In Vitro CRISPR/Cas9 System for Efficient Targeted DNA Editing.
ABSTRACT: The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, an RNA-guided nuclease for specific genome editing in vivo, has been adopted in a wide variety of organisms. In contrast, the in vitro application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has rarely been reported. We present here a highly efficient in vitro CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing (ICE) system that allows specific refactoring of biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria and other large DNA fragments. Cleavage by Cas9 of circular pUC18 DNA was investigated here as a simple model, revealing that the 3'?5' exonuclease activity of Cas9 generates errors with 5 to 14 nucleotides (nt) randomly missing at the editing joint. T4 DNA polymerase was then used to repair the Cas9-generated sticky ends, giving substantial improvement in editing accuracy. Plasmid pYH285 and cosmid 10A3, harboring a complete biosynthetic gene cluster for the antibiotics RK-682 and holomycin, respectively, were subjected to the ICE system to delete the rkD and homE genes in frame. Specific insertion of the ampicillin resistance gene (bla) into pYH285 was also successfully performed. These results reveal the ICE system to be a rapid, seamless, and highly efficient way to edit DNA fragments, and a powerful new tool for investigating and engineering biosynthetic gene clusters.Recent improvements in cloning strategies for biosynthetic gene clusters promise rapid advances in understanding and exploiting natural products in the environment. For manipulation of such biosynthetic gene clusters to generate valuable bioactive compounds, efficient and specific gene editing of these large DNA fragments is required. In this study, a highly efficient in vitro DNA editing system has been established. When combined with end repair using T4 DNA polymerase, Cas9 precisely and seamlessly catalyzes targeted editing, including in-frame deletion or insertion of the gene(s) of interest. This in vitro CRISPR editing (ICE) system promises a step forward in our ability to engineer biosynthetic pathways.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing tool enables accessible and efficient modifications which (re)ignited molecular research in certain species. However, targeted integration of large DNA fragments using CRISPR/Cas9 can still be challenging in numerous models. To systematically compare CRISPR/Cas9's efficiency to classical homologous recombination (cHR) for insertion of large DNA fragments, we thoroughly performed and analyzed 221 experiments targeting 128 loci in mouse ES cells. Although both technologies proved efficient, CRISPR/Cas9 yielded significantly more positive clones as detected by overlapping PCRs. It also induced unexpected rearrangements around the targeted site, ultimately rendering CRISPR/Cas9 less efficient than cHR for the production of fully validated clones. These data show that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated recombination can induce complex long-range modifications at targeted loci, thus emphasizing the need for thorough characterization of any genetically modified material obtained through CRISPR-mediated gene editing before further functional studies or therapeutic use.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly effective tool for genome editing. Key to robust genome editing is the efficient delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery. Viral delivery systems are efficient vehicles for the transduction of foreign genes but commonly used viral vectors suffer from a limited capacity in the genetic information they can carry. Baculovirus however is capable of carrying large exogenous DNA fragments. Here we investigate the use of baculoviral vectors as a delivery vehicle for CRISPR/Cas9 based genome-editing tools. We demonstrate transduction of a panel of cell lines with Cas9 and an sgRNA sequence, which results in efficient knockout of all four targeted subunits of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). We further show that introduction of a homology directed repair template into the same CRISPR/Cas9 baculovirus facilitates introduction of specific point mutations and endogenous gene tags. Tagging of the CPC recruitment factor Haspin with the fluorescent reporter YFP allowed us to study its native localization as well as recruitment to the cohesin subunit Pds5B.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, in which the sgRNA binds and guides the Cas9 protein for the sequence-specific cleavage. The protocol is employable in different organisms, but is often limited by cell damage due to the endonuclease activity of the introduced Cas9 and the potential off-target DNA cleavage from incorrect guide by the 20 nt spacer.In this study, after resolving some critical limits, we have established an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for the deletion of large genome fragments related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Myxococcus xanthus cells. We revealed that the high expression of a codon-optimized cas9 gene in M. xanthus was cytotoxic, and developed a temporally high expression strategy to reduce the cell damage from high expressions of Cas9. We optimized the deletion protocol by using the tRNA-sgRNA-tRNA chimeric structure to ensure correct sgRNA sequence. We found that, in addition to the position-dependent nucleotide preference, the free energy of a 20 nt spacer was a key factor for the deletion efficiency.By using the developed protocol, we achieved the CRISPR/Cas9-induced deletion of large biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites in M. xanthus DK1622 and its epothilone-producing mutant. The findings and the proposals described in this paper were suggested to be workable in other organisms, for example, other Gram negative bacteria with high GC content.
