Hsp70 and Hsp90 of E. coli Directly Interact for Collaboration in Protein Remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that remodels hundreds of client proteins, many involved in the progression of cancer and other diseases. It functions with the Hsp70 chaperone and numerous cochaperones. The bacterial Hsp90 functions with an Hsp70 chaperone, DnaK, but is independent of Hsp90 cochaperones. We explored the collaboration between Escherichia coli Hsp90 and DnaK and found that the two chaperones form a complex that is stabilized by client protein binding. A J-domain protein, CbpA, facilitates assembly of the Hsp90Ec-DnaK-client complex. We identified E. coli Hsp90 mutants defective in DnaK interaction in vivo and show that the purified mutant proteins are defective in physical and functional interaction with DnaK. Understanding how Hsp90 and Hsp70 collaborate in protein remodeling will provide the groundwork for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting multiple chaperones and cochaperones.
Project description:Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the folding, unfolding, and remodeling of other proteins. In eukaryotes, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) proteins are essential ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that remodel and activate hundreds of client proteins with the assistance of cochaperones. In Escherichia coli, the activity of the Hsp90 homolog, HtpG, has remained elusive. To explore the mechanism of action of E. coli Hsp90, we used in vitro protein reactivation assays. We found that E. coli Hsp90 promotes reactivation of heat-inactivated luciferase in a reaction that requires the prokaryotic Hsp70 chaperone system, known as the DnaK system. An Hsp90 ATPase inhibitor, geldanamycin, inhibits luciferase reactivation demonstrating the importance of the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of E. coli Hsp90 during client protein remodeling. Reactivation also depends upon the ATP-dependent chaperone activity of the DnaK system. Our results suggest that the DnaK system acts first on the client protein, and then E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system collaborate synergistically to complete remodeling of the client protein. Results indicate that E. coli Hsp90 and DnaK interact in vivo and in vitro, providing additional evidence to suggest that E. coli Hsp90 and the DnaK system function together.
Project description:The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a widely conserved and ubiquitous molecular chaperone that participates in ATP-dependent protein remodeling in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It functions in conjunction with Hsp70 and the Hsp70 cochaperones, an Hsp40 (J-protein) and a nucleotide exchange factor. In Escherichia coli, the functional collaboration between Hsp90Ec and Hsp70, DnaK, requires that the two chaperones directly interact. We used molecular docking to model the interaction of Hsp90Ec and DnaK. The top-ranked docked model predicted that a region in the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of DnaK interacted with a region in the middle domain of Hsp90Ec. We then made substitution mutants in DnaK residues suggested by the model to interact with Hsp90Ec. Of the 12 mutants tested, 11 were defective or partially defective in their ability to interact with Hsp90Ecin vivo in a bacterial two-hybrid assay and in vitro in a bio-layer interferometry assay. These DnaK mutants were also defective in their ability to function collaboratively in protein remodeling with Hsp90Ec but retained the ability to act with DnaK cochaperones. Taken together, these results suggest that a specific region in the NBD of DnaK is involved in the interaction with Hsp90Ec, and this interaction is functionally important. Moreover, the region of DnaK that we found to be necessary for Hsp90Ec binding includes residues that are also involved in J-protein binding, suggesting a functional interplay among DnaK, DnaK cochaperones, and Hsp90Ec.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of more than 200 client proteins, including many kinases and steroid hormone receptors involved in cell-signaling pathways. Hsp90 chaperone activity requires collaboration with a subset of the many Hsp90 cochaperones, including the Hsp70 chaperone. In higher eukaryotes, the collaboration between Hsp90 and Hsp70 is indirect and involves Hop, a cochaperone that interacts with both Hsp90 and Hsp70. Here we show that yeast Hsp90 (Hsp82) and yeast Hsp70 (Ssa1), directly interact in vitro in the absence of the yeast Hop homolog (Sti1), and identify a region in the middle domain of yeast Hsp90 that is required for the interaction. In vivo results using Hsp90 substitution mutants showed that several residues in this region were important or essential for growth at high temperature. Moreover, mutants in this region were defective in interaction with Hsp70 in cell lysates. In vitro, the purified Hsp82 mutant proteins were defective in direct physical interaction with Ssa1 and in protein remodeling in collaboration with Ssa1 and cochaperones. This region of Hsp90 is also important for interactions with several Hsp90 cochaperones and client proteins, suggesting that collaboration between Hsp70 and Hsp90 in protein remodeling may be modulated through competition between Hsp70 and Hsp90 cochaperones for the interaction surface.
