Production of a Novel Fucoidanase for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Streptomyces sp. and Its Cytotoxic Effect on HeLa Cells.
ABSTRACT: Marine actinobacteria-produced fucoidanases have received considerable attention as one of the major research topics in recent years, particularly for the medical exploitation of fucoidans and their degradation products. The present study describes the optimization and production of a novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its biological applications. The production of fucoidanase was optimized using Streptomyces sp. The medium components were selected in accordance with the Plackett-Burman design and were further optimized via response surface methodology. The fucoidanase was statistically optimized with the most significant factors, namely wheat bran 3.3441 g/L, kelp powder 0.7041 g/L, and NaCl 0.8807 g/L, respectively. The biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and were further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HeLa cells and the inhibitory concentration (IC50) was found to be 350 µg/mL at 24 h and 250 µg/mL at 48 h. Therefore, the production of novel fucoidanase for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles has comparatively rapid, less expensive and wide application to anticancer therapy in modern medicine.
Project description:A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium. The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM. The antioxidant, reducing power and total polyphenolic contents of the aqueous extracts and fucoidans were determined, revealing that the aqueous extracts with the highest contents produced smaller, spherical, more monodisperse nanoparticles at a faster rate. The nanoparticles were assessed against two gram-negative bacteria, two gram-positive bacteria and one yeast strain. In contrast to the literature, the silver nanoparticles produced using the aqueous extracts were particularly toxic to Gram-negative bacteria, while the gold nanoparticles lacked activity. The cytotoxic activity of the nanoparticles was also evaluated against cancerous (HT-29, MCF-7) and non-cancerous (MCF-12a) cell lines. The silver nanoparticles displayed selectivity, since the MCF-12a cell line was found to be resistant to the nanoparticles, while the cancerous HT-29 cell line was found to be sensitive (10% viability). The gold nanoparticles displayed negligible toxicity.
Project description:In this study, very simple and fast one-step synthesis of biogenic silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) using a Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. aerial part extract from an aqueous solution of silver nitrate at room temperature is proposed. The proceedings of the reaction were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. AgCl-NPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these nanoparticles were evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and C. glabrata. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the synthesized AgCl-NPs was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial test confirmed the bactericidal activity of biosynthesized AgCl-NPs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They also exhibited good antifungal activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 40 to 60 µg/mL against Candida glabrata and Candida albicans, respectively. In addition, biosynthesized AgCl-NPs were established to have remarkable antioxidant activity. All this pointed out that the proposed new biosynthesis approach resulted in production of AgCl-NPs with convenient biomedical applications.
Project description:Background and Objectives: The current study focuses on an eco-friendly and cost-effective method of Ephedra procera C. A. Mey. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as potential cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant agents. Materials and Methods: Plant aqueous extracts were screened for Total Phenolic (TPC), Total Flavonoid contents (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging potentials. Total reducing power estimated by potassium ferricyanide colorimetric assay. The biosynthesized E. procera nanoparticles (EpNPs) were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. EpNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial, bio-compatibility and cytotoxic potentials. Results: Initial phytocheimcal analysis of plant aqueous extract revealed TFC of 20.7 ± 0.21 µg/mg extract and TPC of 117.01 ± 0.78 µg/mg extract. TAC, DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power were 73.8 ± 0.32 µg/mg extract, 71.8 ± 0.73% and 105.4 ± 0.65 µg/mg extract respectively. The synthesized EpNPs were observed to possess high cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cell lines with IC50 (61.3 µg/mL) as compared aqueous extract with IC50 of (247 µg/mL). EpNPs were found to be biocompatible and have less effect on human erythrocytes. EpNPs exhibited significant antioxidant potentials and exhibited considerable activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) of 11.12 ?g/mL and 11.33 ?g/mL respectively. Fungal species Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were found susceptible to EpNPs. Conclusions: Results of the current study revealed that EpNPs exhibited considerable antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic potentials. Aqueous extract possesses significant anti-radical properties and thus can be useful in free radicals induced degenerative disorders.
Project description:Nanotechnology is the formation, running and use of operation at the nanomaterial size scale (1-100 nm). Nanoscale materials can also be obtained by biological synthesis materials via eco-friendly green chemistry based technique. Current development and numerous strategies involved in the green synthesis of nanoparticles were focussed. This review mainly focused on plants which include scientific name, family name, common name, plant parts, its characterization, size and shape of the nanoparticles. Plant extract which was done experimentally gives its various characterization which leads to the identification of compounds of different nano size and shape. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles is in different shapes like spherical, rod, cubic, triangle and also in different sizes. Various application and importance of gold nanoparticles in numerous fields were discussed. The mark of the review is to provide an overview of recent learning in biosynthesized nanoparticles, its characterization and their potential applications.
Project description:In this work a new method is presented for simultaneous colorimetric determination of morphine(MOR) and ibuprofen(IBU) based on the aggregation of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Citrate-capped gold nanoparticles were aggregated in the presence of morphine and ibuprofen. The difference in kinetics of AuNPs aggregation in the presence of morphine / ibuprofen was used for simultaneous analysis of morphine and ibuprofen. The formation and size of synthesized Au NPs and the aggregated forms were monitored by infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively.. By adding morphine or ibuprofen the absorbance was decreased at 520 nm and increased at 620 nm. The difference in kinetic profiles of aggregation was applied for simultaneous analysis of MOR and IBU using partial least square regression as an efficient multivariate calibration method. The number of PLS latent variables was optimized by leave-one-out cross-validation method using predicted residual error sum of square. The proposed model exhibited a high capability in simultaneous prediction of MOR and IBU concentrations in real samples. Our results showed linear ranges of 1.33-33.29 µg/mL (R2=0.9904) and 0.28-6.9 µg/mL (R2=0.9902) for MOR and IBU respectively with low detection limits of 0.15 and 0.03 µg/mL(S/N=5).
