Normal values for pancreatic stone protein in different age groups.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic stone protein (PSP) has been identified as a promising sepsis marker in adults, children and neonates. However, data on population-based reference values are lacking. This study aimed to establish age-specific reference values for PSP.PSP was determined using a specific ELISA. PSP serum concentrations were determined in 372 healthy subjects including 217 neonates, 94 infants and children up to 16 years, and 61 adults. The adjacent categories method was used to determine which age categories had significantly different PSP concentrations.PSP circulating levels were not gender-dependent and ranged from 1.0 to 99.4 ng/ml with a median of 9.2 ng/ml. PSP increased significantly between the age categories, from a median of 2.6 ng/ml in very preterm newborns, to 6.3 ng/ml in term newborns, to 16.1 ng/ml in older children (p < 0.001). PSP levels were higher on postnatal day three compared to levels measured immediately post delivery (p < 0.001). Paired umbilical artery and umbilical vein samples were strongly correlated (p < 0.001). Simultaneously obtained capillary heel-prick versus venous samples showed a good level of agreement for PSP (Rho 0.89, bias 19 %).This study provides age-specific normal values that may be used to define cut-offs for future trials on PSP. We demonstrate an age-dependent increase of PSP from birth to childhood.
Project description:Biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein [CRP] and procalcitonin [PCT], are insufficiently sensitive or specific to stratify patients with sepsis. We investigate the prognostic value of pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) concentration in patients with severe infections.PSP/reg, CRP, PCT, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 1 beta (IL1-?), IL-6 and IL-8 were prospectively measured in cohort of patients ? 18 years of age with severe sepsis or septic shock within 24 hours of admission in a medico-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a community and referral university hospital, and the ability to predict in-hospital mortality was determined.We evaluated 107 patients, 33 with severe sepsis and 74 with septic shock, with in-hospital mortality rates of 6% (2/33) and 25% (17/74), respectively. Plasma concentrations of PSP/reg (343.5 vs. 73.5 ng/ml, P < 0.001), PCT (39.3 vs. 12.0 ng/ml, P < 0.001), IL-8 (682 vs. 184 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and IL-6 (1955 vs. 544 pg/ml, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with septic shock than with severe sepsis. Of note, median PSP/reg was 13.0 ng/ml (IQR: 4.8) in 20 severely burned patients without infection. The area under the ROC curve for PSP/reg (0.65 [95% CI: 0.51 to 0.80]) was higher than for CRP (0.44 [0.29 to 0.60]), PCT 0.46 [0.29 to 0.61]), IL-8 (0.61 [0.43 to 0.77]) or IL-6 (0.59 [0.44 to 0.75]) in predicting in-hospital mortality. In patients with septic shock, PSP/reg was the only biomarker associated with in-hospital mortality (P = 0.049). Risk of mortality increased continuously for each ascending quartile of PSP/reg.Measurement of PSP/reg concentration within 24 hours of ICU admission may predict in-hospital mortality in patients with septic shock, identifying patients who may benefit most from tailored ICU management.
Project description:Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipocytes and other tissues, including the placenta, and it regulates food intake and energy expenditure, reproductive and immune functions. To investigate the role of leptin in neonatal immunity, we measured serum leptin and cytokine (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12) levels in the cord blood (cb) of 510 healthy neonates, 14 small for gestational age (SGA), 312 appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) and 184 large for gestational age (LGA). Median serum leptin concentration in the whole sample was 11 ng/ml. In 11.2% neonates (1 SGA, 32 AGA, 24 LGA), leptin levels were >90th percentile (median 39 ng/ml). In 33.3% of those (3.72% of total sample) with the highest leptin levels (median 46 ng/ml), significantly elevated levels of serum IFN-? were also found (mean 27.11 pg/ml, range 17.5-38.5 pg/ml). In neonates with leptin levels ?50th percentile (median 12 ng/ml) or <10th percentile (median 1 ng/ml), serum IFN-? levels were negligible. All other cytokines measured, were < the assays' detection limits. To investigate whether leptin can independently influence cytokine gene expression by cb T-cells and monocytes (Mc), we cultured cb T-cells or Mc, isolated from randomly selected AGA neonates or adult peripheral blood, with leptin. This resulted in upregulation of IL-2, IFN-? and IL-4 gene expression in cb and adult T-cells and IL-10 expression mainly in cb-Mc. Significantly higher expression of IFN-? occurred in female cb-T-cells cultured with leptin, compared with male cb-T-cells. In conclusion, the concurrent presence of high concentrations in both leptin and IFN-? in cb of healthy infants, and leptin's ability to directly upregulate cytokine gene expression in cb T and Mc cells, indicate that abnormally high leptin levels can independently influence the immune system of healthy newborns, and may mediate gender differences in the development of a Th1 polarized immune response.
