CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.
ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly.
Project description:WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A major production constraint on the important ornamental species chrysanthemum is black spot which is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima. The molecular basis of host resistance to A. tenuissima has not been studied as yet in any detail. Here, high throughput sequencing was taken to characterize the transcriptomic response of the chrysanthemum leaf to A. tenuissima inoculation. RESULTS: The transcriptomic data was acquired using RNA-Seq technology, based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Four different libraries derived from two sets of leaves harvested from either inoculated or mock-inoculated plants were characterized. Over seven million clean reads were generated from each library, each corresponding to a coverage of >350,000 nt. About 70% of the reads could be mapped to a set of chrysanthemum unigenes. Read frequency was used as a measure of transcript abundance and therefore as an identifier of differential transcription in the four libraries. The differentially transcribed genes identified were involved in photosynthesis, pathogen recognition, reactive oxygen species generation, cell wall modification and phytohormone signalling; in addition, a number of varied transcription factors were identified. A selection of 23 of the genes was transcription-profiled using quantitative RT-PCR to validate the RNA-Seq output. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial body of chrysanthemum transcriptomic sequence was generated, which led to a number of insights into the molecular basis of the host response to A. tenuissima infection. Although most of the differentially transcribed genes were up-regulated by the presence of the pathogen, those involved in photosynthesis were down-regulated.
Project description:In this study, the disease resistance gene PlWRKY65 was isolated from the leaves of Paeonia lactiflora and analyzed by bioinformatics methods, and the localization of the encoded protein was explored. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was also used to explore the response of this gene to Alternaria tenuissima. The results showed that the gene sequence contained multiple cis-acting elements involved in the response to hormone signaling molecules belonging to the IIe subgroup of the WRKY family, and the encoded proteins were located in the nucleus. The PlWRKY65 gene has a positive regulatory effect on A. tenuissima infection. After silencing the PlWRKY65 gene via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), it was found that the gene-silenced plants were more sensitive to A. tenuissima infection than the wild plants, exhibiting more severe infection symptoms and different degrees of changes in the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In addition, we showed that the endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) content of P. lactiflora was increased in response to A. tenuissima infection, whereas the salicylic acid (SA) content decreased. After PlWRKY65 gene silencing, the levels of the two hormones changed accordingly, indicating that PlWRKY65, acting as a disease resistance-related transcriptional activator, exerts a regulatory effect on JA and SA signals. This study lays the foundation for functional research on WRKY genes in P. lactiflora and for the discovery of candidate disease resistance genes.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) mediates resistance to abiotic stress and controls developmental processes in plants. The group-A PP2Cs, of which ABI1 is the prototypical member, are protein phosphatases that play critical roles as negative regulators very early in ABA signal transduction. Because redundancy is thought to limit the genetic dissection of early ABA signalling, to identify redundant and early ABA signalling proteins, we pursued a proteomics approach. We generated YFP-tagged ABI1 Arabidopsis expression lines and identified in vivo ABI1-interacting proteins by mass-spectrometric analyses of ABI1 complexes. Known ABA signalling components were isolated including SnRK2 protein kinases. We confirm previous studies in yeast and now show that ABI1 interacts with the ABA-signalling kinases OST1, SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3 in plants. Interestingly, the most robust in planta ABI1-interacting proteins in all LC-MS/MS experiments were nine of the 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR proteins, which were recently reported as ABA-binding signal transduction proteins, providing evidence for in vivo PYR/PYL/RCAR interactions with ABI1 in Arabidopsis. ABI1-PYR1 interaction was stimulated within 5 min of ABA treatment in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, in contrast, PYR1 and SnRK2.3 co-immunoprecipitated equally well in the presence and absence of ABA. To investigate the biological relevance of the PYR/PYLs, we analysed pyr1/pyl1/pyl2/pyl4 quadruple mutant plants and found strong insensitivities in ABA-induced stomatal closure and ABA-inhibition of stomatal opening. These findings demonstrate that ABI1 can interact with several PYR/PYL/RCAR family members in Arabidopsis, that PYR1-ABI1 interaction is rapidly stimulated by ABA in Arabidopsis and indicate new SnRK2 kinase-PYR/PYL/RCAR interactions in an emerging model for PYR/PYL/RCAR-mediated ABA signalling.
Project description:Plants regulate growth and respond to environmental stress through abscisic acid (ABA) regulated pathways, and as such these pathways are of primary interest for biological and agricultural research. The ABA response is first perceived by the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of START protein receptors. These ABA activated receptors disrupt phosphatase inhibition of Snf1-related kinases (SnRKs), enabling kinase signaling. Here, insights into the structural mechanism of proteins in the ABA signaling pathway (the ABA receptor PYL2, HAB1 phosphatase, and two kinases, SnRK2.3 and 2.6) are discerned through hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry. HDX on the phosphatase in the presence of binding partners provides evidence for receptor-specific conformations involving the Trp385 "lock" that is necessary for signaling. Furthermore, kinase activity is linked to a more stable "closed" conformation. These solution-based studies complement the static crystal structures and provide a more detailed understanding of the ABA signaling pathway.
