Association of Genetic Polymorphisms of IFNGR1 with the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zahedan, Southeast Iran.
ABSTRACT: Aim. The present study was undertaken to find out the possible association between interferon-gamma (IFN-?) receptor 1 (IFNGR1) gene polymorphisms and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample of Iranian population. Methods. Polymorphisms of IFNGR1 rs1327474 (-611 A/G), rs11914 (+189 T/G), rs7749390 (+95 C/T), and rs137854905 (27-bp ins/del) were determined in 173 PTB patients and 164 healthy subjects. Results. Our findings showed that rs11914 TG genotypes decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with TT (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.21-0.62, and p = 0.0002). The rs11914 G allele decreased the risk of PTB compared with T allele (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.68, and p = 0.0006). IFNGR1 rs7749390 CT genotype decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with CC genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.95, and p = 0.038). No significant association was found between IFNGR1 rs1327474 A/G polymorphism and risk/protective of PTB. The rs137854905 (27-bp I/D) variant was not polymorphic in our population. Conclusion. Our findings showed that IFNGR1 rs11914 and rs7749390 variants decreased the risk of PTB susceptibility in our population.
Project description:Interferon-gamma (IFNG) and its receptor (IFNGR1) are principal genes that associated with tuberculosis. In the current study we aimed to explore the genetic association of polymorphisms of IFNG and IFNGR1 with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Chinese Tibetan population. We selected 467 PTB patients and 503 healthy controls to genotype 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied for assessing the associations, and the risk of PTB were evaluated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The results showed that mutants of rs9376268, rs1327475 and rs1327474 in IFNGR1 played a protective role in the PTB risk under genotype, dominant and additive model (P<0.05). On the contrary, minor allele "A" of rs2069705 in IFNG significantly increased the risk of PTB under genotype, dominant and additive model (P<0.05). However, after Bonferroni's multiple adjustment was applied to our data, which level of significant was set at P<0.0011 (0.05/45). Only variant of rs9376268 was significantly associated decrease the PTB susceptibility under additive model (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.61-0.88, P<0.001). Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, we found that the haplotypes "C-G-G-A-C", "C-G-A-G-T" and "T-A-G-G-T" of rs9376267-rs9376268-rs1327475-rs7749390-rs1327474 block were extremely decreased the PTB risk (P<0.01), however, the haplotypes "C-G-G-A-T", "T-G-G-G-T" and "C-G-G-G-T" of the block were extremely increased the PTB risk (P<0.01). These results suggested that variants of IFNGR1 may have a close relation with the PTB risk in Chinese Tibetan population.
Project description:Previous studies indicated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interferon gamma (IFNG) and IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1) may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in different populations. In order to further explore the results in a Chinese Han population, this study was designed to investigate potential associations between the polymorphisms in IFNG and IFNGR1 and susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and/or PTB in a Chinese Han population. A total of 209 PTB, 173 LTBI, and 183 healthy control subjects (HCS) were enrolled in our study. Genotyping was conducted using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR). We performed a logistic regression including sex and age as covariates to test the effect of alleles/genotypes on LTBI and/or TB. All six markers studied in IFNG and IFNGR1 conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The IFNG rs1861494 was significantly associated with LTBI in recessive model, and the CC+CT genotype decreased risk of LTBI by 50% (P = 0.046, OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.25-0.99). The IFNGR1 rs2234711 was significantly associated with LTBI, and allele A increased the risk of LTBI by 55% (P = 0.047, OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.00-2.40). In the present study, we found that IFNG and IFNGR1 polymorphisms were associated with LTBI.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) has substantial mortality worldwide with 5-10% of those exposed progressing to active TB disease. Studies in mice and humans indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecule plays an important role in immune response to TB. A mixed case-control association study of individuals with TB, relatives, or close contact controls was performed in 726 individuals (279 case and 166 control African-Americans; 198 case and 123 control Caucasians). Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the NOS2A gene for single SNP, haplotype, and multilocus interaction analyses with other typed candidate genes using generalized estimating equations. In African-Americans, ten NOS2A SNPs were associated with TB. The strongest associations were observed at rs2274894 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.23-2.77], p = 0.003) and rs7215373 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.17-2.37], p = 0.004), both of which passed a false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons (q* = 0.20). The strongest gene-gene interactions were observed between NOS2A rs2248814 and IFNGR1 rs1327474 (p = 0.0004) and NOS2A rs944722 and IFNGR1 rs1327474 (p = 0.0006). Three other SNPs in NOS2A interacted with TLR4 rs5030729 and five other NOS2A SNPs interacted with IFNGR1 rs1327474. No significant associations were observed in Caucasians. These results suggest that NOS2A variants may contribute to TB susceptibility, particularly in individuals of African descent, and may act synergistically with SNPs in TLR4 and IFNGR1.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. IRGM1 is an important protein in the innate immune response against intracellular pathogens by regulating autophagy. Polymorphisms in the IRGM genes are known to influence expression levels and may be associated with outcome of infections. This case-control study was done on 150 patients with PTB and 150 healthy subjects to determine whether the IRGM polymorphisms at positions -1208?A/G (rs4958842), -1161?C/T (rs4958843), and -947?C/T (rs4958846) were associated with PTB. The polymorphisms were determined using tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (T-ARMS-PCR). The results showed that the IRGM -1161?C/T and -947?C/T polymorphisms were associated with decreased susceptibility to PTB (OR?=?0.06, 95% CI = 0.03-0.13, P?<?0.001 and OR?=?0.27; 95% CI = 0.013-0.55, P?<?0.001, resp.). No significant difference was found among the groups regarding -1208?A/G polymorphism. In conclusion we found that the IRGM -1161?C/T and -947?C/T polymorphisms but not -1208?A/G polymorphism provide relative protection against PTB in a sample of Iranian population.
