Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Electrolysis and Eccentric Exercises for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Objective. To compare effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles in subacromial pain syndrome. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomized and assigned into US-guided percutaneous electrolysis (n = 17) group or exercise (n = 19) group. Patients were asked to perform an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice every day for 4 weeks. Participants assigned to US-guided percutaneous electrolysis group also received the application of galvanic current through acupuncture needle on each session once a week (total 4 sessions). Shoulder pain (NPRS) and disability (DASH) were assessed at baseline, after 2 sessions, and 1 week after the last session. Results. The ANOVA revealed significant Group?Time interactions for shoulder pain and disability (all, P < 0.01): individuals receiving US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with the eccentric exercises experienced greater improvement than those receiving eccentric exercise alone. Conclusions. US-guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with eccentric exercises resulted in small better outcomes at short term compared to when only eccentric exercises were applied in subacromial pain syndrome. The effect was statistically and clinically significant for shoulder pain but below minimal clinical difference for function. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects and potential placebo effect of this intervention.
Project description:To evaluate if a specific exercise strategy, targeting the rotator cuff and scapula stabilisers, improves shoulder function and pain more than unspecific exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, thereby decreasing the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression.Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, controlled study.Department of orthopaedics in a Swedish university hospital.102 patients with long standing (over six months) persistent subacromial impingement syndrome in whom earlier conservative treatment had failed, recruited through orthopaedic specialists.The specific exercise strategy consisted of strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers in combination with manual mobilisation. The control exercise programme consisted of unspecific movement exercises for the neck and shoulder. Patients in both groups received five to six individual guided treatment sessions during 12 weeks. In between these supervised sessions the participants performed home exercises once or twice a day for 12 weeks.The primary outcome was the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment score evaluating shoulder function and pain. Secondary outcomes were patients' global impression of change because of treatment and decision regarding surgery.Most (97, 95%) participants completed the 12 week study. There was a significantly greater improvement in the Constant-Murley score in the specific exercise group than in the control exercise group (24 points (95% confidence interval 19 to 28.0) v 9 points (5 to 13); mean difference between group: 15 points (8.5 to 20.6)). Significantly more patients in the specific exercise group reported successful outcome (defined as large improvement or recovered) in the patients' global assessment of change because of treatment: 69% (35/51) v 24% (11/46); odds ratio 7.6, 3.1 to 18.9; P<0.001. A significantly lower proportion of patients in the specific exercise group subsequently chose to undergo surgery: 20% (10/51) v 63% (29/46); odds ratio 7.7, 3.1 to 19.4; P<0.001).A specific exercise strategy, focusing on strengthening eccentric exercises for the rotator cuff and concentric/eccentric exercises for the scapula stabilisers, is effective in reducing pain and improving shoulder function in patients with persistent subacromial impingement syndrome. By extension, this exercise strategy reduces the need for arthroscopic subacromial decompression within the three month timeframe used in the study.Clinical trials NCT01037673.
Project description:Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal disorder, often affecting people's daily living and work capacity. The most common shoulder disorder is the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) which, among other pathophysiological changes, is often characterised by rotator cuff tendinopathy. Exercise is often considered the primary treatment option for rotator cuff tendinopathy, but there is no consensus on which exercise strategy is the most effective. As eccentric and high-load strength training have been shown to have a positive effect on patella and Achilles tendinopathy, the aim of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy.The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform home-based exercises three times a week. The primary outcome measure will be change from baseline to 12 weeks in the patient-reported outcome Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire.Previous studies of exercise treatment for SIS have not differentiated between subgroups of SIS and have often had methodological flaws, making it difficult to specifically design target treatment for patients diagnosed with SIS. Therefore, it was considered important to focus on a subgroup such as tendinopathy, with a specific tailored intervention strategy based on evidence from other regions of the body, and to clearly describe the intervention in a methodologically strong study.The trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01984203 ) on 31 October 2013.