Project description:A number of biomarkers have been studied for the diagnosis of sepsis in paediatrics, but no gold standard has been identified. Procalcitonin (PCT) was demonstrated to be an accurate biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis in adults and showed to be promising in paediatrics. Our study reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as an early biomarker of sepsis in neonates and children with suspected sepsis.A comprehensive literature search was carried out in Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, for studies assessing PCT accuracy in the diagnosis of sepsis in children and neonates with suspected sepsis. Studies in which the presence of infection had been confirmed microbiologically or classified as "probable" by chart review were included. Studies comparing patients to healthy subjects were excluded. We analysed data on neonates and children separately. Our primary outcome was the diagnostic accuracy of PCT at the cut-off of 2-2.5 ng/ml, while as secondary outcomes we analysed PCT cut-offs <2 ng/ml and >2.5 ng/ml. Pooled sensitivities and specificities were calculated by a bivariate meta-analysis and heterogeneity was graphically evaluated.We included 17 studies, with a total of 1408 patients (1086 neonates and 322 children). Studies on neonates with early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS) were grouped together. In the neonatal group, we calculated a sensitivity of 0.85, confidence interval (CI) (0.76; 0.90) and specificity of 0.54, CI (0.38; 0.70) at the PCT cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml. In the paediatric group it was not possible to undertake a pooled analysis at the PCT cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml, due to the paucity of the studies.PCT shows a moderate accuracy for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates with suspected sepsis at the cut-off of 2.0-2.5 ng/ml. More studies with high methodological quality are warranted, particularly in neonates, studies considering EOS and LOS separately are needed to improve specificity.PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42016033809 . Registered 30 Jan 2016.
Project description:The prevention of perinatal brain damage following preterm birth remains a public health priority. Melatonin has been shown to be a promising neuroprotectant in neonatal preclinical models of brain damage, but few studies have investigated melatonin secretion in newborns. We hypothesized that melatonin circulating levels would be lower in preterm compared to term infants. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study to assess melatonin, and 6-sulfatoxy-melatonin (aMT6s) concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay. Among 209 neonates recruited, 110 were born before 34 gestational weeks (GW) and 99 born after 34 GW. Plasma melatonin concentrations, measured at birth and on Day 3 were below detectable levels (≤7 pg/mL) in 78% and 81%, respectively, of infants born before 34 GW compared to 57% and 34%, respectively, of infants born after 34 GW. The distribution of plasma melatonin concentrations was found to be correlated with gestational age at both time-points (p < 0.001). Median urine aMT6s concentrations were significantly lower in infants born before 34 GW, both on Day 1 (230 ng/L vs. 533 ng/L, p < 0.0001) and on Day 3 (197 ng/L vs. 359 ng/L, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, melatonin secretion appears very low in preterm infants, providing the rationale for testing supplemental melatonin as a neuroprotectant in clinical trials.
Project description:Results:There were no differences found in the HE4 levels determined for the mothers' blood samples and umbilical cord blood samples in all investigated groups. In comparison with healthy children, the elevated HE4 levels were observed in neonates with TTN. Significant positive correlation between HE4 and CRP as well as PCT levels was observed in all investigated neonates. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated the cut-off value for the serum HE4 in the researched neonates at the level of 318.5?pmol/L, yielding the sensitivity of 73.9% and specificity of 66.7% for the early diagnosis of TTN. Conclusions:Serum HE4 could be considered as a candidate biomarker for the early diagnosis of pulmonary dysfunction in the newborns.
Project description:Introduction:In preterm newborn, problems with the interpretation of 17-OHP may occur. Objective:Evaluate 17-OHP values in healthy preterm newborns until they reach the corrected gestational age. Methods:Longitudinal study of 36 preterm infants with 17-OHP evaluation using ELISA from heel blood from 3 to 5 days and thereafter every 2 weeks until the corrected gestational age. Values adjusting multiple variables such as gestational age, birth weight and sex, among others were compared. The results were analyzed against 82 healthy full-term infants. Results:In the first week of life, early term infants born within less than 34 months of gestational age show 17-OHP values that are much higher than the full term neonates. After a week, the values decrease and stabilize, but are still higher than those of full term neonates and remain so even at the corrected gestational age. (average difference of 63.0%, CI 95%: 11.8%-115.5%). 33.6% (41 samples) of a total of 122 samples taken from preterm infants were higher than 30 ng/mL. Conclusions:17-OHP values in early term infants are higher than those in full term neonates and can be related to postnatal adaptive processes. It is suggested that a second screening at the 37th week of corrected age be performed.