Project description:On the basis of their biological function, potential genetic candidates for susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis can be postulated. IFNGR1, encoding the ligand-binding chain of the receptor for interferon gamma, IFNgammaR1, is one such gene because interferon gamma is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the coding sequence of IFNGR1, two nucleotide positions have been described to be polymorphic in the Japanese population. We therefore investigated the association of those two IFNGR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis in a case-control study in a central European population. Surprisingly, however, neither position was polymorphic in the 364 individuals examined, indicating that IFNGR1 does not contribute to susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, at least in Caucasians.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to explore the relationship of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 genes polymorphisms with Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk in a sample of Chinese population.For this study, we recruited 467 subjects with PTB and 504 healthy subjects from a Tibetan population living in near or in Xi'an, China. Association analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2 and TLR4 were performed with SPSS Statistics (version 17.0), SNPStats, Haploview (version 4.2), and SHEsis software.The research results that is association analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis show there are two increased-risk SNPs (rs7696323, OR=1.32, 95%CI =1.08-1.62, P= 0.007; rs12377632, OR=1.30, 95%CI =1.09-1.55, P= 0.004) and three decreased-risk SNPs (rs3804099, OR=0.64, 95%CI =0.52-0.79, P= 1.9510-5; rs3804100, OR=0.67, 95%CI =0.54-0.82, P= 0.0001; rs11536889, OR=0.54, 95%CI =0.42-0.69, P= 9.1410-7).We found that two SNPs are associated with increased PTB risk and three SNPs decreased PTB risk in the Chinese Tibetan population. Our findings demonstrate an association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and PTB.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) share a number of common risk factors, including innate immunity-related genetic factors. In the present study, we compared the role of genetic variations of the TLR4 gene in susceptibility to COPD and PTB and illuminated the underlying molecular mechanism of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS:A population-based case control study was performed in a Chinese Han population and included 152 COPD cases, 1601 PTB cases and 1727 controls. Five SNPs in the TLR4 gene (rs10759932, rs2737190, rs7873784, rs11536889, and rs10983755) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. We estimated the effects of SNPs using the odds ratio (OR) together with 95% confidence interval (CI). Dual-luciferase reporter vectors expressing different genotypes of SNPs were constructed and transfected into the human HEK 293?T cell line to explore their effects on potential transcription activity. RESULTS:After Bonferroni correction, the genetic polymorphisms of all five SNPs remained significantly associated with COPD, while rs10759932 and rs2737190 were also associated with PTB. Compared with rs10759932-TT, individuals carrying TC (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28-0.64) or CC (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09-0.63) had a significantly reduced risk of COPD. However, individuals carrying TC (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11-1.49) or CC (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.98-1.62) had an increased risk of PTB. The OR (95% CI) for allele rs10759932-C was 0.45 (0.32-0.62) for COPD and 1.18 (1.07-1.32) for PTB. For rs2737190, heterozygous AG was related to a decreased risk of COPD (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.21-0.49) and an increased risk of PTB (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.52). The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed decreased transcription activity caused by rs10759932-C and rs2737190-G. CONCLUSION:Genetic polymorphisms of rs10759932 and rs2737190 in TLR4 are significantly related to both COPD and PTB but with inverse effects. The altered transcription activity caused by mutations in these two loci may partly explain the observed relationship.