Project description:Subacromial pain syndrome (SPS) involving rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability. Evidence suggests that structured physiotherapy may be as effective as surgery in this condition with significant improvements demonstrated in trials involving scapular retraining, rotator cuff strengthening and flexibility exercises. Most published programs typically utilise isotonic concentric and/or eccentric strengthening modes. Recently, immediate analgesic effects and muscle strength gains following heavy-load isometric exercises in lower limb tendinopathy conditions have been observed. It is pertinent to ascertain whether such outcomes can be replicated in SPS/rotator cuff tendinopathy. The primary aim of this study is to establish the feasibility of undertaking a full-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effects of isometric, isotonic concentric and isotonic eccentric rotator cuff contractions when used as part of a semi-standardised exercise-based physiotherapy program in patients diagnosed with SPS. The secondary aim is to explore potential trends or treatment effects of the exercise intervention.Thirty-six participants diagnosed with SPS will be randomised to one of three intervention groups and undergo a one-on-one exercise-based physiotherapy intervention, involving scapular and rotator cuff muscle retraining and strengthening. Each group will utilise a different mode of rotator cuff strengthening-isometric, isotonic concentric or isotonic eccentric. Rotator cuff tendon responses to isometric loading are not yet established in the literature; hence, individualised, progressive loading will be used in this pilot study in accordance with symptoms. The intervention will involve two phases: during Phase 1 (weeks 1-6) participants undertake the active group-specific physiotherapy treatment; in Phase 2 (weeks 6-12), they undertake a progressive, but no longer group-specific exercise program. To determine feasibility, an evaluation of key study parameters including (a) ease of recruitment (rate and number as well as suitability of the assessment algorithm), (b) adherence to all phases of the exercise intervention including home program compliance and logbook completion, (c) participant non-completion (drop out number and rate) and (d) adverse events (nature and number) will be undertaken. Secondary outcomes will measure immediate effects: (i) within-treatment changes in pain perception (verbal rating scale (VRS) and shoulder muscle strength (hand-held dynamometer) as well as longer-term changes: (ii) shoulder-related symptoms and disability (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)), (iii) perception of pain (11-point numerical rating scale (NRS), (iv) shoulder muscle strength (hand-held dynamometer) and (v) perceived global rating of change score. The immediate within-treatment assessment of pain and muscle strength will be undertaken in treatments 2 and 3, and the longer term measures will be collected at the primary (conclusion of Phase 1 at 6 weeks) and secondary (conclusion of Phase 2 at 12 weeks) end-points of the study.The findings of this pilot study will permit evaluation of this study design for a full-scale RCT.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001676404.
Project description:Subacromial shoulder pain is a common complaint. Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (rESWT) has being increasingly used to treat calcific and non-calcific tendinosis, although there is no evidence of the effectiveness of rESWT in non-calcific tendinosis of the rotator cuff. A randomised single blind study showed that the short-term effect of supervised exercises (SE) was significantly better than rESWT on subacromial shoulder pain, but both groups improved. In a clinical trial on achilles tendinopathy rESWT improved the effectiveness of treatment with eccentric loading. The objective of this present study is to evaluate if rESWT in addition to SE is more effective in improving shoulder pain and function compared with sham rESWT and SE in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.This is a double blind, randomised sham-controlled trial which is performed at the shoulder clinic at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Oslo University Hospital, Norway. One-hundred-forty-four patients with subacromial shoulder pain lasting at least 3 months, age from 25 to 70 years old are included in the trial. Patients are randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to receive either rESWT or sham rESWT once a week in addition to SE once a week for the initial 4 weeks. Subsequently SE are provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is a change in the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) at 24 weeks follow-up. Secondary outcomes include return to work, pain at rest and on activity, function, and health related quality of life. The patients, the physiotherapist providing the exercise regimen and the outcome assessor are blinded to group assignment. The physiotherapist providing the rESWT is not blinded.Because of the extensive use of rESWT in the treatment of subacromial shoulder pain the results of this trial will be of importance and have impact on clinical practice.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01441830.
Project description:Background:Shoulder pain affects up to 67% of the population at some point in their lifetime with subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS) representing a common etiology. Despite a plethora of studies there remains conflicting evidence for appropriate management of SAPS. Purpose:To compare outcomes, for individuals diagnosed with SAPS, performing a 6-week protocol of eccentric training of the shoulder external rotators (ETER) compared to a general exercise (GE) protocol. Study Design:Randomized controlled trial. Methods:Forty-eight individuals (mean age 46.8 years?+?/-17.29) with chronic shoulder pain, and a clinical diagnosis of SAPS were randomized into either an experimental group performing ETER or a control group performing a GE program. The intervention lasted for six weeks, and outcomes were measured after three weeks, six weeks, and again at six months post intervention. Results:The primary outcome of function, measured by the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, demonstrated a significant interaction effect derived from a multilevel hierarchical model accounting for repeated measures favoring the experimental group at week 3: 14.65 (p=.003), Week 6: 17.04 (p<.001) and six months: 15.12 (p=.007). After six months, secondary outcome measures were improved for Numeric Pain Rating Scale levels representing pain at worst (p=.006) and pain on average (p=0.02), external rotator (p<.001), internal rotator (p=0.02), and abductor strength (p<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcome measures of Global Rating of Change, Active Range of Motion, the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and strength ratios after six months. Conclusion:An eccentric program targeting the external rotators was superior to a general exercise program for strength, pain, and function after six months. The findings suggest eccentric training may be efficacious to improve self-report function and strength for those with SAPS. Level of Evidence:2b.
