Control and Manipulation of Nano Cracks Mimicking Optical Wave.
ABSTRACT: Generally, a fracture is considered as an uncontrollable thus useless phenomenon due to its highly random nature. The aim of this study is to investigate highly ordered cracks such as oscillatory cracks and to manipulate via elaborate control of mechanical properties of the cracking medium including thickness, geometry, and elastic mismatch. Specific thin film with micro-sized notches was fabricated on a silicon based substrate in order to controllably generate self-propagating cracks in large area. Interestingly, various nano-cracks behaved similar to optical wave including refraction, total internal reflection and evanescent wave. This novel phenomena of controlled cracking was used to fabricate sophisticated nano/micro patterns in large area which cannot be obtained even with conventional nanofabrication methods. We also have showed that the cracks are directly implementable into a nano/micro-channel application since the cracks naturally have a form of channel-like shape.
Project description:Current metal film-based electronics, while sensitive to external stretching, typically fail via uncontrolled cracking under a relatively small strain (~30%), which restricts their practical applications. To address this, here we report a design approach inspired by the stereocilia bundles of a cochlea that uses a hierarchical assembly of interfacial nanowires to retard penetrating cracking. This structured surface outperforms its flat counterparts in stretchability (130% versus 30% tolerable strain) and maintains high sensitivity (minimum detection of 0.005% strain) in response to external stimuli such as sounds and mechanical forces. The enlarged stretchability is attributed to the two-stage cracking process induced by the synergy of micro-voids and nano-voids. In-situ observation confirms that at low strains micro-voids between nanowire clusters guide the process of crack growth, whereas at large strains new cracks are randomly initiated from nano-voids among individual nanowires.
Project description:Understanding the cracking behavior during carbonation is of high importance, and the cracks can serve as a shortcut for CO2 diffusion, which can further accelerate the carbonation process itself. In this study, a sliced paste sample was taken for an accelerated carbonation test, and the cracking behavior, as well as its impact on carbonation, was investigated through a novel extended attenuation method based on X-ray (XRAM) which is performed primarily on computed tomography (CT). Surface-opening cracks at different carbonation ages were rendered, based on which a full view on the carbonation-cracking behavior was built. The results reveal that the crack paths can rapidly be occupied by CO2, and that leads to the generation of V-shaped carbonation cusps pervading the carbonation fronts. The V-shaped carbonation cusps were mostly generated at the early carbonation age (within 14 days), attesting to a less intact sample surface as compared to the inside area. Moreover, this study confirms that the carbonated area would split into two independent zones with variant carbonation degree due to the increased humidity level near the sample surface. The current work reveals the interconnection between carbonation and cracking, and the results can be used for the designing of cement-based materials with better carbonation and cracking resistance.
Project description:The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.
Project description:Micro cracks occurring in concrete around tensile rebar is well known latent damage phenomenon. These micro cracks develop, and can be detected after reaching the surface of the concrete. Detection of these cracks before they are fully formed is preferable, but observing the whole crack structure is difficult. Another problem is repairing micro cracks under the concrete surface. The autogenous ability of bond cracks along rebar was evaluated using the air permeability test. Air permeability coefficients were measured before and after tensile loading, and experimental air permeability coefficients became larger near cracks along rebar as a result of tensile loading. Recuring for 28 days after tensile loading made the air permeability coefficients smaller, but this restriction only occurred during water recuring. Observation of crack patterns helped the understanding of change in the air permeability coefficients. Several small cracks along rebar were observed after tensile loading, and most cracks along rebar were not found after water recuring. On the other hand, the crack pattern did not change after air recuring. These results indicate that bond cracks along rebar can be closed by autogenous healing, and cause the air permeability coefficients.
Project description:Spontaneously propagating cracks in solids emit both pressure and shear waves. When a shear crack propagates faster than the shear wave speed of the material, the coalescence of the shear wavelets emitted by the near-crack-tip region forms a shock front that significantly concentrates particle motion. Such a shock front should not be possible for pressure waves, because cracks should not be able to exceed the pressure wave speed in isotropic linear-elastic solids. In this study, we present full-field experimental measurements of dynamic shear cracks in viscoelastic polymers that result in the formation of a pressure shock front, in addition to the shear one. The apparent violation of classic theories is explained by the strain-rate-dependent material behavior of polymers, where the crack speed remains below the highest pressure wave speed prevailing locally around the crack tip. These findings have important implications for the physics and dynamics of shear cracks such as earthquakes.
Project description:This data article contains lab-based micro-computed tomography (?CT) data of cracks and crack networks in 4 different bearings, mainly from wind turbines, which formed the basis for the crack analysis reported in Danielsen et al. (Danielsen et al., 2019).
Project description:This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) .
Project description:The effect of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) on autogenous crack healing in cementitious materials with early-age cracking was investigated. SAP-containing samples exposed to wet/dry cycles showed better autogenous healing than those only exposed to wet conditions, as determined by water flow and compressive strength recovery tests. The water flow rates through cracks (380 ± 40 µm) in cement paste and cement mortar containing 1.0% SAP decreased by around 97.1-100% and 79.7-90.7%, respectively, after 14 cycles of healing compared to 1 cycle. Although the initial compressive strength decreased with SAP addition, it recovered somewhat after a 28-d healing period. Microscopy and spectroscopy results identified CaCO3 and/or calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) as the main healing products.
Project description:Detection of precursor damage followed by the quantification of the degraded material properties could lead to more accurate progressive failure models for composite materials. However, such information is not readily available. In composite materials, the precursor damages-for example matrix cracking, microcracks, voids, interlaminar pre-delamination crack joining matrix cracks, fiber micro-buckling, local fiber breakage, local debonding, etc.-are insensitive to the low-frequency ultrasonic guided-wave-based online nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) (~100-~500 kHz) systems. Overcoming this barrier, in this article, an online ultrasonic technique is proposed using the coda part of the guided wave signal, which is often neglected. Although the first-arrival wave packets that contain the fundamental guided Lamb wave modes are unaltered, the coda wave packets however carry significant information about the precursor events with predictable phase shifts. The Taylor-series-based modified Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) technique is proposed to quantify the stretch parameter to compensate the phase shifts in the coda wave as a result of precursor damage in composites. The CWI analysis was performed on five woven composite-fiber-reinforced-laminate specimens, and the precursor events were identified. Next, the precursor damage states were verified using high-frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) and optical microscopy imaging.
Project description:We first verify the critical impact of evaporation on the formation of zigzag hollow cracks by regulating the drying micro-environment of silver nanoparticle film. Uneven evaporation and component segregation contributes to the flows along the surface and inside of droplets. Asymmetric vapor concentration distribution is capable of weakening the surface flow of droplets, thus suppressing the inner compressive stress of nanoparticles and leading to a surface morphology with less cracks. Although defect-free and surface smooth nanoparticle film deposited by a solution-based method remains a big challenge, our work has referential significance to optimize high-quality nanoparticle film with appropriate deposition and curing processes. Moreover, an optimization possibility through the drying micro-environment should be considered in high-end applications due to its enhanced effect on high-resolution patterns.