Antibiotic-Driven Dysbiosis Mediates Intraluminal Agglutination and Alternative Segregation of Enterococcus faecium from the Intestinal Epithelium.
ABSTRACT: The microbiota of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem of bacterial communities that continuously interact with the mucosal immune system. In a healthy host, the mucosal immune system maintains homeostasis in the intestine and prevents invasion of pathogenic bacteria, a phenomenon termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics create dysbiosis of microbiota, thereby decreasing colonization resistance and facilitating infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here we describe how cephalosporin antibiotics create dysbiosis in the mouse large intestine, allowing intestinal outgrowth of antimicrobial-resistant Enterococcus faecium. This is accompanied by a reduction of the mucus-associated gut microbiota layer, colon wall, and Muc-2 mucus layer. E. faecium agglutinates intraluminally in an extracellular matrix consisting of secretory IgA (sIgA), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) proteins, thereby maintaining spatial segregation of E. faecium from the intestinal wall. Addition of recombinant E-cadherin and pIgR proteins or purified IgA to enterococci in vitro mimics agglutination of E. faecium in vivo. Also, the Ca(2+) levels temporarily increased by 75% in feces of antibiotic-treated mice, which led to deformation of E-cadherin adherens junctions between colonic intestinal epithelial cells and release of E-cadherin as an extracellular matrix entrapping E. faecium. These findings indicate that during antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, the intestinal epithelium stays separated from an invading pathogen through an extracellular matrix in which sIgA, pIgR, and E-cadherin are colocalized. Future mucosal vaccination strategies to control E. faecium or other opportunistic pathogens may prevent multidrug-resistant infections, hospital transmission, and outbreaks.Infections with antibiotic-resistant enterococci are an emerging worldwide problem because enterococci are resistant to most of the antibiotics used in hospitals. During antibiotic treatment, the normal bacteria are replaced by resistant enterococci within the gut, from which they can spread and cause infections. We studied antibiotic-mediated intestinal proliferation of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium and the effects on intestinal architecture. We demonstrated that antibiotics allow proliferation of E. faecium in the gut, alter the mucus-associated gut bacterial layer, and reduce the colon wall, mucus thickness, and amount of Muc-2 protein. E. faecium is agglutinated in the intestine in a matrix consisting of host molecules. We hypothesize that this matrix maintains a segregation of E. faecium from the epithelium. Understanding the processes that occur in the gut during antibiotic treatment may provide clues for future mucosal vaccination strategies to control E. faecium or other multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens, thereby preventing infections, hospital transmission, and outbreaks.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and ?-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or ?-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs.
Project description:The mammalian gut is inhabited by a large and complex microbial community that lives in a mutualistic relationship with its host. Innate and adaptive mucosal defense mechanisms ensure a homeostatic relationship with this commensal microbiota. Secretory antibodies are generated from the active polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR)-mediated transport of IgA and IgM antibodies to the gut lumen and form the first line of adaptive immune defense of the intestinal mucosa. We probed mucosal homeostasis in pIgR knockout (KO) mice, which lack secretory antibodies. We found that in pIgR KO mice, colonic epithelial cells, the cell type most closely in contact with intestinal microbes, differentially expressed (>2-fold change) more than 200 genes compared with wild type mice, and upregulated the expression of anti-microbial peptides in a commensal-dependent manner. Detailed profiling of microbial communities based on 16S rRNA genes revealed differences in the commensal microbiota between pIgR KO and wild type mice. Furthermore, we found that pIgR KO mice showed increased susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and that this was driven by their conventional intestinal microbiota. In conclusion, secretory antibodies or the pIgR itself are required to maintain a stable commensal microbiota. In the absence of these humoral effector components, gut homeostasis is disturbed and the outcome of colitis significantly worsened. 4 groups: wild type mice treated with antibiotic (5 replicates), wild type mice left untreated (5 replicates), pIgR KO mice treated with antibiotic (6 replicates), and pIgR KO mice left untreated (6 replicates).
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections.<h4>Importance</h4>Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in VRE decolonization strategies. Our results provide support for a new molecular mechanism, in which probiotics can perform competitive exclusion and possibly immune interaction. Moreover, we spur further exploration of the potential of intact L. rhamnosus GG and purified SpaC pilin as prophylactic and curative agents of the VRE carrier state.
