Multifunctional and Spatially Controlled Bioconjugation to Melt Coextruded Nanofibers.
ABSTRACT: Polymeric fibers have drawn recent interest for uses in biomedical technologies that span drug delivery, regenerative medicine, and wound-healing patches, amongst others. We have recently reported a new class of fibrous biomaterials fabricated using coextrusion and a photochemical modification procedure to introduce functional groups onto the fibers. In this report, we extend our methodology to control surface modification density, describe methods to synthesize multifunctional fibers, and provide methods to spatially control functional group modification. Several different functional fibers are reported for bioconjugation, including propargyl, alkene, alkoxyamine, and ketone modified fibers. The modification scheme allows for control over surface density and provides a handle for downstream functionalization with appropriate bioconjugation chemistries. Through the use of multiple orthogonal chemistries, fiber chemistry could be differentially controlled to append multiple modifications. Spatial control on the fiber surface was also realized, leading to reverse gradients of small molecule dyes. One application is demonstrated for pH-responsive drug delivery of an anti-cancer therapeutics. Finally, the introduction of orthogonal chemical modifications onto these fibers allowed for modification with multiple cell-responsive peptides providing a substrate for osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Polymeric fibers are of increasing interest to regenerative medicine, as materials made from these fibers are porous, allowing for cell infiltration, influx of nutrients, and efflux of waste products. Recently, multilayered coextrusion has emerged as a scalable and rapid fabrication method to yield microscale to submicron fibers. In this report, we describe the multilayered coextrusion of aligned poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers, followed by a simple photochemical patterning to create surface-immobilized gradients onto the polymer fibers. PCL fibers were photochemically decorated with a linear gradient of propargyl benzophenone using a gradient photomask to control light source intensity. The pendant alkynes were then able to undergo the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction with an azide-modified IKVAV peptide to further functionalize the surface. Gradient-modified IKVAV fibers were evaluated for neural cell adhesion and neural differentiation, using PC-12 cells cultured onto the fibers. The aligned gradient fibers provided directional cues for neurite outgrowth and alignment of neural cells, as observed by cellular elongation, neurite differentiation, and orientation. The work presented herein describes a scalable fiber system combined with simple chemical patterning to generate aligned fibers with controlled surface gradients as cell-seeding scaffolds.
Project description:A photochemical modification of melt-extruded polymeric nanofibers is described. A bioorthogonal functional group is used to decorate fibers made exclusively from commodity polymers, covalently attach fluorophores and peptides, and direct cell growth. Our process begins by using a layered coextrusion method, where poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers are incorporated within a macroscopic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tape through a series of die multipliers within the extrusion line. The PEO layer is then removed with a water wash to yield rectangular PCL nanofibers with controlled cross-sectional dimensions. The fibers can be subsequently modified using photochemistry to yield a "clickable" handle for performing the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction on their surface. We have attached fluorophores, which exhibit dense surface coverage when using ligand-accelerated CuAAC reaction conditions. In addition, an RGD peptide motif was coupled to the surface of the fibers. Subsequent cell-based studies have shown that the RGD peptide is biologically accessible at the surface, leading to increased cellular adhesion and spreading versus PCL control surfaces. This functionalized coextruded fiber has the advantages of modularity and scalability, opening a potentially new avenue for biomaterials fabrication.
Project description:The design and application of biomimetic hydrogels have become an important and integral part of modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many of these hydrogels are prepared from synthetic macromers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG) as they provide high degrees of tunability for matrix crosslinking, degradation, and modification. For a hydrogel to be considered biomimetic, it has to recapitulate key features that are found in the native extracellular matrix, such as the appropriate matrix mechanics and permeability, the ability to sequester and deliver drugs, proteins, and or nucleic acids, as well as the ability to provide receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions and protease-mediated matrix cleavage. A variety of chemistries have been employed to impart these biomimetic features into hydrogel crosslinking. These chemistries, such as radical-mediated polymerizations, enzyme-mediated crosslinking, bio-orthogonal click reactions, and supramolecular assembly, may be different in their crosslinking mechanisms but are required to be efficient for gel crosslinking and ligand bioconjugation under aqueous reaction conditions. The prepared biomimetic hydrogels should display a diverse array of functionalities and should also be cytocompatible for in vitro cell culture and/or in situ cell encapsulation. The focus of this article is to review recent progress in the crosslinking chemistries of biomimetic hydrogels with a special emphasis on hydrogels crosslinked from poly(ethylene glycol)-based macromers.
Project description:Nanoscale surface morphology of plant fibers has important implications for the interfacial bonding in fiber-polymer composites. In this study, we investigated and quantified the effect of plasma-surface modification on ramie plant fibers as a potential tool for simple and efficient surface modification. The extensive investigation of the effects of plasma treatment of the fiber surface nano-morphology and its effect on the fiber-polymer interface was performed by Low-Voltages Scanning Electron Microscopy (LV-SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, fiber-resin angle measurements and mechanical (tensile) testing. The LV-SEM imaging of uncoated plasma treated fibers reveals nanostructures such as microfibrils and elementary fibrils and their importance for fiber mechanical properties, fiber wettability, and fiber-polymer matrix interlocking which all peak at short plasma treatment times. Thus, such treatment can be an effective in modifying the fiber surface characteristics and fiber-polymer matrix interlocking favorably for composite applications.
Project description:We demonstrate that nanoparticles formed from the rod-shaped plant virus Potato virus X (PVX) can serve as a novel platform for biomedical applications. Bioconjugation protocols including amine modification and "click" chemistry allowed the efficient functionalization of PVX with biotins, dyes, and PEGs. Fluorescent-labeled and PEGylated PVX particles revealed that different fluorescent labels have a profound effect on PVX-cell interactions. Applying bioconjugation chemistries to PVX opens the door for chemical functionalization with targeting and therapeutic molecules.
