide incorporation. Our thermodynamic melting study shows that the m6A·8-oxo-dG is significantly less stable than the A·8-oxo-dG base pair in the paired region of a DNA duplex. Moreover, we have used pre-steady-state kinetics to examine the incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP opposite m6A relative to A by a variety of reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes and DNA polymerase (DNA pol) enzymes such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT and human DNA pol ?. The results demonstrate that all of these enzymes incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP less efficiently opposite m6A relative to A. Considering the steric bulk of the purine-purine pair between 8-oxo-dG and A, m6A methylation may affect the HG pairing to a great extent. Hence, it will be unfavorable to incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP into the growing strand opposite m6A. Moreover, the impeded incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP opposite m6A has been extended to determine m6A at pre-defined positions in human rRNA. Our study may provide new insights into the roles of m6A in reducing the mutagenic potential of cellular 8-oxo-dGTP.
Project description:The human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol ?) is responsible for the replication of the mitochondrial genome. Mutation Y955C in the active site of pol ? results in early onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia, premature ovarian failure, and Parkinson's disease. In single-turnover kinetic studies, we show that the Y955C mutation results in a decrease in the maximal rate of polymerization and an increase in the K(m) for correct incorporation. The mutation decreased the specificity constant for correct incorporation of dGTP, TTP, and ATP to values of 1.5, 0.35, and 0.044 ?M(-1) s(-1), respectively, representing reductions of 30-, 110-, and 1300-fold, respectively, relative to the value for the wild-type enzyme. The fidelity of incorporation was reduced 6-130-fold, largely because of the significant decrease in the specificity constant for correct dATP:T incorporation. For example, k(cat)/K(m) for forming a TTP:T mismatch was decreased 10-fold from 0.0002 to 0.00002 ?M(-1) s(-1) by the Y955C mutant, but the 1300-fold slower incorporation of the correct dATP:T relative to that of the wild type led to a 130-fold lower fidelity. While correct incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP was largely unchanged, the level of incorporation of 8-oxo-dG with dA in the template strand was reduced 500-fold. These results support a role for Y955 in stabilizing A:T base pairs at the active site of pol ? and suggest that the severe clinical symptoms of patients with this mutation may be due, in part, to the reduced efficiency of incorporation of dATP opposite T, and that the autosomal dominant phenotype may arise from the resulting higher mutation frequency.
Project description:Deregulated redox metabolism in cancer leads to oxidative damage to cellular components including deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). Targeting dNTP pool sanitizing enzymes, such as MTH1, is a highly promising anticancer strategy. The MTH2 protein, known as NUDT15, is described as the second human homologue of bacterial MutT with 8-oxo-dGTPase activity. We present the first NUDT15 crystal structure and demonstrate that NUDT15 prefers other nucleotide substrates over 8-oxo-dGTP. Key structural features are identified that explain different substrate preferences for NUDT15 and MTH1. We find that depletion of NUDT15 has no effect on incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP into DNA and does not impact cancer cell survival in cell lines tested. NUDT17 and NUDT18 were also profiled and found to have far less activity than MTH1 against oxidized nucleotides. We show that NUDT15 is not a biologically relevant 8-oxo-dGTPase, and that MTH1 is the most prominent sanitizer of the cellular dNTP pool known to date.
Project description:Human MutT homologue 1 (hMTH1) hydrolyzes a variety of oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, including 8-oxo-dGTP, 2-oxo-dATP, 2-oxo-ATP and 8-oxo-dATP, to their corresponding nucleoside monophosphates, while Escherichia coli MutT possesses prominent substrate specificity for 8-oxoguanine nucleotides. Three types of crystals were obtained corresponding to the following complexes: selenomethionine-labelled hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (SeMet hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP), hMTH1 with 8-oxo-dGMP (hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP) and hMTH1 with 2-oxo-dATP (hMTH1-2-oxo-dATP). Crystals of the SeMet hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP complex belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 45.8, c = 153.6 A, and diffracted to 2.90 A. Crystals of hMTH1-8-oxo-dGMP and hMTH1-2-oxo-dATP belong to space groups P2(1) and P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 34.0, b = 59.0, c = 65.9 A, beta = 90.7 degrees and a = 59.2, b = 67.3, c = 80.0 A, respectively. Their diffraction data were collected at resolutions of 1.95 and 2.22 A, respectively.
Project description:Full genome sequencing of bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of numerous genes encoding family X DNA polymerases. These enzymes play a variety of biological roles and, accordingly, display often striking functional differences. Here we report that the PolX from the heat-stable organism Thermus thermophilus (TthPolX) inserts the four dNTPs with strong asymmetry. We demonstrate that this behaviour is related to the presence of a single divergent residue in the active site of TthPolX. Mutation of this residue (Ser(266)) to asparagine, the residue present in most PolXs, had a strong effect on TthPolX polymerase activity, increasing and equilibrating the insertion efficiencies of the 4 dNTPs. Moreover, we show that this behaviour correlates with the ability of TthPolX to insert 8-oxo-dGMP. Although the wild-type enzyme inefficiently incorporates 8-oxo-dGMP, the substitution of Ser(266) to asparagine resulted in a dramatic increase in 8-oxo-dGMP incorporation opposite dA. These results suggest that the presence of a serine at position 266 in TthPolX allows the enzyme to minimize the formation of dA:8-oxo-dGMP at the expense of decreasing the insertion rate of pyrimidines. We discuss the structural basis for these effects and the implications of this behaviour for the GO system (BER of 8-oxo-dG lesions).