Project description:At present, the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been mainly focused on knocking out target genes, and most site-directed mutagenesis has occurred at single cleavage sites and resulted in short deletions and/or insertions. However, the use of multiple guide RNAs for complex genome editing, especially the deletion of large DNA fragments in soybean, has not been systematically explored. In this study, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to specifically induce targeted deletions of DNA fragments in GmFT2a (Glyma16g26660) and GmFT5a (Glyma16g04830) in soybean using a dual-sgRNA/Cas9 design. We achieved a deletion frequency of 15.6% for target fragments ranging from 599 to 1618 bp in GmFT2a. We also achieved deletion frequencies of 12.1% for target fragments exceeding 4.5 kb in GmFT2a and 15.8% for target fragments ranging from 1069 to 1161 bp in GmFT5a. In addition, we demonstrated that these CRISPR/Cas9-induced large fragment deletions can be inherited. The T2 'transgene-free' homozygous ft2a mutants with a 1618 bp deletion exhibited the late-flowering phenotype. In this study, we developed an efficient system for deleting large fragments in soybean using CRISPR/Cas9; this system could benefit future research on gene function and improve agriculture via chromosome engineering or customized genetic breeding in soybean.
Project description:Gossypium hirsutum is an allotetraploid with a complex genome. Most genes have multiple copies that belong to At and Dt subgenomes. Sequence similarity is also very high between gene homologues. To efficiently achieve site/gene-specific mutation is quite needed. Due to its high efficiency and robustness, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 system has exerted broad site-specific genome editing from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In this study, we utilized a CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate two sgRNAs in a single vector to conduct multiple sites genome editing in allotetraploid cotton. An exogenously transformed gene Discosoma red fluorescent protein2(DsRed2) and an endogenous gene GhCLA1 were chosen as targets. The DsRed2-edited plants in T0 generation reverted its traits to wild type, with vanished red fluorescence the whole plants. Besides, the mutated phenotype and genotype were inherited to their T1 progenies. For the endogenous gene GhCLA1, 75% of regenerated plants exhibited albino phenotype with obvious nucleotides and DNA fragments deletion. The efficiency of gene editing at each target site is 66.7-100%. The mutation genotype was checked for both genes with Sanger sequencing. Barcode-based high-throughput sequencing, which could be highly efficient for genotyping to a population of mutants, was conducted in GhCLA1-edited T0 plants and it matched well with Sanger sequencing results. No off-target editing was detected at the potential off-target sites. These results prove that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient and reliable for allotetraploid cotton genome editing.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) system has become a revolutionary tool for gene editing. Since viral delivery systems have significant side effects, and naked DNA delivery is not an option, the nontoxic, non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 components would significantly improve future therapeutic delivery. In this study, we aim at characterizing nanoparticles to deliver plasmid DNA encoding for the CRISPR-Cas system in eukaryotic cells in vitro. CRISPR/Cas9 complexed polyethylenimine (PEI) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were generated. We used a stable HEK293 cell line expressing the traffic light reporter (TLR-3) system to evaluate efficient homology- directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) events following transfection with NPs. MNPs have been synthesized by co-precipitation with the average particle size around 20?nm?in diameter. The dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements showed that NPs exhibited narrow size distribution and sufficient colloidal stability. Genome editing events were as efficient as compared to standard lipofectamine transfection. Our approach tested non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 and DNA template to perform HDR and NHEJ in the same assay. We demonstrated that PEI-MNPs is a promising delivery system for plasmids encoding CRISPR/Cas9 and template DNA and thus can improve safety and utility of gene editing.