Competition between Heterochromatic Loci Allows the Abundance of the Silencing Protein, Sir4, to Regulate de novo Assembly of Heterochromatin.
ABSTRACT: Changes in the locations and boundaries of heterochromatin are critical during development, and de novo assembly of silent chromatin in budding yeast is a well-studied model for how new sites of heterochromatin assemble. De novo assembly cannot occur in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and one to two divisions are needed for complete silent chromatin assembly and transcriptional repression. Mutation of DOT1, the histone H3 lysine 79 (K79) methyltransferase, and SET1, the histone H3 lysine 4 (K4) methyltransferase, speed de novo assembly. These observations have led to the model that regulated demethylation of histones may be a mechanism for how cells control the establishment of heterochromatin. We find that the abundance of Sir4, a protein required for the assembly of silent chromatin, decreases dramatically during a G1 arrest and therefore tested if changing the levels of Sir4 would also alter the speed of de novo establishment. Halving the level of Sir4 slows heterochromatin establishment, while increasing Sir4 speeds establishment. yku70? and ubp10? cells also speed de novo assembly, and like dot1? cells have defects in subtelomeric silencing, suggesting that these mutants may indirectly speed de novo establishment by liberating Sir4 from telomeres. Deleting RIF1 and RIF2, which suppresses the subtelomeric silencing defects in these mutants, rescues the advanced de novo establishment in yku70? and ubp10? cells, but not in dot1? cells, suggesting that YKU70 and UBP10 regulate Sir4 availability by modulating subtelomeric silencing, while DOT1 functions directly to regulate establishment. Our data support a model whereby the demethylation of histone H3 K79 and changes in Sir4 abundance and availability define two rate-limiting steps that regulate de novo assembly of heterochromatin.
Project description:Heterochromatin formation in budding yeast is regulated by the silent information regulator (SIR) complex. The SIR complex comprises the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sir2, the scaffolding protein Sir4, and the nucleosome-binding protein Sir3. Transcriptionally active regions present a challenge to SIR complex-mediated de novo heterochromatic silencing due to the presence of antagonistic histone post-translational modifications, including acetylation and methylation. Methylation of histone H3K4 and H3K79 is dependent on monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2B-Ub). The SIR complex cannot erase H2B-Ub or histone methylation on its own. The deubiquitinase (DUB) Ubp10 is thought to promote heterochromatic silencing by maintaining low H2B-Ub at sub-telomeres. Here, we biochemically characterized the interactions between Ubp10 and the SIR complex machinery. We demonstrate that a direct interaction between Ubp10 and the Sir2/4 sub-complex facilitates Ubp10 recruitment to chromatin via a co-assembly mechanism. Using hydrolyzable H2B-Ub analogs, we show that Ubp10 activity is lower on nucleosomes compared with H2B-Ub in solution. We find that Sir2/4 stimulates Ubp10 DUB activity on nucleosomes, likely through a combination of targeting and allosteric regulation. This coupling mechanism between the silencing machinery and its DUB partner allows erasure of active PTMs and the de novo transition of a transcriptionally active DNA region to a silent chromatin state.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the silent information regulator (SIR) proteins Sir2/3/4 form a complex that suppresses transcription in subtelomeric regions and at the homothallic mating-type (HM) loci. Here, we identify a non-canonical BRCA1 C-terminal domain (H-BRCT) in Sir4, which is responsible for tethering telomeres to the nuclear periphery. We show that Sir4 H-BRCT and the closely related Dbf4 H-BRCT serve as selective phospho-epitope recognition domains that bind to a variety of phosphorylated target peptides. We present detailed structural information about the binding mode of established Sir4 interactors (Esc1, Ty5, Ubp10) and identify several novel interactors of Sir4 H-BRCT, including the E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1. Based on these findings, we propose a phospho-peptide consensus motif for interaction with Sir4 H-BRCT and Dbf4 H-BRCT. Ablation of the Sir4 H-BRCT phospho-peptide interaction disrupts SIR-mediated repression and perinuclear localization. In conclusion, the Sir4 H-BRCT domain serves as a hub for recruitment of phosphorylated target proteins to heterochromatin to properly regulate silencing and nuclear order.
