Consequence of dexmedetomidine on emergence delirium following sevoflurane anesthesia in children with cerebral palsy.
ABSTRACT: Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study's intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years. They would be anaesthetised with sevoflurane based anesthesia while undergoing lower limb surgical procedures. The participants were equally distributed to either Group c or Group D. Group C was administered 10 ml saline 0.9%, and Group D was administered dexmedetomidine 0.5 ?g•kg(-1). Five minutes prior to commencement of the surgical procedures, the participants received the prescribed pharmaceutical dosages under the anesthesia of sevoflurane. In order to sustain the BIS values in a range of 45 and 55, at 60 second increments, endtidal sevoflurane concentrations (ETsev) were modified. After conclusion of the surgical procedures, in post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the frequency of ED was gauged with Aonos four point scale and the severity of ED was gauged with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after intervals of five minutes (T5), fifteen minutes (T15) and thirty minutes (T30). Extubation time, emergence time and length of at stay at the PACU were assessed. Relative to Group C, participants of Group D exhibited noticeably shortened times of emergence, extubation and PACU duration of stay. Prior to surgical incision, ETsev was elevated in the control group, (1.9±0.2 vs 1.6±0.3; P = 0.023) and amid the initial 20 minutes following the surgical incision (1.6±0.2 vs 1.1±0.2; P = 0.016). At intervals of commencement, T0, of five minutes (T5) and fifteen minutes T15, Group D exhibited lower occurrences and severity of ED than those participants in Group C. Dexmedetomidine, given as a bolus dose post induction, was effective in reducing the occurrence and severity of emergence delirium in children with cerebral palsy who were undergoing lower limb surgical procedures under sevoflurane anaesthesia.
Project description:Objectives:Emergence delirium (ED) is a common neurologic complication that can not only distress children and their families in the early postanesthetic period, but can also have adverse effects on children in the long-term. This study aimed to investigate the effects of single-dose dexmedetomidine on ED in children with sevoflurane anesthesia and to observe postoperative behavioral changes through long-term follow-up. Methods:Patients aged 2-7 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class (ASA) I or II, scheduled for tonsillectomy with and without adenoidectomy were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg (Group D) or volume-matched normal saline (Group C) over 10 minutes after induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome was the incidence of ED within 30 minutes after extubation. Other outcomes were the incidence of pain, extubation time, post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) length of stay after extubation, adverse events, and the incidence of negative postoperative behavioral changes (NPOBCs). Results:Ninety children completed the study. Compared with the control group (Group C), dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of ED (31.1% vs 53.3%; P=0.033) and pain (28.9% vs 57.8%; P=0.006), but it prolonged extubation time (P⩽0.001). PACU length of stay after extubation and the percentage of adverse events were similar between groups. The incidence of NPOBCs in Group D was significantly lower at 1 and 7 days after discharge (33.3% vs 60.0%; P=0.011% and 24.4% vs 46.7%; P=0.028, respectively) than it was in Group C, but no significant difference was found at the 30th day. Conclusion:Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg reduced the incidence of ED after sevoflurane anesthesia and might be used to prevent NPOBCs. Clinical trials registration:ChiCTR1800016828.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Emergence agitation (EA) is a common problem after sevoflurane anesthesia among children. There have been mixed results with control of EA using propofol 1 mg/kg bolus following sevoflurane anesthesia. An infusion of 3 mg/kg of propofol over 3 min following sevoflurane anesthesia has been found to be promising in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging scans. However, no studies have been conducted during surgical procedures. We aimed to examine the efficacy of transition to propofol for 3 min after cessation of sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. METHODS:In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 64 children aged 1-12 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, were randomized to receive either propofol 3 mg/kg over 3 min (propofol group) or no propofol (control group), after the cessation of sevoflurane anesthesia. EA was assessed using the Paediatric Emergence Anesthesia Delirium (PAED) scale and the Watcha scale. Emergence time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay were also recorded. RESULTS:The incidence of ED was lower in the propofol group on both the PAED (81.3% vs. 15.6%, P < 0.001) and the Watcha (78.1% vs. 15.6%, P < 0.001) scales. The mean emergence time was 6.37 minutes longer in the propofol group with no significant difference in PACU times. CONCLUSIONS:Transition to propofol 3 mg/kg over 3 min following sevoflurane anesthesia reduces the incidence of EA and improves the quality of emergence. Although emergence times were longer, the duration of stay in the PACU was similar with propofol use.
