ATM and ATR Signaling Regulate the Recruitment of Human Telomerase to Telomeres.
ABSTRACT: The yeast homologs of the ATM and ATR DNA damage response kinases play key roles in telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance, but the role of ATM/ATR in the mammalian telomerase pathway has been less clear. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for ATM and ATR in the localization of telomerase to telomeres and telomere elongation in immortal human cells. Stalled replication forks increased telomerase recruitment in an ATR-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased telomerase recruitment was observed upon phosphorylation of the shelterin component TRF1 at an ATM/ATR target site (S367). This phosphorylation leads to loss of TRF1 from telomeres and may therefore increase replication fork stalling. ATM and ATR depletion reduced assembly of the telomerase complex, and ATM was required for telomere elongation in cells expressing POT1?OB, an allele of POT1 that disrupts telomere-length homeostasis. These data establish that human telomerase recruitment and telomere elongation are modulated by DNA-damage-transducing kinases.
Project description:Human telomere length is controlled by a negative feedback loop based on the binding of TRF1 to double-stranded telomeric DNA. The TRF1 complex recruits POT1, a single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein necessary for cis-inhibition of telomerase. By mass spectrometry, we have identified a new telomeric protein, which we have named POT1-interacting protein 1 (PIP1). PIP1 bound both POT1 and the TRF1-interacting factor TIN2 and could tether POT1 to the TRF1 complex. Reduction of PIP1 or POT1 levels with shRNAs led to telomere elongation, indicating that PIP1 contributes to telomere length control through recruitment of POT1.
Project description:Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a PI-3 kinase essential for maintaining genomic stability, has been shown to regulate TRF1, a negative mediator of telomerase-dependent telomere extension. However, little is known about ATM-mediated TRF1 phosphorylation site(s) in vivo. Here, we report that ATM phosphorylates S367 of TRF1 and that this phosphorylation renders TRF1 free of chromatin. We show that phosphorylated (pS367)TRF1 forms distinct non-telomeric subnuclear foci and that these foci occur predominantly in S and G2 phases, implying that their formation is cell cycle regulated. We show that phosphorylated (pS367)TRF1-containing foci are sensitive to proteasome inhibition. We find that a phosphomimic mutation of S367D abrogates TRF1 binding to telomeric DNA and renders TRF1 susceptible to protein degradation. In addition, we demonstrate that overexpressed TRF1-S367D accumulates in the subnuclear domains containing phosphorylated (pS367)TRF1 and that these subnuclear domains overlap with nuclear proteasome centers. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylated (pS367)TRF1-containing foci may represent nuclear sites for TRF1 proteolysis. Furthermore, we show that TRF1 carrying the S367D mutation is unable to inhibit telomerase-dependent telomere lengthening or to suppress the formation of telomere doublets and telomere loss in TRF1-depleted cells, suggesting that S367 phosphorylation by ATM is important for the regulation of telomere length and stability.
Project description:The checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR are redundantly required for maintenance of stable telomeres in diverse organisms, including budding and fission yeasts, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mammals. However, the molecular basis for telomere instability in cells lacking ATM and ATR has not yet been elucidated fully in organisms that utilize both the telomere protection complex shelterin and telomerase to maintain telomeres, such as fission yeast and humans. Here, we demonstrate by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays that simultaneous loss of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) kinases leads to a defect in recruitment of telomerase to telomeres, reduced binding of the shelterin complex subunits Ccq1 and Tpz1, and increased binding of RPA and homologous recombination repair factors to telomeres. Moreover, we show that interaction between Tpz1-Ccq1 and telomerase, thought to be important for telomerase recruitment to telomeres, is disrupted in tel1Delta rad3Delta cells. Thus, Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) are redundantly required for both protection of telomeres against recombination and promotion of telomerase recruitment. Based on our current findings, we propose the existence of a regulatory loop between Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR) kinases and Tpz1-Ccq1 to ensure proper protection and maintenance of telomeres in fission yeast.