Project description:Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an important endemic, systemic disease in Latin America caused by Paracoccidioides spp. This mycosis has been associated with high morbidity and sequels, and its clinical manifestations depend on the virulence of the infecting strain, the degree and type of immune response, infected tissues, and intrinsic characteristics of the host. The T helper(Th)1 and Th17/Th22 cells are related to resistance and control of infection, and a Th2/Th9 response is associated with disease susceptibility. In this study, we focused on interleukin(IL)-12p35 (IL12A), IL-18 (IL18), and IFN-? receptor 1 (IFNGR1) genetic polymorphisms because their respective roles have been described in human PCM. Real-time PCR was employed to analyze IL12A-504 G/T (rs2243115), IL18-607 C/A (rs1946518), and IFNGR1-611 A/G (rs1327474) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). One hundred forty-nine patients with the acute form (AF), multifocal chronic (MC), or unifocal chronic (UC) forms of PCM and 110 non-PCM individuals as a control group were included. In the unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusted by ethnicity and sex, we observed a high risk of the IL18-607 A-allele for both AF [p = 0.015; OR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.24-7.77)] and MC groups [p = 0.023; OR = 2.61 (95% CI: 1.14-5.96)] when compared with UC. The IL18-607 A-allele associated risk for the AF and MC groups as well as the protective role of the C-allele in UC are possibly linked to higher levels of IL-18 at different periods of the course of the disease. Therefore, a novel role of IL18-607 C/A SNP is shown in the present study, highlighting its importance in the outcome of PCM.
Project description:Little is known about the parasite/host factors that lead to Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) in some visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients after drug-cure. Studies in Sudan provide evidence for association between polymorphisms in the gene (IFNGR1) encoding the alpha chain of interferon-? receptor type I and risk of PKDL. This study aimed to identify putative functional polymorphisms in the IFNGR1 gene, and to determine whether differences in expression of interferon-? (IFNG) and IFNGR1 at the RNA level are associated with pathogenesis of VL and/or PKDL in Sudan.Sanger sequencing was used to re-sequence 841 bp of upstream, exon1 and intron1 of the IFNGR1 gene in DNA from 30 PKDL patients. LAGAN and SYNPLOT bioinformatics tools were used to compare human, chimpanzee and dog sequences to identify conserved noncoding sequences carrying putative regulatory elements. The relative expression of IFNG and IFNGR1 in paired pre- and post-treatment RNA samples from the lymph nodes of 24 VL patients, and in RNA samples from skin biopsies of 19 PKDL patients, was measured using real time PCR. Pre- versus post-treatment expression was evaluated statistically using the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test.Ten variants were identified in the 841 bp of sequence, four of which are novel polymorphisms at -77A/G, +10 C/T, +18C/T and +91G/T relative to the IFNGR1 initiation site. A cluster of conserved non-coding sequences with putative regulatory variants was identified in the distal promoter of IFNGR1. Variable expression of IFNG was detected in lymph node aspirates of VL patients before treatment, with a marked reduction (P?=?0.006) in expression following treatment. IFNGR1 expression was also variable in lymph node aspirates from VL patients, with no significant reduction in expression with treatment. IFNG expression was undetectable in the skin biopsies of PKDL cases, while IFNGR1 expression was also uniformly low.Uniformly low expression of IFN and IFNGR1 in PKDL skin biopsies could explain parasite persistence and is consistent with prior demonstration of genetic association with IFNGR1 polymorphisms. Identification of novel potentially functional rare variants at IFNGR1 makes an important general contribution to knowledge of rare variants of potential relevance in this Sudanese population.
Project description:The type II IFN (IFN?) enhances antimicrobial activity yet also drives expression of genes that amplify inflammatory responses. Hence, excessive IFN? stimulation can be pathogenic. Here, we describe a previously unappreciated mechanism whereby IFN? itself dampens myeloid cell activation. Staining of monocytes from <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i>-infected mice provided evidence of type I IFN-independent reductions in IFNGR1. IFN? was subsequently found to reduce surface IFNGR1 on cultured murine myeloid cells and human CD14<sup>+</sup> peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IFN?-driven reductions in IFNGR1 were not explained by ligand-induced receptor internalization. Rather, IFN? reduced macrophage <i>Ifngr1</i> transcription by altering chromatin structure at putative <i>Ifngr1</i> enhancer sites. This is a distinct mechanism from that used by type I IFNs. Ligand-induced reductions in IFNGR1 altered myeloid cell sensitivity to IFN?, blunting activation of STAT1 and 3. Our data, thus, reveal a mechanism by which IFNGR1 abundance and myeloid cell sensitivity to IFN? can be modulated in the absence of type I IFNs. Multiple mechanisms, thus, exist to calibrate macrophage IFNGR1 abundance, likely permitting the fine tuning of macrophage activation and inflammation.