Fluoride-containing podophyllum derivatives exhibit antitumor activities through enhancing mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by increasing the expression of caspase-9 in HeLa cells.
ABSTRACT: This work aims to provide sampling of halogen-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives and their mode of action with an in-depth comparison among fluorine, chloride and bromide for clarifying the important role and impact of fluorine substitution on enhancing antitumor activity, with an emphasis on the development of drug rational design for antitumor drug. The tumor cytotoxicity of fluoride-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives were in general improved by 10-100 times than those of the chloride and bromide-containing aniline podophyllum derivatives since fluoride could not only strongly solvated in protic solvents but also forms tight ion pairs in most aprotic solvents. When compared with chloride and bromide, the higher electronegativity fluoride substituted derivatives significantly enhanced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by remarkably increasing the expression of caspase-9 in HeLa cells. The current findings would stimulate an enormous amount of research directed toward exploiting novel leading compounds based on podophyllum derivatives, especially for the fluoride-substituted structures with promising antitumor activity.
Project description:Herein is a first effort to systematically study the significance of carbon-sulfur (C-S) and carbon-amine (C-NH) bonds on the antitumor proliferation activity of podophyllum derivatives and their precise mechanism of apoptosis. Compared with the derivative modified by a C-NH bond, the derivative modified by a C-S bond exhibited superior antitumor activity, the inhibition activity of target proteins tubulin or Topo II, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction. Antitumor mechanistic studies showed that the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were simultaneously activated by the C-S bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives with a higher cellular uptake percentage of 60-90% and induction of a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Only the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was activated by the C-NH bond modified aromatic heterocyclic podophyllum derivatives, with a lower cellular uptake percentage of 40-50%. This study provided insight into effects of the C-S and C-NH bond modification on the improvement of the antitumor activity of Podophyllum derivatives.
Project description:Stoichoimetric graphene fluoride monolayers are obtained in a single step by the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite fluoride with sulfolane. Comparative quantum-mechanical calculations reveal that graphene fluoride is the most thermodynamically stable of five studied hypothetical graphene derivatives; graphane, graphene fluoride, bromide, chloride, and iodide. The graphene fluoride is transformed into graphene via graphene iodide, a spontaneously decomposing intermediate. The calculated bandgaps of graphene halides vary from zero for graphene bromide to 3.1 eV for graphene fluoride. It is possible to design the electronic properties of such two-dimensional crystals.
Project description:The bulky tris(3-tert-butyl-5-pyrazolyl)hydroborato ligand, [TpBut,Me], has been employed to obtain the first structurally characterized example of a molecular magnesium compound that features a terminal fluoride ligand, namely [TpBut,Me]MgF, via the reaction of [TpBut,Me]MgMe with Me3SnF. The chloride, bromide and iodide complexes, [TpBut,Me]MgX (X = Cl, Br, I), can also be obtained by an analogous method using Me3SnX. The molecular structures of the complete series of halide derivatives, [TpBut,Me]MgX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) have been determined by X-ray diffraction. In each case, the Mg-X bond lengths are shorter than the sum of the covalent radii, thereby indicating that there is a significant ionic component to the bonding, in agreement with density functional theory calculations. The fluoride ligand of [TpBut,Me]MgF undergoes halide exchange with Me3SiX (X = Cl, Br, I) to afford [TpBut,Me]MgX and Me3SiF. The other halide derivatives [TpBut,Me]MgX undergo similar exchange reactions, but the thermodynamic driving forces are much smaller than those involving fluoride transfer, a manifestation of the often discussed silaphilicity of fluorine. In accord with the highly polarized Mg-F bond, the fluoride ligand of [TpBut,Me]MgF is capable of serving as a hydrogen bond and halogen bond acceptor, such that it forms adducts with indole and C6F5I. [TpBut,Me]MgF also reacts with Ph3CCl to afford Ph3CF, thereby demonstrating that [TpBut,Me]MgF may be used to form C-F bonds.