Project description:Many proteins depend on an interaction with molecular chaperones in order to fold into a functional tertiary structure. Previous studies showed that protein interaction with the GroEL/GroES chaperonine and Hsp90 chaperone can buffer the impact of slightly deleterious mutations in the protein sequence. This capacity of GroEL/GroES to prevent protein misfolding has been shown to accelerate the evolution of its client proteins. Whether other bacterial chaperones have a similar effect on their client proteins is currently unknown. Here, we study the impact of DnaK (Hsp70) chaperone on the evolution of its client proteins. Evolutionary parameters were derived from comparison of the Escherichia coli proteome to 1,808,565 orthologous proteins in 1,149 proteobacterial genomes. Our analysis reveals a significant positive correlation between protein binding frequency with DnaK and evolutionary rate. Proteins with high binding affinity to DnaK evolve on average 4.3-fold faster than proteins in the lowest binding affinity class at the genus resolution. Differences in evolutionary rates of DnaK interactor classes are still significant after adjusting for possible effects caused by protein expression level. Furthermore, we observe an additive effect of DnaK and GroEL chaperones on the evolutionary rates of their common interactors. Finally, we found pronounced similarities in the physicochemical profiles that characterize proteins belonging to DnaK and GroEL interactomes. Our results thus implicate DnaK-mediated folding as a major component in shaping protein evolutionary dynamics in bacteria and supply further evidence for the long-term manifestation of chaperone-mediated folding on genome evolution.
Project description:The 70 kDa and 90 kDa heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are two abundant and highly conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that participate in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, Hsp90 (Hsp90Ec) and Hsp70 (DnaK) directly interact and collaborate in protein remodeling. Previous work has produced a model of the direct interaction of both chaperones. The locations of the residues involved have been confirmed and the model has been validated. In this study, we investigate the allosteric communication between Hsp90Ec and DnaK and how the chaperones couple their conformational cycles. Using elastic network models (ENM), normal mode analysis (NMA), and a structural perturbation method (SPM) of asymmetric and symmetric DnaK-Hsp90Ec, we extract biologically relevant vibrations and identify residues involved in allosteric signaling. When one DnaK is bound, the dominant normal modes favor biological motions that orient a substrate protein bound to DnaK within the substrate/client binding site of Hsp90Ec and release the substrate from the DnaK substrate binding domain. The presence of one DnaK molecule stabilizes the entire Hsp90Ec protomer to which it is bound. Conversely, the symmetric model of DnaK binding results in steric clashes of DnaK molecules and suggests that the Hsp90Ec and DnaK chaperone cycles operate independently. Together, this data supports an asymmetric binding of DnaK to Hsp90Ec.
Project description:Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) require the help of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing cochaperones for many of their functions. Each monomer of Hsp70 or Hsp90 can interact with only a single TPR cochaperone at a time, and each member of the TPR cochaperone family brings distinct functions to the complex. Thus, competition for TPR binding sites on Hsp70 and Hsp90 appears to shape chaperone activity. Recent structural and biophysical efforts have improved our understanding of chaperone-TPR contacts, focusing on the C-terminal EEVD motif that is present in both chaperones. To better understand these important protein-protein interactions on a wider scale, we measured the affinity of five TPR cochaperones, CHIP, Hop, DnaJC7, FKBP51, and FKBP52, for the C-termini of four members of the chaperone family, Hsc70, Hsp72, Hsp90?, and Hsp90?, in vitro. These studies identified some surprising selectivity among the chaperone-TPR pairs, including the selective binding of FKBP51/52 to Hsp90?/?. These results also revealed that other TPR cochaperones are only able to weakly discriminate between the chaperones or between their paralogs. We also explored whether mimicking phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues near the EEVD motif might impact affinity and found that pseudophosphorylation had selective effects on binding to CHIP but not other cochaperones. Together, these findings suggest that both intrinsic affinity and post-translational modifications tune the interactions between the Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins and the TPR cochaperones.