Project description:Antibiotic treatment of patients undergoing complex medical treatments can deplete commensal bacterial strains from the intestinal microbiota, thereby reducing colonization resistance against a wide range of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Loss of colonization resistance can lead to marked expansion of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli in the intestinal lumen, predisposing patients to bloodstream invasion and sepsis. The impact of intestinal domination by these antibiotic-resistant pathogens on mucosal immune defenses and epithelial and mucin-mediated barrier integrity is unclear. We used a mouse model to study the impact of intestinal domination by antibiotic-resistant bacterial species and strains on the colonic mucosa. Intestinal colonization with K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Enterobacter cloacae promoted greater recruitment of neutrophils to the colonic mucosa. To test the hypothesis that the residual microbiota influences the severity of colitis caused by infection with Clostridioides difficile, we coinfected mice that were colonized with ampicillin-resistant bacteria with a virulent strain of C. difficile and monitored colonization and pathogenesis. Despite the compositional differences in the gut microbiota, the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI) and mortality did not differ significantly between mice colonized with different ampicillin-resistant bacterial species. Our results suggest that the virulence mechanisms enabling CDI and epithelial destruction outweigh the relatively minor impact of less-virulent antibiotic-resistant intestinal bacteria on the outcome of CDI.
Project description:AIM:The aim of this study was to investigate the VRE frequency and the rate of each gene in isolated enterococci from patients with intestinal infection in the central region of Iran. BACKGROUND:Enterococci infections are a public health growing concern due to the glycopeptide antibiotics resistance especially vancomycin. Genes, vanA, B, and H contribute to the influence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was conducted from January to July 2014 in Shahrood university hospital. Enterococci isolation and its antibacterial susceptibility were performed by culturing in Aesculin Azide agar and Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. Vancomycin-resistant genes were screened through conventional PCR, and subsequently sequenced. RESULTS:Among 265 specimens, 100 isolates revealed enterococci, in which E. faecalis (91%) and E. faecium (9%). The isolated enterococci were resistant to vancomycin (6%) and chloramphenicol (21%), whereas their large proportions (94% to 100%) were multi-drug resistant. All VRE isolates belonged to E. faecalis, conversely, the E. faecium were susceptible to the same antibiotic. Both vanA and vanH genes were identified in all VRE isolates, although, no vanB gene was indicated. Homology analysis of sequenced amplicons verified the full length compatibility to the worldwide reported genes. CONCLUSION:The present study revealed VR E.faecalis in gastroenteritis patients and resistance factor for vanA and vanH genes are coordinated. Since enterococci isolates were all multidrug resistance, increase in VR E.faecalis vanA / vanH in this area could be expected.
Project description:Commensal bacteria co-exist on the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The host's mucosal immune system must tolerate commensals while fighting pathogens. One of the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to maintain homeostasis is the secretion of immunoglobulins (Igs) across epithelial barriers, which is achieved via the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Rainbow trout pIgR is known to transport IgT and IgM across epithelia. However, other biological functions for trout pIgR or trout secretory component (tSC) remain unknown. This study investigates the interaction of tSC with commensal bacteria, pathogenic bacteria and a fungal pathogen. Our results show that the majority of trout skin and gut bacteria are coated in vivo by tSC. In vitro, tSC present in mucus coats trout commensal isolates such as Microbacterium sp., Staphylococcus warneri, Flectobacillus major, Arthrobacter stackebrantii, and Flavobacterium sp. and the pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Edwardsiella ictaluri with coating levels ranging from 8% to 70%. Moreover, we found that the majority of tSC is in free form in trout mucus and free tSC is able to directly bind bacteria. We propose that binding of free SC to commensal bacteria is a key and conserved mechanism for maintenance of microbial communities in vertebrate mucosal surfaces.
Project description:The environment, human, and animals play an important role in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Enterococci are members of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and represent important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. Until today, few studies have examined antibiotic susceptibility in enterococci isolated from primates. Therefore, the present study investigated species distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance genes in enterococci isolated from wild and captive black capuchins monkeys (<i>Sapajus nigritus</i>) in Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. A total of 24 swabs/fecal samples were collected, including 19 from wild monkeys living in two forest fragments [São Sebastião do Caí (SSC) and Santa Cruz do Sul (SCS)], and five in captive [Parque Zoológico da Fundação Zoobotânica (ZOO)], between August 2016 and November 2017. Fifteen colonies were randomly selected from each sample. Enterococci were identified by MALDI-TOF, tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics; and screened for <i>tet</i>(S), <i>tet</i>(M), <i>tet</i>(L), <i>msrC</i>, and <i>erm</i>(B) genes by PCR. Two-hundred ninety-six enterococci were isolated (SSC <i>n</i> = 137; SCS <i>n</i> = 86; ZOO <i>n</i> = 73) and differences in <i>Enterococcus</i> species distribution were detected on three monkey groups, with low abundance in SCS (1 - D = 0.2), followed by ZOO (1 - D = 0.68), and SSC (1 - D = 0.73). The enterococci frequently recovered include the following: <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> (42.6%), <i>E. hirae</i> (29.1%), and <i>E. faecium</i> (15.9%). Antibiotic-nonsusceptible was observed in 202 (67.9%) strains. The rate of non-susceptibility to rifampicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin was 46%, 26%, 22% and 19%, 13%, 0.3%, and 0.3%, respectively. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, and linezolid. Forty-three (14.52%) isolates were identified as multidrug resistant (MDR), and the highest number of MDR enterococci were <i>E. faecium</i> recovered from wild monkeys living close to a hospital and water treatment plant. Elevated rates of antibiotic resistance genes <i>msr</i>C and <i>tet</i>(L) were isolates from ZOO. In conclusion, differences in the frequency of enterococci species, antibiotic-nonsusceptible and antibiotic resistance genes in all groups of monkeys were identified. These data suggest that anthropogenic activities could have an impact in the resistome of primate gut enterococci communities.