Project description:Embedded in the nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) not only regulate nuclear transport, but also interface with both transcriptionally active euchromatin and largely silenced heterochromatin, as well as the boundaries between these regions. It is unclear what functional role NPCs play in establishing or maintaining these distinct chromatin domains. Here we report that the yeast NPC protein Nup170p interacts with specific regions of the genome containing ribosomal protein and subtelomeric genes. At these locations, Nup170p functions to establish normal nucleosome positioning and as a repressor of transcription. We show that the function of Nup170p in subtelomeric gene silencing is linked to its association with the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex and the silencing factor Sir4p, and that the binding of Nup170p and Sir4p to subtelomeric chromatin is cooperative and necessary for the association of telomeres with the nuclear envelope. Our results establish the NPC as an active participant in the formation of peripheral heterochromatin. The genome-wide localization profiles of Nup170p and Nup157p were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray analysis using agilent whole genome Saccharomyces cerevisiae arrays. In addition, the localization profile of Nup170p was determined in sir4∆ and yku70∆ strains.
Project description:Chz1p is a histone chaperone that interacts physically and functionally with the histone variant Htz1p, which has been implicated in establishing and maintaining boundaries between transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin and active euchromatin. To investigate the role of Chz1p in chromatin organization, we performed genome-wide expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitations of SIR complex components and modified histones in a CHZ1 deletion strain. Deletion of CHZ1 led to reduced ubiquitination of subtelomere-associated H2B, reduced subtelomeric H3K79 di-methylation, and increased binding of Sir3p, and Sir4p at telomere-distal euchromatin regions, correlating with decreased gene expression in subtelomeric regions. This anti-silencing defect appears to be mediated by enhanced association of de-ubiquitinase Ubp10p with subtelomeric DNA, as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In support of this, we show that deletion of UBP10 can antagonize the subtelomeric silencing phenotype of Deltachz1. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel role for Chz1p in epigenetic regulation, through H2B de-ubiquitination by Ubp10p.
Project description:Silent information regulator proteins Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4 form a heterotrimeric complex that represses transcription at subtelomeric regions and homothallic mating type (HM) loci in budding yeast. We have performed a detailed biochemical and genetic analysis of the largest Sir protein, Sir4. The N-terminal half of Sir4 is dispensable for SIR-mediated repression of HM loci in vivo, except in strains that lack Yku70 or have weak silencer elements. For HM silencing in these cells, the C-terminal domain (Sir4C, residues 747-1,358) must be complemented with an N-terminal domain (Sir4N; residues 1-270), expressed either independently or as a fusion with Sir4C. Nonetheless, recombinant Sir4C can form a complex with Sir2 and Sir3 in vitro, is catalytically active, and has sedimentation properties similar to a full-length Sir4-containing SIR complex. Sir4C-containing SIR complexes bind nucleosomal arrays and protect linker DNA from nucleolytic digestion, but less effectively than wild-type SIR complexes. Consistently, full-length Sir4 is required for the complete repression of subtelomeric genes. Supporting the notion that the Sir4 N-terminus is a regulatory domain, we find it extensively phosphorylated on cyclin-dependent kinase consensus sites, some being hyperphosphorylated during mitosis. Mutation of two major phosphoacceptor sites (S63 and S84) derepresses natural subtelomeric genes when combined with a serendipitous mutation (P2A), which alone can enhance the stability of either the repressed or active state. The triple mutation confers resistance to rapamycin-induced stress and a loss of subtelomeric repression. We conclude that the Sir4 N-terminus plays two roles in SIR-mediated silencing: it contributes to epigenetic repression by stabilizing the SIR-mediated protection of linker DNA; and, as a target of phosphorylation, it can destabilize silencing in a regulated manner.