Project description:Coats plus (CP) can be caused by mutations in the CTC1 component of CST, which promotes polymerase ? (pol?)/primase-dependent fill-in throughout the genome and at telomeres. The cellular pathology relating to CP has not been established. We identified a homozygous POT1 S322L substitution (POT1(CP)) in two siblings with CP. POT1(CP)induced a proliferative arrest that could be bypassed by telomerase. POT1(CP)was expressed at normal levels, bound TPP1 and telomeres, and blocked ATR signaling. POT1(CP)was defective in regulating telomerase, leading to telomere elongation rather than the telomere shortening observed in other telomeropathies. POT1(CP)was also defective in the maintenance of the telomeric C strand, causing extended 3' overhangs and stochastic telomere truncations that could be healed by telomerase. Consistent with shortening of the telomeric C strand, metaphase chromosomes showed loss of telomeres synthesized by leading strand DNA synthesis. We propose that CP is caused by a defect in POT1/CST-dependent telomere fill-in. We further propose that deficiency in the fill-in step generates truncated telomeres that halt proliferation in cells lacking telomerase, whereas, in tissues expressing telomerase (e.g., bone marrow), the truncations are healed. The proposed etiology can explain why CP presents with features distinct from those associated with telomerase defects (e.g., dyskeratosis congenita).
Project description:In both fission yeast and humans, the shelterin complex plays central roles in regulation of telomerase recruitment, protection of telomeres against DNA damage response factors, and formation of heterochromatin at telomeres. While shelterin is essential for limiting activation of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM at telomeres, these kinases are required for stable maintenance of telomeres. In fission yeast, Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM kinases are redundantly required for telomerase recruitment, since Rad3ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 promotes interaction between Ccq1 and the telomerase subunit Est1. However, it remained unclear how protein-protein interactions within the shelterin complex (consisting of Taz1, Rap1, Poz1, Tpz1, Pot1 and Ccq1) contribute to the regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. In this study, we identify domains and amino acid residues that are critical for mediating Tpz1-Ccq1 and Tpz1-Poz1 interaction within the fission yeast shelterin complex. Using separation of function Tpz1 mutants that maintain Tpz1-Pot1 interaction but specifically disrupt either Tpz1-Ccq1 or Tpz1-Poz1 interaction, we then establish that Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction promotes Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation, telomerase recruitment, checkpoint inhibition and telomeric heterochromatin formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Tpz1-Poz1 interaction promotes telomere association of Poz1, and loss of Poz1 from telomeres leads to increases in Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment, and telomeric heterochromatin formation defect. In addition, our studies establish that Tpz1-Poz1 and Tpz1-Ccq1 interactions redundantly fulfill the essential telomere protection function of the shelterin complex, since simultaneous loss of both interactions caused immediate loss of cell viability for the majority of cells and generation of survivors with circular chromosomes. Based on these findings, we suggest that the negative regulatory function of Tpz1-Poz1 interaction works upstream of Rad3ATR kinase, while Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction works downstream of Rad3ATR kinase to facilitate Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:The telomeric single-strand DNA binding protein protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) protects telomeres from rapid degradation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and has been implicated in positive and negative telomere length regulation in humans. Human POT1 appears to interact with telomeres both through direct binding to the 3' overhanging G-strand DNA and through interaction with the TRF1 duplex telomere DNA binding complex. The influence of POT1 on telomerase activity has not been studied at the molecular level. We show here that POT1 negatively effects telomerase activity in vitro. We find that the DNA binding activity of POT1 is required for telomerase inhibition. Furthermore, POT1 is incapable of inhibiting telomeric repeat addition to substrate primers that are defective for POT1 binding, suggesting that in vivo, POT1 likely affects substrate access to telomerase.