Project description:Emergence delirium, a manifestation of acute postoperative brain dysfunction, is frequently observed after pediatric anesthesia and has been associated with the use of sevoflurane. Both xenon and dexmedetomidine possess numerous desirable properties for the anesthesia of children with congenital heart disease, including hemodynamic stability, lack of neurotoxicity, and a reduced incidence of emergence delirium. Combining both drugs has never been studied as a balanced-anesthesia technique. This combination allows the provision of anesthesia without administering anesthetic drugs against which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning for the use in young children. In this phase-II, mono-center, prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot trial, we will include a total of 80 children aged 0-3?years suffering from congenital heart disease and undergoing general anesthesia for elective diagnostic and/or interventional cardiac catheterization. Patients are randomized into two study groups, receiving either a combination of xenon and dexmedetomidine or mono-anesthesia with sevoflurane for the maintenance of anesthesia. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect size for xenon-dexmedetomidine versus sevoflurane anesthesia with respect to the incidence of emergence delirium in children. We will also describe group differences for a variety of secondary outcome parameters including peri-interventional hemodynamics, emergence characteristics, incidence of postoperative vomiting, and the feasibility of a combined xenon-dexmedetomidine anesthesia in children. Sevoflurane is the most frequently used anesthetic in young children, but has been indicated as an independent risk factor in the development of emergence delirium. Xenon and dexmedetomidine have both been associated with a reduction in the incidence of emergence delirium. Combining xenon and dexmedetomidine has never been described as a balanced-anesthesia technique in children. Our pilot study will therefore deliver important data required for future prospective clinical trials. EudraCT, 2018-002258-56. Registered on 20 August 2018. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to observe whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) combined with sufentanil decreased emergence agitation (EA) in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery. Children undergoing elective cleft palate repair surgery were randomly allocated into the DEX + sufentanil group (group DS; n=50) and the normal saline + fentanyl group (group SF; n=50). Patients in group DS were treated with 0.5 µg/kg DEX prior to induction of anesthesia, whereas patients in group SF received an equal volume of normal saline. Sufentanil (0.2 µg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia, and 30 min before the end of surgery for patients in group DS. Fentanyl (2 µg/kg) was administered at the same time point for patients in group SF. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), duration of surgery and anesthesia, and the dosage of remifentanil were assessed. EA score, Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) score and the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) score were documented every 15 min in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) and the recovery profile data were analyzed. Compared with group DS (P<0.05) and the baseline (P<0.05), HR and MAP were significantly increased in group SF immediately following tracheal intubation and extubation. Mean values of maximum EA, PAED and CHIPPS scores were significantly reduced in group DS compared with group SF at 0 (P<0.01), 15 (P<0.05), and 30 min (P<0.05) after arrival at PACU. The incidence of EA in group SF was significantly increased compared with group DS (P<0.05). The dosage of remifentanil during the surgery and the number of cases requiring fentanyl (1 µg/kg) in group DS were significantly decreased compared with group SF (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggested that DEX combined with sufentanil was able to effectively decrease the incidence of EA in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for cleft palate repair surgery.
Project description:The objective of this article is to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on emergence agitation (EA) and recovery profiles in children after sevoflurane anesthesia and its pharmacological mechanisms. Standard bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFP, Springer and ISI Web of Knowledge, were artificially searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the impact of dexmedetomidine with placebo, fentanyl and midazolam on EA and recovery profiles after sevoflurane anesthesia in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Two authors assessed the quality of each study independently in accordance with strict inclusion criteria and extracted data. RevMan 5.0 software was applied for performing statistic analysis. The outcomes analyzed included: 1) incidence of EA, 2) emergence time, 3) time to extubation, 4) incidence of post-operation nausea and vomiting, 5) number of patients requiring an analgesic, and 6) time to discharge from PACU. A total of 1364 patients (696 in the dexmedetomidine group and 668 in the placebo, fentanyl and midazolam group) from 20 prospective RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, dexmedetomidine decreased the incidence of EA (risk ratio [RR] 0.37; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.46), incidence of nausea and vomiting (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85) and number of patients requiring an analgesic (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.59). However, dexmedetomidine had a significantly delayed effect on the emergence time (weighted mean differences [WMD] 1.16; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.60), time to extubation (WMD 0.61; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.95), and time to discharge from recovery room (WMD 2.67; 95% CI 0.95 to 4.39). Compared with fentanyl (RR 1.39; 95% CI 0.78 to 2.48) and midazolam (RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.54 to 2.35), dexmedetomidine has no significantly difference on the incidence of EA. However, the analgesia effect of dexmedetomidine on postoperation pain has no significantly statistical differences compared with fentanyl (RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.91), which implied that its analgesia effect might play an important role in decreasing the incident of EA. No evidence of publication bias was observed.
Project description:During emergence from anesthesia for a craniotomy, maintenance of hemodynamic stability and prompt evaluation of neurological status is mandatory. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil on airway reflex and hemodynamic change in patients undergoing craniotomy.Seventy-four patients undergoing clipping of unruptured cerebral aneurysm were recruited. In the dexmedetomidine group, patients were administered dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g/kg) for 5 minutes, while the patients of the remifentanil group were administered remifentanil with an effect site concentration of 1.5 ng/mL until endotracheal extubation. The incidence and severity of cough and hemodynamic variables were measured during the recovery period. Hemodynamic variables, respiration rate, and sedation scale were measured after extubation and in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU).The incidence of grade 2 and 3 cough at the point of extubation was 62.5% in the dexmedetomidine group and 53.1% in the remifentanil group (p=0.39). Mean arterial pressure (p=0.01) at admission to the PACU and heart rate (p=0.04 and 0.01, respectively) at admission and at 10 minutes in the PACU were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group. Respiration rate was significantly lower in the remifentanil group at 2 minutes (p<0.01) and 5 minutes (p<0.01) after extubation.We concluded that a single bolus of dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g/kg) and remifentanil infusion have equal effectiveness in attenuating coughing and hemodynamic changes in patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm clipping; however, dexmedetomidine leads to better preservation of respiration.