Project description:Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast depends on the Clr4 histone methyltransferase, which targets H3K9. We show that the histone deacetylase Sir2 is required for Clr4 activity at telomeres, but acts redundantly with Clr3 histone deacetylase to maintain centromeric heterochromatin. However, Sir2 is critical for Clr4 function during de novo centromeric heterochromatin assembly. We identified new targets of Sir2 and tested if their deacetylation is necessary for Clr4-mediated heterochromatin establishment. Sir2 preferentially deacetylates H4K16Ac and H3K4Ac, but mutation of these residues to mimic acetylation did not prevent Clr4-mediated heterochromatin establishment. Sir2 also deacetylates H3K9Ac and H3K14Ac. Strains bearing H3K9 or H3K14 mutations exhibit heterochromatin defects. H3K9 mutation blocks Clr4 function, but why H3K14 mutation impacts heterochromatin was not known. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of Clr4 to centromeres is blocked by mutation of H3K14. We suggest that Sir2 deacetylates H3K14 to target Clr4 to centromeres. Further, we demonstrate that Sir2 is critical for de novo accumulation of H3K9me2 in RNAi-deficient cells. These analyses place Sir2 and H3K14 deacetylation upstream of Clr4 recruitment during heterochromatin assembly.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Silent Information Regulator (SIR) proteins Sir2/3/4 form a complex suppressing transcription of genes at subtelomeric regions and the homothallic mating type (HM) loci. Here we identify a non-canonical BRCA1 C-terminal domain (H-BRCT) in Sir4 which is responsible for tethering telomeres to the nuclear periphery. We show that Sir4 H-BRCT and the closely related Dbf4 H-BRCT serve as selective phospho-epitope recognition domains that bind to a variety of phosphorylated target peptides. We present detailed structural information about the binding mode of established Sir4 interactors (Esc1, Ty5, Ubp10) and identify several novel interactors of Sir4 H-BRCT, including the E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1. Based on these findings, we propose a phospho-peptide consensus motif for interaction with Sir4 H-BRCT and Dbf4 H-BRCT. Ablation of the Sir4 H-BRCT phospho-peptide interaction disrupts SIR-mediated repression and perinuclear localization. In conclusion, the Sir4 H-BRCT domain serves as a hub for recruitment of phosphorylated target proteins to heterochromatin to properly regulate silencing and nuclear order.
Project description:Dot1 (Disruptor of telomeric silencing-1) is a histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase that contributes to the establishment of heterochromatin boundary and has been linked to transcription elongation. We found that histone H4 N-terminal domain, unlike other histone tails, interacts with Dot1 and is essential for H3 K79 methylation. Furthermore, we show that the heterochromatin protein Sir3 inhibits Dot1-mediated methylation and that this inhibition is dependent on lysine 16 of H4. Sir3 and Dot1 bind the same short basic patch of histone H4 tail, and Sir3 also associates with the residues surrounding H3 K79 in a methylation-sensitive manner. Thus, Sir3 and Dot1 compete for the same molecular target on chromatin. ChIP analyses support a model in which acetylation of H4 lysine 16 displaces Sir3, allowing Dot1 to bind and methylate H3 lysine 79, which in turn further blocks Sir3 binding/spreading. This draws a detailed picture of the succession of molecular events occurring during the establishment of telomeric heterochromatin boundaries.
Project description:Heterochromatin formation in yeast involves deacetylation of histones, but the precise relationship between acetylation and the association of proteins such as Sir3, Sir4, and the histone deacetylase Sir2 with chromatin is still unclear. Here we show that Sir3 protein spreads to subtelomeric DNA in cells lacking the transcription-related histone acetyltransferases GCN5 and ELP3. Spreading correlates with hypoacetylation of lysines in the histone H3 tail and results in deacetylation of lysine 16 in histone H4. De-repression of genes situated very close to the ends of the chromosomes in gcn5 elp3 suggests that Sir3 spreads into subtelomeric DNA from the tip of the telomere. Interestingly, growth defects caused by gcn5 elp3 mutation can be suppressed by SIR deletion, suggesting that Sir proteins become detrimental for growth when chromatin is severely hypoacetylated.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, silent chromatin inhibits the expression of genes at the HML, HMR, and telomeric loci. When silent chromatin forms de novo, the rate of its establishment is influenced by different chromatin states. In particular, loss of the enzyme Dot1, an H3 K79 methyltransferase, leads to rapid silencing establishment. We tested whether silencing establishment was antagonized by H3 K79 methylation or by the Dot1 protein itself competing with Sir3 for binding sites on nucleosomes. To do so, we monitored fluorescence activity in cells containing a GFP gene within the HML locus during silencing establishment in a series of dot1 and histone mutant backgrounds. Silencing establishment rate was correlated with Dot1's enzymatic function rather than with the Dot1 protein itself. In addition, histone mutants that mimicked the conformation of unmethylated H3 K79 increased the rate of silencing establishment, indicating that the H3 K79 residue affected silencing independently of Dot1 abundance. Using fluorophore-based reporters, we confirmed that mother and daughter cells often silence in concert, but in instances where asymmetric silencing occurs, daughter cells established silencing earlier than their mothers. This noninvasive technique enabled us to demonstrate an asymmetry in silencing establishment of a key regulatory locus controlling cell fate.