Project description:Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers. Cells were classified based on the local fiber geometry and cell migration dynamics observed by light microscopy. Cells were found in three distinct geometries: adhering two a single fiber, adhering to two parallel fibers, and adhering to a network of orthogonal fibers. Cells adhering to a single fiber or two parallel fibers can only move in one dimension along the fiber axis, whereas cells on a network of orthogonal fibers can move in two dimensions. We found that cells move faster and more persistently in 1D geometries than in 2D, with cell migration being faster on parallel fibers than on single fibers. To explain these behaviors mechanistically, we simulated cell migration in the three different geometries using a motor-clutch based model for cell traction forces. Using nearly identical parameter sets for each of the three cases, we found that the simulated cells naturally replicated the reduced migration in 2D relative to 1D geometries. In addition, the modestly faster 1D migration on parallel fibers relative to single fibers was captured using a correspondingly modest increase in the number of clutches to reflect increased surface area of adhesion on parallel fibers. Overall, the integrated modeling and experimental analysis shows that cell migration in response to varying fibrous geometries can be explained by a simple mechanical readout of geometry via a motor-clutch mechanism.
Project description:We have evaluated five bioconjugation chemistries for immobilizing DNA onto silicon substrates for microfluidic biosensing applications. Conjugation by organosilanes is compared with linkage by carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activation of silanol groups and utilization of dendrimers. Chemistries were compared in terms of immobilization and hybridization density, stability under microfluidic flow-induced shear stress, and stability after extended storage in aqueous solutions. Conjugation by dendrimer tether provided the greatest hybridization efficiency; however, conjugation by aminosilane treated with glutaraldehyde yielded the greatest immobilization and hybridization densities, as well as enhanced stability to both shear stress and extended storage in an aqueous environment. Direct linkage by CDI activation provided sufficient immobilization and hybridization density and represents a novel DNA bioconjugation strategy. Although these chemistries were evaluated for use in microfluidic biosensors, the results provide meaningful insight to a number of nanobiotechnology applications for which microfluidic devices require surface biofunctionalization, for example vascular prostheses and implanted devices.
Project description:The orthogonal design method was used to determine the optimum conditions for modifying poplar fibers through a high temperature and pressurized steam treatment for the subsequent preparation of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses were performed to reveal the effect of the modification parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, and they yielded consistent results. The main findings indicated that the modification temperature most strongly affected the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, followed by the steam pressure. A temperature of 170 °C, a steam pressure of 0.8 MPa, and a processing time of 20 min were determined as the optimum parameters for fiber modification. Compared to the composites prepared from untreated fibers, the tensile, flexural, and impact strength of the composites prepared from modified fibers increased by 20.17%, 18.5%, and 19.3%, respectively. The effect on the properties of the composites was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. When the temperature, steam pressure, and processing time reached the highest values, the composites exhibited the best mechanical properties, which were also well in agreement with the results of the extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses. Moreover, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the fibers and the storage modulus of the prepared composites improved; however, the hollocellulose content and the pH of the wood fibers decreased.
Project description:Site-specific incorporation of multiple distinct noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into a protein is an emerging technology with tremendous potential. It relies on mutually orthogonal engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs that suppress different nonsense/frameshift codons. So far, up to two distinct ncAAs have been incorporated into proteins expressed in E. coli, using archaea-derived tyrosyl and pyrrolysyl pairs. Here we report that the E. coli derived tryptophanyl pair can be combined with the archaeal tyrosyl or the pyrrolysyl pair in ATMW1 E. coli to incorporate two different ncAAs into one protein with high fidelity and efficiency. By combining all three orthogonal pairs, we further demonstrate simultaneous site-specific incorporation of three different ncAAs into one protein. To use this technology for chemoselectively labeling proteins with multiple distinct entities at predefined sites, we also sought to identify different bioconjugation handles that can be coincorporated into proteins as ncAA-side chains and subsequently functionalized through mutually compatible labeling chemistries. To this end, we show that the recently developed chemoselective rapid azo-coupling reaction (CRACR) directed to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) is compatible with strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) targeted to p-azidophenylalanine (pAzF) and strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) targeted to cyclopropene-lysine (CpK) for rapid, catalyst-free protein labeling at multiple sites. Combining these mutually orthogonal nonsense suppression systems and the mutually compatible bioconjugation handles they incorporate, we demonstrate site-specific labeling of recombinantly expressed proteins at up to three distinct sites.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a class of targeted therapeutics that utilize the specificity of antibodies to selectively deliver highly potent cytotoxins to target cells. Although recent years have witnessed significant interest in ADCs, problems remain with the standard linkage chemistries used for cytotoxin-antibody bioconjugation. These typically (1) generate unstable constructs, which may lead to premature cytotoxin release, (2) often give a wide variance in drug-antibody ratios (DAR) and (3) have poor control of attachment location on the antibody, resulting in a variable pharmacokinetic profile. Herein, we report a novel divinylpyrimidine (DVP) linker platform for selective bioconjugation <i>via</i> covalent re-bridging of reduced disulfide bonds on native antibodies. Model studies using the non-engineered trastuzumab antibody validate the utility of this linker platform for the generic generation of highly plasma-stable and functional antibody constructs that incorporate variable biologically relevant payloads (including cytotoxins) in an efficient and site-selective manner with precise control over DAR. DVP linkers were also used to efficiently re-bridge both monomeric and dimeric protein systems, demonstrating their potential utility for general protein modification, protein stabilisation or the development of other protein-conjugate therapeutics.