Project description:Green fabrication of nanoscale materials is highly desirable because of associated adverse effects with conventional nanomaterial biomedical applications. Moreover, the higher selective nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the brain ailments treatment through conventional chemotherapy, thus providing room for nanotechnology-based modalities for BBB traversing. In this contribution, we have biosynthesized gold nanoparticles from the HAuCl4 solution in the aged cells culture medium. This approach is highly facile without any other chemical utilization. The cell culture medium age and cell number can tune the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) size from 2 to several hundred nm. The 24 h MTT assay and cell uptake studies in vitro and murine models' vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and heart) study up to 48 h demonstrated that biosynthesized AuNPs were biocompatible and BBB amenable. Interestingly, the transferrin and cell culture medium isolated proteins were found factors responsible for HAuCl4 solution biomineralization and size control. Moreover, the protein corona on biosynthesized AuNPs could help them traverse BBB both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential applications for brain disease theranostics. In conclusion, the biosynthesis of AuNPs from aged cells medium is highly facile, green, and biocompatible for brain disease theranostics.
Project description:An endophytic fungal strain isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre was identified as Pestalotiopsis microspora VJ1/VS1 based on nucleotide sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2) of 18S rRNA gene (NCBI accession number KX213894). In this study, an efficient and ecofriendly approach has been reported for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous culture filtrate of P. microspora. Ultraviolet-visible analysis confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs by showing characteristic absorption peak at 435 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and proteins in the fungal filtrate, which are plausibly involved in the biosynthesis and capping of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the AgNPs were spherical in shape of 2-10 nm in size. Selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction studies determined the crystalline nature of AgNPs with face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice phase. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs possess high negative zeta potential value of -35.7 mV. Biosynthesized AgNPs were proved to be potential antioxidants by showing effective radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and H2O2 radicals with IC50 values of 76.95±2.96 and 94.95±2.18 µg/mL, respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects against B16F10 (mouse melanoma, IC50 =26.43±3.41 µg/mL), SKOV3 (human ovarian carcinoma, IC50 =16.24±2.48 µg/mL), A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma, IC50 =39.83±3.74 µg/mL), and PC3 (human prostate carcinoma, IC50 =27.71±2.89 µg/mL) cells. The biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be biocompatible toward normal cells (Chinese hamster ovary cell line, IC50 =438.53±4.2 µg/mL). Cytological observations on most susceptible SKOV3 cells revealed concentration-dependent apoptotic changes that include cell membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis followed by destructive fragmentation of nuclei. The results together in this study strongly provided a base for the development of potential and versatile biomedical applications of biosynthesized AgNPs in the near future.
Project description:The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation.IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of organisms have been utilized for nanoparticle formation. The extremophile D. radiodurans, which can withstand significant environmental stresses and therefore is more robust for metal reduction applications, has yet to be exploited for this purpose. Thus, this work improves our understanding of the impact of environmental stresses on biogenic nanoparticle morphology and composition during metal reduction processes in this organism. This work also contributes to enhancing the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles with specific attributes and functions using biological systems.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using fungal extract of Trametes trogii, a white rot basidiomycete involved in wood decay worldwide, which produces several ligninolytic enzymes. According to previous studies using fungi, enzymes are involved in nanoparticles synthesis, through the so-called green synthesis process, acting as reducing and capping agents. Understanding which factors could modify nanoparticles' shape, size and production efficiency is relevant. The results showed that under the protocol used in this work, this strain of Trametes trogii is able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) to the fungal extract obtained with an optimal incubation time of 72?h and pH 13, using NaOH to adjust pH. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy and synthesized AgNPs was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), through in-lens and QBDS detectors, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, SPR absorption was modeled using Mie theory and simple nanoparticles and core-shell configurations were studied, to understand the morphology and environment of the nanoparticles. This protocol represents a simple and cheap synthesis in the absence of toxic reagents and under an environmentally friendly condition.
Project description:Introduction:In recent years, the use of cost-effective, multifunctional, environmentally friendly and simple prepared nanomaterials/nanoparticles have been emerged considerably. In this manner, different synthesizing methods were reported and optimized, but there is still lack of a comprehensive method with multifunctional properties. Materials and Methods:In this study, we aim to synthesis the copper oxide nanoparticles using Achillea millefolium leaf extracts for the first time. Catalytic activity was investigated by in situ azide alkyne cycloaddition click and also A3 coupling reaction, and optimized in terms of temperature, solvent, and time of the reaction. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was screened in terms of degradation methylene blue dye. Biological activity of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of antibacterial and anti-fungal assessments against Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabili, C. diphtheriae and S. pyogenes bacteria's and G. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis and G. glabrata fungus. In the next step, the biosynthesized CuO-NPs were screened by MTT and NTU assays. Results:Based on our knowledge, this is a comprehensive study on the catalytic and biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesizing from Achillea millefolium, which presents great and significant results (in both catalytic and biological activities) based on a simple and green procedure. Conclusion:Comprehensive biomedical and catalytic investigation of the biosynthesized CuO-NPs showed the mentioned method leads to synthesis of more eco-friendly nanoparticles. The in vitro studies showed promising and considerable results, and due to the great stability of these nanoparticles in a green media, effective biological activity considered as an advantageous.