Project description:Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies play an important role in protecting the mucosal surfaces against pathogens and maintaining homeostasis with the commensal microbiota. Because a substantial portion of the gut microbiota is coated with SIgA, we hypothesized that microbiota-SIgA complexes are important for the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Here we investigated the relationship between microbiota-SIgA complexes and inflammatory epithelial cell responses. We used a multi-cellular three-dimensional (3D) organotypical model of the human intestinal mucosa composed of an intestinal epithelial cell line and primary human lymphocytes/monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. We also used human SIgA from human colostrum, and a prominent bacterial member of the first colonizers, Escherichia coli, as a surrogate commensal. We found that free and microbiota-complexed SIgA triggered different epithelial responses. While free SIgA up-regulated mucus production, expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and secretion of interleukin-8 and tumoir necrosis factor-?, microbiota-complexed SIgA mitigated these responses. These results suggest that free and complexed SIgA have different functions as immunoregulatory agents in the gut and that an imbalance between the two may affect gut homeostasis.
Project description:Yaks provide necessities such as meat and milk for Tibetans living at high altitudes on and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Enterococci are ubiquitous members of the animal gut microbiota that can cause biofilm-associated opportunistic infections. Meanwhile, multidrug-resistant Enterococcus also poses a serious threat to public health. This study aims to characterize antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, and biofilm formation of enterococci from yaks. From April 2018 to July 2019, we collected 395 fecal samples of yaks in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China. Enterococci isolated from the samples were identified and classified according to the 16S rDNA sequence. The antibiotic resistance of each isolate was detected according to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Enterococcal biofilms were assessed using standard procedures. Different virulence genes were detected by PCR and sequencing. In total, 381 enterococci strains were recovered, with Enterococcus faecalis (41.99%) and Enterococcus faecium (37.80%) being the predominant species. Many isolates were multidrug- resistant (60.37%) and showed a high resistance rate to rifampicin (64.30%) and tetracycline (61.54%). We also detected various antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in the tested strains. The E. faecalis strains had higher frequency of biofilm formation and virulence genes than other enterococcal species. This is the first report that shows yaks are repositories for drug-resistant enterococci with virulent determinants and biofilms that may spread into humans and to environment. This study also provides useful data suggesting that enterococci may pose a potential health risk to yaks. Therefore, active surveillance of AMR and pathogenesis in enterococci from yaks is urgently warranted.
Project description:Enterococci, in particular vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Promoting intestinal resistance against enterococci could reduce the risk of VRE infections. We investigated the effects of two Lactobacillus strains to prevent intestinal VRE. We used an intestinal colonisation mouse model based on an antibiotic-induced microbiota dysbiosis to mimic enterococci overgrowth and VRE persistence. Each Lactobacillus spp. was administered daily to mice starting one week before antibiotic treatment until two weeks after antibiotic and VRE inoculation. Of the two strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 decreased significantly VRE numbers in the feces demonstrating an improvement of the reduction of VRE. Longitudinal microbiota analysis showed that supplementation with L. paracasei CNCM I-3689 was associated with a better recovery of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Bile salt analysis and expression analysis of selected host genes revealed increased level of lithocholate and of ileal expression of camp (human LL-37) upon L. paracasei CNCM I-3689 supplementation. Although a direct effect of L. paracasei CNCM I-3689 on the VRE reduction was not ruled out, our data provide clues to possible anti-VRE mechanisms supporting an indirect anti-VRE effect through the gut microbiota. This work sustains non-antibiotic strategies against opportunistic enterococci after antibiotic-induced dysbiosis.