Project description:Background:Pediatric dental procedures are performed under anesthesia because children may be uncooperative in the dental clinic due to their young age. Emergence delirium (ED), which involves a variety of behavioral disturbances that are frequently observed in children following emergence from general anesthesia, remains an unclear phenomenon. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to compare the incidence of ED in children who underwent full mouth dental rehabilitation under either sevoflurane (SEVO) anesthesia or propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Patients and methods:One hundred and twenty children with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II, aged ?3 and ?6 years, undergoing dental rehabilitation were assigned to receive either TIVA or SEVO. ED and postoperative pain were evaluated by a blinded investigator using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale every 5 min. The recovery time, satisfaction levels of parents or guardians, extubation time, duration of the operation, and type of dental procedure were also recorded. Results:Data of 116 subjects were analyzed. The incidence of ED was higher after SEVO than after TIVA (65.5 vs 3.4%, P=0.00). Greater postoperative pain was observed in the SEVO group (median 3 vs 1, P=0.000). A statistically significant, moderate correlation (rs=0.46, P<0.0001) was found between the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scores. A higher parental satisfaction level was observed in the TIVA group. Conclusion:A lower incidence of ED and a higher parental satisfaction level were observed after TIVA. Moreover, TIVA resulted in a more comfortable postoperative period due to reduced postoperative pain, and the extubation time and recovery time were not increased.
Project description:Emergence agitation preventive medicine should be combined with pediatric anesthesia because of the high frequency of emergence agitation. However, it is challenging to determine the most appropriate medication that can be introduced into pediatric anesthesia for the sake of emergence agitation prevention. We reviewed and retrieved the data from PubMed and Embase. Various medications were assessed based on several endpoints including Emergence agitation outcomes (EA), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), the number of patients who required analgesic (RA), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED), the extubation time, the emergency time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Both traditional and network meta-analysis were carried in this study. A total of 45 articles were complied with the selection criteria and the corresponding articles were reviewed. Fentanyl demonstrated the highest cumulative ranking probability which was followed by those of ketamine and dexmedetomidine with respect to EA and PAED. When PONV and RA were concerned together, clonidine exhibited the highest cumulative ranking probability compared to other medications. Our study suggested that dexmedetomidine perhaps is the most appropriate prophylactic treatment which can be introduced into anesthesia for preventing emergence agitation.
Project description:Emergence delirium is a behavioral disturbance after general anesthesia in children and may distress both the patients and the primary caregivers, such as parents and medical staff, looking after the patients. Various medical and emotional interventions have been investigated to reduce emergence delirium; however, none are completely effective. This trial intends to assess whether the mother's recorded voice can reduce this adverse post-anesthesia event and facilitate arousal from general anesthesia.This is a prospective, double-blind, single-center, parallel-arm, superiority, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in participants aged 2-8 years who are undergoing elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: those who are stimulated to wake up by listening to their mother's recorded voice (maternal group, n?=?33) or a stranger's voice (stranger group, n?=?33) during anesthetic emergence. The primary outcome is the initial emergence delirium score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The secondary outcomes are hemodynamic parameters, including heart rate and mean blood pressure, the duration of time between the cessation of anesthetics and a BIS level of 60, 70 and 80, eye-opening or purposeful movement time, extubation time, total consumption of analgesics, PACU stay time, emergence delirium and pain scores during the PACU stay.This is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of a mother's recorded voice during emergence on the pediatric emergence profile after general anesthesia. It may provide prophylactic treatment options to decrease emergence delirium and enhance arousal from general anesthesia.ClicnicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02955680 . Registered on 2 November 2016.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The clinical significance of emergence delirium remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between emergence delirium and postoperative delirium in elderly after general anesthesia and surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective observational study was done in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. Elderly patients (65-90 years) who underwent major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia and admitted to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after surgery were enrolled. Emergence delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit during PACU stay. Postoperative delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method during the first 5 postoperative days. The association between emergence delirium and postoperative delirium was analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 942 patients were enrolled and 915 completed the study. Emergence delirium developed in 37.0% (339/915) of patients during PACU stay; and postoperative delirium developed in 11.4% (104/915) of patients within the first 5 postoperative days. After adjusted confounding factors, the occurrence of emergence delirium is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative delirium (OR 1.717, 95% CI 1.078-2.735, P?=?0.023). Patients with emergence delirium stayed longer in PACU and hospital after surgery, and developed more non-delirium complications within 30 days.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Emergence delirium in elderly admitted to the PACU after general anesthesia and major surgery is independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative delirium. Patients with emergence delirium had worse perioperative outcomes. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (chictr.org.cn) ChiCTR-OOC-17012734.