Project description:Oxidized DNA precursors can cause mutagenesis and carcinogenesis when they are incorporated into the genome. Some human Y-family DNA polymerases (Pols) can effectively incorporate 8-oxo-dGTP, an oxidized form of dGTP, into a position opposite a template dA. This inappropriate G:A pairing may lead to transversions of A to C. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying erroneous nucleotide incorporation, we changed amino acids in human Poleta and Polkappa proteins that might modulate their specificity for incorporating 8-oxo-dGTP into DNA. We found that Arg61 in Poleta was crucial for erroneous nucleotide incorporation. When Arg61 was substituted with lysine (R61K), the ratio of pairing of dA to 8-oxo-dGTP compared to pairing of dC was reduced from 660:1 (wild-type Poleta) to 7 : 1 (R61K). Similarly, Tyr112 in Polkappa was crucial for erroneous nucleotide incorporation. When Tyr112 was substituted with alanine (Y112A), the ratio of pairing was reduced from 11: 1 (wild-type Polkappa) to almost 1: 1 (Y112A). Interestingly, substitution at the corresponding position in Poleta, i.e. Phe18 to alanine, did not alter the specificity. These results suggested that amino acids at distinct positions in the active sites of Poleta and Polkappa might enhance 8-oxo-dGTP to favor the syn conformation, and thus direct its misincorporation into DNA.
Project description:Approximately one third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. A better understanding of the pathogen biology is crucial to develop new tools/strategies to tackle its spread and treatment. In the host macrophages, the pathogen is exposed to reactive oxygen species, known to damage dGTP and GTP to 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-GTP, respectively. Incorporation of the damaged nucleotides in nucleic acids is detrimental to organisms. MutT proteins, belonging to a class of Nudix hydrolases, hydrolyze 8-oxo-G nucleoside triphosphates/diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates and sanitize the nucleotide pool. Mycobacteria possess several MutT proteins. However, a functional homolog of Escherichia coli MutT has not been identified. Here, we characterized MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 proteins of M. tuberculosis. Unlike other MutT proteins, MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP, and 8-oxo-GTP to 8-oxo-GDP. Rv1700 then converts them to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. This observation suggests the presence of a two-stage mechanism of 8-oxo-dGTP/8-oxo-GTP detoxification in mycobacteria. MtuMutT1 converts 8-oxo-dGTP to 8-oxo-dGDP with a Km of ?50 ?M and Vmax of ?0.9 pmol/min per ng of protein, and Rv1700 converts 8-oxo-dGDP to 8-oxo-dGMP with a Km of ?9.5 ?M and Vmax of ?0.04 pmol/min per ng of protein. Together, MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 offer maximal rescue to E. coli for its MutT deficiency by decreasing A to C mutations (a hallmark of MutT deficiency). We suggest that the concerted action of MtuMutT1 and Rv1700 plays a crucial role in survival of bacteria against oxidative stress.
Project description:The chemical integrity of the nucleotide pool and its homeostasis are crucial for genome stability. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a crucial enzyme that carries out reversible conversions from nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) to deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Guanosine nucleotides (GDP, GTP, dGDP, and dGTP) are highly susceptible to oxidative damage to 8-oxo-GDP (8-O-GDP), 8-O-dGTP, 8-O-GTP, and 8-O-dGTP. MutT proteins in cells hydrolyze 8-O-GTP to 8-O-GMP or 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGMP to avoid its incorporation in nucleic acids. In Escherichia coli, 8-O-dGTP is also known to be hydrolyzed by RibA (GTP cyclohydrolase II). In this study, we show that E. coli NDK catalyzes the conversion of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP or vice versa. However, the rate of NDK-mediated phosphorylation of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP is about thrice as efficient as the rate of dephosphorylation of 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGDP, suggesting an additive role of NDK in net production of 8-O-dGTP in cells. Consistent with this observation, the depletion of NDK (?ndk) in E. coli ?mutT or ?mutT ?ribA strains results in a decrease of A-to-C mutations. These observations suggest that NDK contributes to the physiological load of MutT in E. coli IMPORTANCE Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), a ubiquitous enzyme, is known for its critical role in homeostasis of cellular nucleotide pools. However, NDK has now emerged as a molecule with pleiotropic effects in DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, gene expression, tumor metastasis, development, and pathogen virulence and persistence inside the host. In this study, we reveal an unexpected role of NDK in genome instability because of its activity in converting 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP. This observation has important consequences in escalating A-to-C mutations in Escherichia coli The severity of NDK in enhancing these mutations may be higher in the organisms challenged with high oxidative stress, which promotes 8-O-dGDP/8-O-dGTP production.