Project description:Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) and 70 (Hsp70) are two families of highly conserved ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that fold and remodel proteins. Both are important components of the cellular machinery involved in protein homeostasis and participate in nearly every cellular process. Although Hsp90 and Hsp70 each carry out some chaperone activities independently, they collaborate in other cellular remodeling reactions. In eukaryotes, both Hsp90 and Hsp70 function with numerous Hsp90 and Hsp70 co-chaperones. In contrast, bacterial Hsp90 and Hsp70 are less complex; Hsp90 acts independently of co-chaperones, and Hsp70 uses two co-chaperones. In this review, we focus on recent progress toward understanding the basic mechanisms of Hsp90-mediated protein remodeling and the collaboration between Hsp90 and Hsp70, with an emphasis on bacterial chaperones. We describe the structure and conformational dynamics of these chaperones and their interactions with each other and with client proteins. The physiological roles of Hsp90 in Escherichia coli and other bacteria are also discussed. We anticipate that the information gained from exploring the mechanism of the bacterial chaperone system will provide the groundwork for understanding the more complex eukaryotic Hsp90 system and its modulation by Hsp90 co-chaperones.
Project description:Molecular chaperones, also known as heat-shock proteins, refold misfolded proteins and help other proteins reach their native conformation. Thanks to these abilities, some chaperones, such as the Hsp90 protein or the chaperonin GroEL, can buffer the deleterious phenotypic effects of mutations that alter protein structure and function. Hsp70 chaperones use a chaperoning mechanism different from that of Hsp90 and GroEL, and it is not known whether they can also buffer mutations. Here, we show that they can. To this end, we performed a mutation accumulation experiment in Escherichia coli, followed by whole-genome resequencing. Overexpression of the Hsp70 chaperone DnaK helps cells cope with mutational load and completely avoid the extinctions we observe in lineages evolving without chaperone overproduction. Additionally, our sequence data show that DnaK overexpression increases mutational robustness, the tolerance of its clients to nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. We also show that this elevated mutational buffering translates into differences in evolutionary rates on intermediate and long evolutionary time scales. Specifically, we studied the evolutionary rates of DnaK clients using the genomes of E. coli, Salmonella enterica, and 83 other gamma-proteobacteria. We find that clients that interact strongly with DnaK evolve faster than weakly interacting clients. Our results imply that all three major chaperone classes can buffer mutations and affect protein evolution. They illustrate how an individual protein like a chaperone can have a disproportionate effect on the evolution of a proteome.
Project description:The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family of heat shock proteins is an abundantly expressed and highly conserved family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones. Hsp90 facilitates remodeling and activation of hundreds of proteins. In this study, we developed a screen to identify Hsp90-defective mutants in E. coli. The mutations obtained define a region incorporating residues from the middle and C-terminal domains of E. coli Hsp90. The mutant proteins are defective in chaperone activity and client binding in vitro. We constructed homologous mutations in S. cerevisiae Hsp82 and identified several that caused defects in chaperone activity in vivo and in vitro. However, the Hsp82 mutant proteins were less severely defective in client binding to a model substrate than the corresponding E. coli mutant proteins. Our results identify a region in Hsp90 important for client binding in E. coli Hsp90 and suggest an evolutionary divergence in the mechanism of client interaction by bacterial and yeast Hsp90.
Project description:The Hsp70 chaperone system plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by binding to client protein molecules. We have recently shown by methyl-TROSY NMR methods that the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, can form multiple bound complexes with a small client protein, hTRF1. In an effort to characterize the interactions further we report here the results of an NMR-based titration study of hTRF1 and DnaK, where both molecular components are monitored simultaneously, leading to a binding model. A central finding is the formation of a previously undetected 3:1 hTRF1-DnaK complex, suggesting that under heat shock conditions, DnaK might be able to protect cytosolic proteins whose net concentrations would exceed that of the chaperone. Moreover, these results provide new insight into the heterogeneous ensemble of complexes formed by DnaK chaperones and further emphasize the unique role of NMR spectroscopy in obtaining information about individual events in a complex binding scheme by exploiting a large number of probes that report uniquely on distinct binding processes.