Project description:A urea-based tripodal receptor L substituted with p-cyanophenyl groups has been studied for halide anions using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and X-ray crystallography. The (1)H NMR titration studies suggest that the receptor forms a 1:1 complex with an anion, showing a binding trend in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. The interaction of a fluoride anion with the receptor was further confirmed by 2D NOESY and (19)F NMR spectroscopy in DMSO-d(6). DFT calculations indicate that the internal halide anion is held by six NH···X interactions with L, showing the highest binding energy for the fluoride complex. Structural characterization of the chloride, bromide, and silicon hexafluoride complexes of [LH(+)] reveals that the anion is externally located via hydrogen bonding interactions. For the bromide or chloride complex, two anions are bridged with two receptors to form a centrosymmetric dimer, while for the silicon hexafluoride complex, the anion is located within a cage formed by six ligands and two water molecules.
Project description:A novel selective and substrate-dependent synthetic protocol has been developed towards the synthesis of various fluorine-containing, highly functionalized cycloalkane derivatives. The method involves the stereoselective epoxidation of some unsaturated cyclic ?-amino acid derivatives as model compounds, followed by a regioselective fluoride opening of oxiranes under various conditions with Deoxofluor and XtalFluor-E reagents, thereby offering an insight into this new epoxide opening methodology with fluoride.
Project description:Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is an important high-altitude plant of Himalayas with immense medicinal value. Earlier, it was reported that the cell wall hydrolases were up accumulated during radicle protrusion step of Podophyllum seed germination. In the present study, Podophyllum seed Germination protein interaction Network (PGN) was constructed by using the differentially accumulated protein (DAP) data set of Podophyllum during the radicle protrusion step of seed germination, with reference to Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network (AtPIN). The developed PGN is comprised of a giant cluster with 1028 proteins having 10,519 interactions and a few small clusters with relevant gene ontological signatures. In this analysis, a germination pathway related cluster which is also central to the topology and information dynamics of PGN was obtained with a set of 60 key proteins. Among these, eight proteins which are known to be involved in signaling, metabolism, protein modification, cell wall modification, and cell cycle regulation processes were found commonly highlighted in both the proteomic and interactome analysis. The systems-level analysis of PGN identified the key proteins involved in radicle protrusion step of seed germination in Podophyllum.
Project description:A p-xylyl-based macrocycle L has been synthesized and its binding properties with halides have been investigated by (1)H NMR titrations, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As investigated by (1)H NMR titrations, the ligand preferentially binds a halide in a 1:2 binding mode, with the association constants (in log K2) of 2.82, 2.70, 2.28, and 2.20 for fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide, respectively. The overall binding trend was found to be in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide, reflecting that the binding strength correlates with the relative basicity and size of the respective halide. Crystallographic studies indicate that the ligand forms 1:2 complexes with chloride, bromide and iodide. In the chloride complex, the ligand is hexaprotonated and each chloride is held via three NH···Cl(-) bonds. The ligand is tetraprotonated for the other complexes, where each halide is H-bonded to two secondary ammonium NH(+) groups via NH···X(-) bonds. The results of DFT calculations performed on [H6L](6+) at M062x/6-311G (d,p) level in both gas and solvent phases, suggest that the ligand binds halides with the binding energy in the order of F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-), supporting the experimental data obtained from (1)H NMR studies. Results from DFT calculations further indicate that a 1:2 binding is energetically more favorable than a 1:1 binding of the ligand.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of fluoride ions present in various solvent solutions and compare it to the label amount of fluoride concentration. Material and methods:The gel containing amine fluoride and sodium fluoride was compared to gel containing sodium fluoride only. The solvents used in this study were distilled water, redistilled water, tap water, 0.9% sodium chloride solution and the artificial saliva. The amount of fluoride ion (F-) was determined by the use of fluoride ion-selective electrode. The ANOVA and the Post hoc Tukey's test were used. The significance level was ? = 5%. Results:The differences between F- ion release in various solvents were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The F- ion concentrations measured in both gels' redistilled water solutions were higher than the label concentration. There was a significant difference in fluoride ion release in sodium fluoride only gel solutions. Fluoride ion release was significantly different in combined fluoride gel solutions. Conclusions:Amine fluorides do not interact with other ions present in the solution, whereas F- ion release from sodium fluoride alters when other ions are dissolved in the same solution. Amine fluorides deliver F- ions for caries prevention more efficiently.