Project description:Obese children are at increased risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both of these conditions are associated with an increased risk for end-organ morbidities. Both OSA and obesity (OB) have been associated with increased risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). This study aimed to assess whether OSA and OB lead to increased plasma levels of 2 AD markers amyloid ? protein 42 (A?42) and pre-senilin 1 (PS1).Fasting morning plasma samples from otherwise healthy children with a diagnosis of OB, OSA, or both (OSA+OB), and controls, and in a subset of children with OSA after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) were assayed for A?42 and PS1 levels using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.286 children (mean age of 7.2 ± 2.7 y) were evaluated. Compared to control subjects, OB children had similar A?42 (108.3 ± 31.7 pg/mL versus 83.6 ± 14.6 pg/mL) and PS1 levels (0.89 ± 0.44 ng/mL versus 0.80 ± 0.29 pg/mL). However, OSA children (A?42: 186.2 ± 66.7 pg/mL; P < 0.001; PS1: 3.42 ± 1.46 ng/mL; P < 0.001), and particularly OSA+OB children had significant elevations in both A?42 (349.4 ± 112.9 pg/mL; P < 0.001) and PS1 (PS1: 4.54 ± 1.16 ng/mL; P < 0.001) circulating concentrations. In a subset of 24 children, T&A resulted in significant reductions of A?42 (352.0 ± 145.2 versus 151.9 ± 81.4 pg/mL; P < 0.0001) and PS1 (4.82 ± 1.09 versus 2.02 ± 1.18 ng/mL; P < 0.0001).Thus, OSA, and particularly OSA+OB, are associated with increased plasma levels of AD biomarkers, which decline upon treatment of OSA in a representative, yet not all- encompassing subset of patients, suggesting that OSA may accelerate AD-related processes even in early childhood. However, the cognitive and overall health-related implications of these findings remain to be defined.
Project description:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7?ng/ml for MIF and 16.8?ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6?ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0?ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6?ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R?=?0.91, P?<?0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R?=?0.70, P?<?0.0001 for MIF and R?=?0.65, P?<?0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period.
Project description:The current investigation aims to provide new insights into fetal exposure to tacrolimus in utero by evaluating maternal and umbilical cord blood (venous and arterial), plasma and unbound concentrations at delivery. This study also presents a case report of tacrolimus excretion via breast milk.Maternal and umbilical cord (venous and arterial) samples were obtained at delivery from eight solid organ allograft recipients to measure tacrolimus and metabolite bound and unbound concentrations in blood and plasma. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in breast milk were assessed in one subject.Mean (±SD) tacrolimus concentrations at the time of delivery in umbilical cord venous blood (6.6 ± 1.8 ng ml(-1)) were 71 ± 18% (range 45-99%) of maternal concentrations (9.0 ± 3.4 ng ml(-1)). The mean umbilical cord venous plasma (0.09 ± 0.04 ng ml(-1)) and unbound drug concentrations (0.003 ± 0.001 ng ml(-1)) were approximately one fifth of the respective maternal concentrations. Arterial umbilical cord blood concentrations of tacrolimus were 100 ± 12% of umbilical venous concentrations. In addition, infant exposure to tacrolimus through the breast milk was less than 0.3% of the mother's weight-adjusted dose.Differences between maternal and umbilical cord tacrolimus concentrations may be explained in part by placental P-gp function, greater red blood cell partitioning and higher haematocrit levels in venous cord blood. The neonatal drug exposure to tacrolimus via breast milk is very low and likely does not represent a health risk to the breastfeeding infant.
Project description:The etiology of conotruncal heart defects (CHD) remains unknown; however relation between homocysteine, folate levels, and congenital heart disease was found. With this perspective in mind, the aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of homosyteine metabolism pathway in mothers and their neonates with CHD.Forty-three pairs of mothers and their neonates with CHD and forty pairs of mothers and neonates with nonconotruncal heart defects (non-CHD) were enrolled. The control group (CG) consisted of fifty-nine pairs of mothers and their healthy neonates. For estimating the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), serum folates, and cobalamin levels, mothers' venous blood samples and umbilical cord blood were taken in all groups.We observed higher tHcy levels in newborns with CHD in comparison to their mothers and to neonates with non-CHD. Cobalamin levels were significantly lower in neonates with CHD compared to other children. Folates and cobalamin levels were lower in CHD mothers compared to their children.Elevated homocysteine levels in neonates with CHD and folate metabolism disturbances in their mothers were noticed. The observed differences in homocysteine and cobalamin levels between neonates with CHD suggest the influence of various agents disturbing homocysteine metabolic pathways.