Project description:Telomeres are protected by shelterin, a six-subunit protein complex that represses the DNA damage response (DDR) at chromosome ends. Extensive data suggest that TRF2 in shelterin remodels telomeres into the t-loop structure, thereby hiding telomere ends from double-stranded break repair and ATM signaling, whereas POT1 represses ATR signaling by excluding RPA. An alternative protection mechanism was suggested recently by which shelterin subunits TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mediate telomeric chromatin compaction, which was proposed to minimize access of DDR factors. We performed superresolution imaging of telomeres in mouse cells after conditional deletion of TRF1, TRF2, or both, the latter of which results in the complete loss of shelterin. Upon removal of TRF1 or TRF2, we observed only minor changes in the telomere volume in most of our experiments. Upon codeletion of TRF1 and TRF2, the telomere volume increased by varying amounts, but even those samples exhibiting small changes in telomere volume showed DDR at nearly all telomeres. Upon shelterin removal, telomeres underwent 53BP1-dependent clustering, potentially explaining at least in part the apparent increase in telomere volume. Furthermore, chromatin accessibility, as determined by ATAC-seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin [ATAC] with high-throughput sequencing), was not substantially altered by shelterin removal. These results suggest that the DDR induced by shelterin removal does not require substantial telomere decompaction.
Project description:Shelterin component TRF2 prevents ATM activation, while POT1 represses ATR signalling at telomeres. Here, we investigate the mechanism of G2/M arrest triggered by telomeres uncapped through TRF2 or POT1 inhibition in human cells. We find that telomere damage-activated ATR and ATM phosphorylate p53, as well as CHK1 and CHK2, thus activating two independent pathways to prevent progression into mitosis with uncapped telomeres. Surprisingly, telomere damage targets the CDC25C phosphatase for proteasome degradation in G2/M. CHK1/CHK2-dependent phosphorylation of CDC25C at Ser 216 is required for CDC25C nuclear export and destruction, which in turn acts to sustain the G2/M arrest elicited by TRF2- or POT1-depleted telomeres. In addition, CDC25C is transcriptionally downregulated by p53 in response to telomere damage. These mechanisms are distinct from the canonical DNA damage response to ionizing radiation, which triggers cell-cycle arrest through CDC25A destruction. Thus, dysfunctional telomeres promote ATM/ATR-dependent degradation of CDC25C phosphatase to block mitotic entry, thereby preventing telomere dysfunction-driven genomic instability.
Project description:Telomere homeostasis is controlled by both telomerase machinery and end protection. Telomere shortening induces DNA damage sensing kinases ATM/ATR for telomerase recruitment. Yet, whether telomere shortening also governs end protection is poorly understood. Here we discover that yeast ATM/ATR controls end protection. Rap1 is phosphorylated by Tel1 and Mec1 kinases at serine 731, and this regulation is stimulated by DNA damage and telomere shortening. Compromised Rap1 phosphorylation hampers the interaction between Rap1 and its interacting partner Rif1, which thereby disturbs the end protection. As expected, reduction of Rap1-Rif1 association impairs telomere length regulation and increases telomere-telomere recombination. These results indicate that ATM/ATR DNA damage checkpoint signal contributes to telomere protection by strengthening the Rap1-Rif1 interaction at short telomeres, and the checkpoint signal oversees both telomerase recruitment and end capping pathways to maintain telomere homeostasis.
Project description:Tightly controlled recruitment of telomerase, a low-abundance enzyme, to telomeres is essential for regulated telomere synthesis. Recent studies in human cells revealed that a patch of amino acids in the shelterin component TPP1, called the TEL-patch, is essential for recruiting telomerase to telomeres. However, how TEL-patch-telomerase interaction integrates into the overall orchestration of telomerase regulation at telomeres is unclear. In fission yeast, Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR)-mediated phosphorylation of shelterin component Ccq1 during late S phase is involved in telomerase recruitment through promoting the binding of Ccq1 to a telomerase accessory protein Est1. Here, we identify the TEL-patch in Tpz1(TPP1), mutations of which lead to decreased telomeric association of telomerase, similar to the phosphorylation-defective Ccq1. Furthermore, we find that telomerase action at telomeres requires formation and resolution of an intermediate state, in which the cell cycle-dependent Ccq1-Est1 interaction is coupled to the TEL-patch-Trt1 interaction, to achieve temporally regulated telomerase elongation of telomeres.