MicroRNA miR-16-1 regulates CCNE1 (cyclin E1) gene expression in human cervical cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are involved in diverse biological processes through regulation of gene expression. The microRNA profile has been shown to be altered in cervical cancer (CC). MiR-16-1 belongs to the miR-16 cluster and has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis including cell proliferation and regulation of apoptosis; however, its function and molecular mechanism in CC is not clear. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) is a positive regulator of the cell cycle that controls the transition of cells from G1 to S phase. In CC, CCNE1 expression is frequently upregulated, and is an indicator for poor outcome in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Thus, in the present brief communication, we determine whether the CCNE1 gene is regulated by miR-16-1 in CC cells. To identify the downstream cellular target genes for upstream miR-16-1, we silenced endogenous miR-16-1 expression in cell lines derived from CC (C-33 A HPV-, CaSki HPV16+, SiHa HPV16+, and HeLa HPV18+ cells), using siRNAs expressed in plasmids. Using a combined bioinformatic analysis and RT-qPCR, we determined that the CCNE1 gene is targeted by miR-16-1 in CC cells. SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-16-1 expression and CCNE1 mRNA level. Thus, miR-16-1 post-transcriptionally down-regulates CCNE1 gene expression. These results, suggest that miR-16-1 plays a vital role in modulating cell cycle processes in CC.
Project description:The infection with high-risk human papillomavirus is linked to cervical cancer, nevertheless, the role of miRNAs regulated by HPV oncogenes in cancer progression remain largely unknown. Here, we knocked down endogenous E6/E7 in HPV16-positive CaSki cell lines, screened differences in miRNA expression profile with control using miRNA array. 38 miRNAs were down-regulated and 6 miRNAs were up-regulated in the E6/E7 silenced CaSki cells (>2-fold changes with P <0.05). The levels of miR-27b, miR-20a, miR-24, miR-93, and miR-106b were verified by qPCR in E6/E7 silenced CaSki and SiHa cells. MiR-27b, up-regulated by E7, promoted CaSki and SiHa cell proliferation and invasion, inhibit paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Dual-luciferase experiment confirmed miR-27b down-regulated its target gene PLK2 through the "seed regions". The tumor suppressor PLK2 inhibited SiHa cell proliferation, reduced cell viability, and promoted paclitaxel/cisplatin -induced apoptosis. Furthermore, DGCR8 was found to mediate the up-regulation of miR-27b by HPV16 E7. Our study demonstrated that HPV16 E7 could increase DGCR8 to promote the generation of miR-27b, which accelerated cell proliferation and inhibited paclitaxel-induced cell apoptosis through down-regulating PLK2. These findings provide an insight into the interaction network of viral oncogene, miR-27b and PLK2, and support the potential strategies using antisense nucleic acid of miR-27b for therapy of cervical cancer in the future.
Project description:Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) represent the major cervical cancer histotypes. Both histotypes are caused by infection with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) and are associated with deregulated microRNA expression. Histotype-dependent expression has been observed for miR-9-5p, showing increased expression in SCC and low expression in AC. Here, we studied the regulation and functionality of miR-9-5p in cervical SCCs and ACs using cervical tissue samples and hrHPV-containing cell lines. Expression and methylation analysis of cervical tissues revealed that low levels of miR-9-5p in ACs are linked to methylation of its precursor genes, particularly miR-9-1. Stratification of tissue samples and hrHPV-containing cell lines suggested that miR-9-5p depends on both histotype and hrHPV type, with higher expression in SCCs and HPV16-positive cells. MiR-9-5p promoted cell viability and anchorage independence in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (SCC, HPV16) and CaSki (metastasized SCC, HPV16), while it played a tumor suppressive role in HeLa (AC, HPV18). TWIST1, a transcription factor involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was established as a novel miR-9-5p target. Our results show that miR-9-5p plays a dual role in cervical cancer in a histotype- and hrHPV type-dependent manner. MiR-9-5p mediated silencing of TWIST1 suggests two distinct mechanisms towards EMT in cervical cancer.