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled highly efficient genome targeted editing for various organisms. However, few studies have focused on CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated chicken genome editing compared with mammalian genomes. The current study combined CRISPR with yeast Rad52 (yRad52) to enhance targeted genomic DNA editing in chicken DF-1 cells. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-induced targeted mutations in the chicken genome was increased to 41.9% via the enrichment of the dual-reporter surrogate system. In addition, the combined effect of CRISPR nuclease and yRad52 dramatically increased the efficiency of the targeted substitution in the myostatin gene using 50-mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODN) as the donor DNA, resulting in a 36.7% editing efficiency after puromycin selection. Furthermore, based on the effect of yRad52, the frequency of exogenous gene integration in the chicken genome was more than 3-fold higher than that without yRad52. Collectively, these results suggest that ssODN is an ideal donor DNA for targeted substitution and that CRISPR/Cas9 combined with yRad52 significantly enhances chicken genome editing. These findings could be extensively applied in other organisms.
Project description:The CRISPR/Cas9 system, which relies on RNA-guided DNA cleavage to induce site-specific DNA double-strand breaks, is a powerful tool for genome editing. This system has been successfully adapted for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by expressing Cas9 and the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) from a plasmid. In the procedures published to date, the cloning step that introduces a specific sgRNA target sequence into the plasmid is the most tedious and time-consuming. To increase the efficiency of applying the CRISPR/Cas9 system in fission yeast, we here developed a cloning-free procedure that uses gap repair in fission yeast cells to assemble two linear DNA fragments, a gapped Cas9-encoding plasmid and a PCR-amplified sgRNA insert, into a circular plasmid. Both fragments contain only a portion of the ura4 or bsdMX marker so that only the correctly assembled plasmid can confer uracil prototrophy or blasticidin resistance. We show that this gap-repair-based and cloning-free CRISPR/Cas9 procedure permits rapid and efficient point mutation knock-in, endogenous N-terminal tagging, and genomic sequence deletion in fission yeast.
Project description:Genome editing allows for the precise manipulation of DNA sequences in a cell making this technology essential for understanding gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 is a targeted genome-editing platform derived from bacterial adaptive immune system and has been repurposed into a genome-editing tool. The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence, making this technology easier, more efficient, scalable and an indispensable tool in biological research. This technology has helped genetically engineer animal models to understand disease mechanisms and elucidate molecular details that can be exploited for improved therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we describe the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing mechanism, CRISPR-screening methods, therapeutic targeting of CRISPR in animal models and in cancer immunotherapy. We also discuss the ongoing clinical trials using this tool, limitations of this tool that might impede the clinical applicability of CRISPR-Cas9 and future directions for developing effective CRISPR-Cas9 delivery systems that may improve cancer therapeutics.
Project description:The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, an RNA-guided DNA targeting technology, is triggering a revolution in the field of biology. CRISPR/Cas9 has demonstrated great potential for genetic manipulation. In this review, we discuss the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for therapeutic applications, especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. Different methods used to facilitate efficient CRISPR delivery and gene editing in T cells are compared. The potential of genetic manipulation using CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate universal CAR T cells and potent T cells that are resistant to exhaustion and inhibition is explored. We also address the safety concerns associated with the use of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and provide potential solutions and future directions of CRISPR application in the field of CAR T cell immunotherapy. As an integration-free gene insertion method, CRISPR/Cas9 holds great promise as an efficient gene knock-in platform. Given the tremendous progress that has been made in the past few years, we believe that the CRISPR/Cas9 technology holds immense promise for advancing immunotherapy.