Project description:Supraspinatus tendinopathy is one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. Many studies support conservative treatments such as exercise, trigger point dry needling or corticosteroid injections. Otherwise, a minimally invasive approach with percutaneous electrolysis (PE) has also been used successfully in shoulder pain, although evidence about its long-term effects is scarce. The aim of this trial was to determine the effects of PE on supraspinatus tendinopathy compared with trigger point dry needling (TDN). Thirty-six patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy were randomly assigned to either a PE group (n = 18) or a TDN group (n = 18). Both groups also performed eccentric exercises. The main outcome to be measured was the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), but the shoulder range of motion (ROM) and trigger point pressure pain threshold (PPT) were also considered. A one-year follow-up was conducted. Significant differences favoring the PE group were found regarding pain at one-year follow-up (p = 0.002). The improvement achieved in the PE group was greater in the NPRS (p < 0.001), proximal PPT, middle PPT, distal PPT (all p < 0.001) and ranges of movement. PE seems to be more effective than TDN in relieving pain and improving ROM and PPT supraspinatus values in patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy, both right after treatment and at one-year follow-up.
Project description:To compare the effectiveness of ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection in the subacromial bursa with systemic corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease.Double blind randomised clinical trial.Outpatient clinic of a physical medicine and rehabilitation department in Oslo, Norway. Patients 106 patients with rotator cuff disease lasting at least three months.Ultrasound guided corticosteroid and lidocaine injection in the subacromial bursa and lidocaine injection in the gluteal region (local group); corticosteroid and lidocaine injection in the gluteal region and ultrasound guided lidocaine injection in the subacromial bursa (systemic group).Difference in improvement in the overall shoulder pain and disability index score after six weeks.Six weeks after the intervention, the mean difference in improvement in overall shoulder pain and disability index score between the local group and the systemic group was -5.2 (95% confidence interval -13.9 to 3.5); it was -4.1 (-12.3 to 4.1, P=0.32) after adjustment for baseline score. A small but statistically significant difference in improvement between groups occurred in favour of the local group for two secondary outcome measures: the Western Ontario rotator cuff index (8.1, 0.7 to 15.6) and change in main complaint (2.0, 0 to 4).No important differences in short term outcomes were found between local ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection and systemic corticosteroid injection in rotator cuff disease.Clinical trials NCT00640575.
Project description:Damage to intramuscular tendons is very common in sports injuries, specifically in soleus muscle injuries. This study sought to compare the effects of applying ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) in combination with an eccentric exercise program on pain and functionality in dancers with chronic soleus injury, located in the central tendon. Thirty dancers with injured central tendon of the soleus muscle were randomly allocated to a PNE group (n?=?10), an eccentric exercise group (n?=?10), or a combined group (n?=?10). Pain, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM), endurance, the heel raise test, the DFOS questionnaire, and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were analyzed at baseline and after treatment (four weeks). Over half (52%) of the dancers had a chronic soleus muscle injury. Variables for pain, DROM, the heel rise test, ADL, technique, DFOS total, and DFOS-subjective variables showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in pretreatment and posttreatment in all groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between intervention groups. However, the combined group showed a higher percentage of changes compared to the other groups, and these dancers had greater perceived changes (MCID?=?4.70?±?1.42). The conclusion of the study was that dancers with chronic soleus injury, located in the central tendon, treated with a combination of US-guided PNE and an eccentric exercise program displayed improved outcomes compared to the application of PNE therapy or eccentric exercise alone. The US-guided PNE, combined with an eccentric exercise program, is a useful therapeutic tool for the treatment of chronic soleus injury, located in the central tendon. The trial is registered with NCT04042012.
Project description:Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder of variable etiology, ranging from rotator cuff pathology to peripheral nerve entrapment. Advances in ultrasound (US) technology have allowed static and dynamic evaluation of shoulder problems and most importantly, offer real-time, radiation-free guidance for interventions. The present review aims to describe shoulder anatomy in detail using information from cadaveric models and to illustrate US-guided techniques using clearly labeled figures and videos. The review will also present evidence of specific US-guided therapies for shoulder pain by summarizing landmark studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The following shoulder structures will be covered: 1) the biceps long head tendon, 2) the acromioclavicular joint, 3) the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, 4) the glenohumeral joint, 5) the suprascapular nerve, and 6) the axillary nerve.
Project description:To compare the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shockwave treatment with that of supervised exercises in patients with shoulder pain.Single blind randomised study.Outpatient clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation department in Oslo, Norway.104 patients with subacromial shoulder pain lasting at least three months.Radial extracorporeal shockwave treatment: one session weekly for four to six weeks. Supervised exercises: two 45 minute sessions weekly for up to 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure Shoulder pain and disability index.A treatment effect in favour of supervised exercises at 6, 12, and 18 weeks was found. The adjusted treatment effect was -8.4 (95% confidence interval -16.5 to -0.6) points. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the group treated with supervised exercises improved-odds ratio 3.2 (1.3 to 7.8). More patients in the shockwave treatment group had additional treatment between 12 and 18 weeks-odds ratio 5.5 (1.3 to 26.4).Supervised exercises were more effective than radial extracorporeal shockwave treatment for short term improvement in patients with subacromial shoulder pain.Clinical trials NCT00653081.