Project description:Epigenetic modulation is an important mechanism of miRNA dysregulation in cervical cancer. In this study, we firstly studied how this mechanism contributes to miR-375 downregulation in cervical cancer cells. Then, we further studied the association between miR-375 and MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. HPV-16 positive SiHa and CaSki cells were used as in vitro model. Our data showed that HPV-16 E6 positively modulated DNMT1 expression in both SiHa and CaSki cells. Knockdown of DNMT1 partly restored miR-375 levels in the cells. The following methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay and qRT-PCR analysis showed that methylation was common in the promoter region of miR-375 in both SiHa and CaSki cells and demethylation partly restored miR-375 levels in the cells. Therefore, we infer that miR-375 is downregulated partly due to promoter hypermethylation mediated by DNMT1 in HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cells. Our bioinformatics analysis showed that MALAT1 has three putative binding sites with miR-375 and the following dual luciferase assay confirmed two of them. QRT-PCR analysis showed that miR-375 overexpression significantly reduced MALAT1 expression, while MALAT1 overexpression reversely suppressed miR-375 levels. Therefore, we infer that there is a reciprocal regulation between miR-375 and MALAT1 in the cells. In SiHa cells, miR-375 overexpression or MALAT1 siRNA partly restored E-cadherin expression, significantly reduced N-cadherin and also reduced invasion capacity of SiHa cells. Therefore, these results suggest that miR-375 and MALAT1 form a functional axis modulating EMT in cervical cancer.
Project description:In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.
Project description:The viral oncoprotein E7 from the "high-risk" Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) strain is able, when expressed in human keratinocytes, to physically interact with the actin severing protein gelsolin (GSN). In a previous work it has been suggested that this protein-protein interaction can hinder GSN severing function, thus leading to actin network remodeling. In the present work we investigated the possible implications of this molecular interaction in cancer cell metastatic potential by analyzing two different human CC cell lines characterized by low or high expression levels of HPV16 DNA (SiHa and CaSki, respectively). In addition, a HPV-null CC cell line (C-33A), transfected in order to express the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein as well as two different deletion mutants, was also analyzed. We found that HPV16 E7 expression level was directly related with cervical cancer migration and invasion capabilities and that these HPV16 E7-related features were associated with Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) processes. These effects appeared as strictly attributable to the physical interaction of HPV16 E7 with GSN, since HPV16 E7 deletion mutants unable to bind to GSN were also unable to modify microfilament assembly dynamics and, therefore, cell movements and invasiveness. Altogether, these data profile the importance of the physical interaction between HPV16 E7 and GSN in the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype by CC cells, underscoring the role of HPV16 intracellular load as a risk factor in cancer.
Project description:Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common malignancies in women. Paclitaxel is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating CC. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited because of chemoresistance, the mechanism of which remains poorly understood. Here, we used microRNA (miRNA) arrays to compare miRNA expression levels in the CC cell lines, HeLa and CaSki, with their paclitaxel resistance counterparts, HeLa/PR and CaSki/PR. We demonstrate that miR-125a was one of most significantly downregulated miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant cells, which also acquired cisplatin resistance. And that the upregulation of miR-125a sensitized HeLa/PR and CaSki/PR cells to paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo and to cisplatin in vitro. Moreover, we determined that miR-125a increased paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by downregulating STAT3. MiR-125a enhanced paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by promoting chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Clinically, miR-125a expression was associated with an increased responsiveness to paclitaxel combined with cisplatin and a more favorable outcome. These data indicate that miR-125a may be a useful method to enable treatment of chemoresistant CC and may also provide a biomarker for predicting paclitaxel and cisplatin responsiveness in CC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A substantial number of microRNAs (miRNAs) is subject to epigenetic silencing in cancer. Although epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important feature of cervical cancer, little is known about epigenetic silencing of miRNAs. Since DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 occurs in various human cancers, we studied the frequency and functional effects of hsa-miR-124 methylation in cervical carcinogenesis. RESULTS: Quantitative MSP analysis of all 3 loci encoding the mature hsa-miR-124 (hsa-miR-124-1/-2/-3) showed methylation in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, CaSki and HeLa as well as in late passages of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 immortalised keratinocytes. Treatment of SiHa cells with a demethylating agent reduced hsa-miR-124 methylation levels and induced hsa-miR-124 expression. In HPV-immortalised keratinocytes increased methylation levels were related to reduced hsa-miR-124 expression and higher mRNA expression of IGFBP7, a potential hsa-miR-124 target gene. Ectopic hsa-miR-124 expression in SiHa and CaSki cells decreased proliferation rates and migratory capacity. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 139 cervical tissue specimens showed an increasing methylation frequency from 0% in normal tissues up to 93% in cervical carcinomas. Increased methylation levels of hsa-miR-124-1 and hsa-miR-124-2 were significantly correlated with reduced hsa-miR-124 expression in cervical tissue specimens. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 43 cervical scrapes of high-risk HPV positive women was predictive of underlying high-grade lesions. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 is functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis and may provide a valuable marker for improved detection of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions.