Project description:Under osmotic stress conditions such as drought and high salinity, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in stress-responsive gene expression mainly through three bZIP transcription factors, AREB1/ABF2, AREB2/ABF4 and ABF3, which are activated by SNF1-related kinase 2s (SnRK2s) such as SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3 (SRK2D/E/I). However, since the three AREB/ABFs are crucial, but not exclusive, for the SnRK2-mediated gene expression, transcriptional pathways governed by SRK2D/E/I are not fully understood. Here, we show that a bZIP transcription factor, ABF1, is a functional homolog of AREB1, AREB2 and ABF3 in ABA-dependent gene expression in Arabidopsis. Despite lower expression levels of ABF1 than those of the three AREB/ABFs, the areb1 areb2 abf3 abf1 mutant plants displayed increased sensitivity to drought and decreased sensitivity to ABA in primary root growth compared with the areb1 areb2 abf3 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that expression of downstream genes of SRK2D/E/I, which include many genes functioning in osmotic stress responses and tolerance such as transcription factors and LEA proteins, was mostly impaired in the quadruple mutant. Thus, these results indicate that the four AREB/ABFs are the predominant transcription factors downstream of SRK2D/E/I in ABA signalling in response to osmotic stress during vegetative growth.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth and development, as well as responses to various stresses, such as salt and drought. The wheat TaFBA1 gene, which encodes an F-box protein, was previously identified in our laboratory by homologous cloning. We previously found that TaFBA1 expression was induced by ABA and drought stress. In this study, wild-type (WT), TaFBA1 over-expressing (OEs), TaFBA1 homologous gene mutants, and TaFBA1 recovery (Rs) Arabidopsis plants were used. We found that the germination rate, the cotyledon greening rate, the root length, and the photosynthetic performance of TaFBA1 OE plants were better than those of WT under drought and ABA conditions, but mutant plants showed the opposite trend, and overexpression of TaFBA1 in mutants can recover their phenotype. In addition, TaFBA1 was found to be a negative regulator of ABA-induced stoma movement; mRNA transcription of certain ABA signaling-related genes was lower in TaFBA1 OE plants than in WT plants following ABA treatment. Further, we found that TaFBA1 can interact with RCAR1 (an ABA receptor) and ABI5. BiFC assay showed that TaFBA1 may interact with RCAR1 in the plasma membrane. In addition, accumulation of ROS and MDA in TaFBA1 OE plants was lower than that in the WT plants after ABA and drought treatments. Based on these results, we suggest that TaFBA1-regulated ABA insensitivity may be dependent on regulating ABA-mediated gene expression through interacting with RCAR1 and ABI5. Increased antioxidant competence and decreased ROS accumulation may be an important mechanism that underlies improved drought tolerance in TaFBA1 OE plants.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential part of the plant response to abiotic stressors such as drought. Upon the perception of ABA, pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) proteins interact with co-receptor protein phosphatase type 2Cs to permit activation Snf1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) kinases, which switch on ABA signaling by phosphorylating various target proteins. Thus, SnRK2 kinases are central regulators of ABA signaling. However, the mechanisms that regulate SnRK2 degradation remain elusive. Here, we show that SnRK2.3 is degradated by 26S proteasome system and ABA promotes its degradation. We found that SnRK2.3 interacts with AtPP2-B11 directly. AtPP2-B11 is an F-box protein that is part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that negatively regulates plant responses to ABA by specifically promoting the degradation of SnRK2.3. AtPP2-B11 was induced by ABA, and the knockdown of AtPP2-B11 expression markedly increased the ABA sensitivity of plants during seed germination and postgerminative development. Overexpression of AtPP2-B11 does not affect ABA sensitivity, but inhibits the ABA hypersensitive phenotypes of SnRK2.3 overexpression lines. These results reveal a novel mechanism through which AtPP2-B11 specifically degrades SnRK2.3 to attenuate ABA signaling and the abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To maintain sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) growth and yield, sucrose must be transported from the leaves to the roots. Sucrose transporters or carriers (SUTs or SUCs) transport sucrose and are involved in plant growth and response to abiotic stress. However, the mechanisms of SUTs in sweetpotato abiotic stress resistance remains to be determined. RESULTS:In the present study, we cloned a novel IbSUT4 gene; the protein encoded by this gene is localized in the tonoplast and plasma membrane. The plant growth was promoted in the IbSUT4 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines, with increased expression of AtFT, a regulator of flowering time in plants. Over-expression of IbSUT4 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in higher sucrose content in the roots and lower sucrose content in the leaves, as compared to the wild-type (WT) plants, leading to improved stress tolerance during seedling growth. Moreover, we systematically analyzed the mechanisms of IbSUT4 in response to abiotic stress. The results suggest that the ABRE-motif was localized in the IbSUT4 promoter region, and the expression of the ABA signaling pathway genes (i.e., ABF2, ABF4, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, and PYL8/RCAR3) were induced, and the expression of ABI1 was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS:Our dates provide evidence that IbSUT4 is not only involved in plant growth but also is an important positive regulator in plant stress tolerance through the ABF-dependent ABA signaling pathway.
Project description:The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants, such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress tolerance. In recent years, a minimal set of core components of a major ABA signaling pathway has been discovered. These components include a RCAR/PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, a group of PP2C phosphatases, and three SnRK2 kinases. However, how the interactions between the receptors and their targets are regulated by other proteins remains largely unknown. In a companion paper published in this issue, we showed that ROP11, a member of the plant-specific Rho-like small GTPase family, negatively regulates multiple ABA responses in Arabidopsis. The current work demonstrated that the constitutively active ROP11 (CA-ROP11) can modulate the RCAR1/PYL9-mediated ABA signaling pathway based on reconstitution assays in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. Furthermore, using luciferase complementation imaging, yeast two-hybrid assays, co-immunoprecipitation assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we demonstrated that CA-ROP11 directly interacts with ABI1, a signaling component downstream of RCAR1/PYL9. Finally, we provided biochemical evidence that CA-ROP11 protects ABI1 phosphatase activity from inhibition by RCAR1/PYL9 and thus negatively regulates ABA signaling in plant cells. A model of how ROP11 acts to negatively regulate ABA signaling is presented.