Project description:Upregulation or downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been identified in human cervical cancer (CC). However, the character and function of miR-378 in CC remains unknown. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that miR-378 was upregulated in CC used the reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, and promoted cell proliferation by accelerating the progress of cell cycle and repressing cell apoptosis in CC cells. The predicted target genes of miR-378 were determined by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter assays, RT-qPCR assay and western blot analysis. miR-378 suppressed the expression of suppression of tumorigenicity 7-like (ST7L) by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of ST7L mRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. ST7L was downregulated in CC using the RT-qPCR assay, and the malignant phenotype of HeLa and SiHa cells were inhibited by ST7L overexpression. In addition, miR-378 activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by targeting ST7L in CC cells. In short, miR-378 functions as an onco-miRNA by directly downregulating ST7L mRNA and protein level in HeLa and SiHa cells, and serves important roles in the malignancy of CC.
Project description:Background:Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer in less developed countries and the second leading cause of death by cancer in women worldwide. The 99% of CC patients are infected with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), being HPV16 and HPV18 infection the most frequent. Even though HPV is considered to be a necessary factor for the development of CC, it is not enough, as it requires the participation of other factors such as the hormonal ones. Several studies have demonstrated the requirement of estrogen and its receptors (ER?, ER?, and GPER) in the precursor lesions progress towards CC. Also, prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) have been associated with CC. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cooperation of these hormones with the viral oncoproteins are not well elucidated. For this reason, this study focused on analyzing the contribution of 17?-estradiol (E2), PRL, and HPV on the expression and localization of hormone receptors, as well as to evaluate whether these hormones may promote greater expression of HPV oncogenes and contribute to tumor progression. Methods:qPCR was used to evaluate the effect of E2 and PRL on the expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells lines. HaCaT cells were transduced with the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 from HPV 16 and 18. ER?, ER?, GPER, and PRLR expression and localization were evaluated by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results:E2 and PRL induce E6/E7 oncogenes expression in HeLa and SiHa cells. E6 and E7 oncogenes of HPV16/18 significantly increased the protein expression of ER?, GPER, and PRLR. ER? was positively regulated only by E6 oncogenes of HPV16/18. Besides, some of these oncogenes modify the location of PRLR toward cytoplasm, and ER?, ER?, and GPER mainly to the nucleus. Conclusion:Our studies suggest that the mutual regulation between E2, PRL, and HPV oncogenes could cooperate with the carcinogenesis process in CC.
Project description:Almost all cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV); however, the majority of women infected with this virus do not develop cervical cancer. Therefore, new markers are needed for reliable screening of cervical cancer, especially in relation to HPV infection. We aimed to identify potential microRNAs that may serve as diagnostic markers for cervical cancer development in high-risk HPV-positive patients. We evaluated the microRNA expression profiles in 12 cervical tissues using the hybridization method and verified them by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, we evaluated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression of selected microRNAs using cervical cancer cells (CaSki and SiHa) and RNA interference. With the hybridization method, eight microRNAs (miR-9-5p, miR-136-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-190a-5p, miR-199b-5p, miR-382-5p, miR-597-5p, and miR-655-3p) were found to be expressed differently in the HPV16-positive cervical cancer group and HPV16-positive normal group (fold change ? 2). The results of qPCR showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-190a-5p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-655-3p levels significantly decreased in the cancer group compared with the normal group. Upon silencing of HPV16 E5 and E6/E7, miR-148a-3p levels increased in both cell lines. Silencing of E6/E7 in SiHa cells led to the increase in miR-199b-5p and miR-190a-5p levels. Three HPV16 oncoproteins (E5, E6, and E7) downregulate miR-148a-3p, while E6/E7 inhibit miR-199b-5p and miR-190a-5p expression in cervical carcinoma. The three microRNAs, miR-148a-3p, miR-199b-5p, and miR-190a-5p, may be novel diagnostic biomarkers for cervical cancer development in high-risk HPV-positive patients.