A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study.
ABSTRACT: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether dietary patterns are associated with GWG. Participants included 3374 pregnant women from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Three a posteriori-derived dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis: a "Vegetable, oil and fish", a "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy", and a "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern. The a priori-defined dietary pattern was based on national dietary recommendations. Weight was repeatedly measured around 13, 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; pre-pregnancy and maximum weight were self-reported. Normal weight women with high adherence to the "Vegetable, oil and fish" pattern had higher early-pregnancy GWG than those with low adherence (43 g/week (95% CI 16; 69) for highest vs. lowest quartile (Q)). Adherence to the "Margarine, sugar and snacks" pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excessive GWG (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.06; 1.99) Q4 vs. Q1). Normal weight women with higher scores on the "Nuts, high-fiber cereals and soy" pattern had more moderate GWG than women with lower scores (-0.01 (95% CI -0.02; -0.00) per SD). The a priori-defined pattern was not associated with GWG. To conclude, specific dietary patterns may play a role in early pregnancy but are not consistently associated with GWG.
Project description:The present study investigated the association of maternal dietary patterns with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and total gestational weight gain (GWG), using data of 232 women from the "Mamma & Bambino" cohort. Dietary patterns were derived by a food frequency questionnaire and principal component analysis. Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated according to the World Health Organization and Institute of Medicine guidelines, respectively. The adherence to the "Western" dietary pattern-characterized by high intake of red meat, fries, dipping sauces, salty snacks and alcoholic drinks-was associated with increased GWG (β = 1.217; standard error [SE] = 0.487; p = 0.013), especially among obese women (β = 7.363; SE = 1.808; p = 0.005). In contrast, the adherence to the "prudent" dietary pattern-characterized by high intake of boiled potatoes, cooked vegetables, legumes, pizza and soup-was associated with reduced pre-pregnancy BMI (β = -0.631; SE = 0.318; p-trend = 0.038). Interestingly, the adherence to this pattern was positively associated with GWG among underweight (β = 4.127; SE = 1.722; p = 0.048), and negatively among overweight and obese individuals (β = -4.209; SE = 1.635; p = 0.016 and β = -7.356; SE = 2.304; p = 0.031, respectively). Our findings point out that the promotion of a healthy diet might represent a potential preventive strategy against inadequate weight gain, even during the periconceptional period.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to characterize, among pregnant Mexican women, gestational weight gain (GWG) trajectories; assess associations of maternal dietary quality score (MDQS) with GWG during early-mid pregnancy, middle pregnancy, late pregnancy, and prolonged pregnancy; and evaluate the association between MDQS and adequacy of GWG, throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that higher MDQS adherence is protective against insufficient or excessive GWG across pregnancy and that the association between MDQS adherence and GWG would vary by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS:We analyzed data from 660 pregnant women participating in the PRINCESA (Pregnancy Research on Inflammation, Nutrition and City Environments: Systematic Analyses) cohort in Mexico City, 2009 to 2014. Repeated measures of dietary intake and mother's weight were obtained during pregnancy. Individual GWG trajectories were modeled in a multilevel regression framework. Associations between MDQS (low, medium, and high adherence) and GWG were investigated using mixed-effect regression models with linear splines. RESULTS:Women with prepregnancy BMI of ?30 kg/m2 had a slower rate of GWG (RGWG) compared with other categories. A higher adherence to MDQS was protective against an insufficient (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.95; P?=?0.03) and an excessive RGWG (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94; P?=?0.03) throughout pregnancy, adjusting for prepregnancy BMI, energy intake, maternal age, educational level, parity, fetal sex, marital status, and physical activity. Associations between diet and RGWG differed by gestational period. CONCLUSION:A better quality diet, as measured by MDQS, was associated with appropriate GWG during pregnancy in the PRINCESA cohort.
Project description:This study examines the associations between maternal Traditional dietary pattern adherence and HIV/treatment with neonatal size and adiposity in urban, black South Africans, as well as how specific maternal factors - that is BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) - may influence these associations. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations among maternal Traditional diet pattern adherence (pattern score), HIV/treatment status (three groups: HIV negative, HIV positive (antenatal antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation), HIV positive (pre-pregnancy ART initiation)), BMI and GWG (kg/week), and newborn (1) weight:length ratio (WLR, kg/m) in 393 mother-neonate pairs, and (2) Peapod estimated fat mass index (FMI, kg/m3) in a 171-pair subsample. In fully adjusted models, maternal obesity and GWG were associated with 0·25 kg/m (P=0·008) and 0·48 kg/m (P=0·002) higher newborn WLR, whereas Traditional diet pattern score was associated with lower newborn WLR (-0·04 kg/m per +1 sd; P=0·033). In addition, Traditional diet pattern score was associated with 0·13 kg/m3 (P=0·027) and 0·32 kg/m3 (P=0·005) lower FMI in the total sample and in newborns of normal-weight women, respectively. HIV-positive (pre-pregnancy ART) v. HIV-negative (ref) status was associated with 1·11 kg/m3 (P=0·002) higher newborn FMI. Promotion of a Traditional dietary pattern, alongside a healthy maternal pre-conception weight, in South African women may reduce newborn adiposity and metabolic risk profiles. In HIV-positive women, targeted monitoring and management strategies are necessary to limit treatment-associated effects on in utero fat deposition.
Project description:Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted.To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI?30 kg/m2.Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire.During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ?2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk) intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks.In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149.
Project description:Hispanic women have a higher prevalence of weight associated complications in pregnancy. This ethnic disparity is likely related to behavior patterns, social circumstances, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare, rather than biologic differences. The objective was to determine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors and gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income Hispanic women. During pregnancy, information on sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors were collected. Linear regression estimated mean differences in GWG by selected predictors. Multinomial logistic regression estimated odds of inadequate and excessive GWG by selected predictors. Five-hundred and eight women were included, 38% had inadequate and 28% had excessive GWG; 57% with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI had inadequate GWG. Compared to women with normal BMI, women with overweight or obesity were more likely to have excessive GWG (aRRR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.40 and aRRR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.62, respectively). Mean total GWG was higher among women who were nulliparous (ß = 1.34 kg, 95% CI: 0.38, 2.29) and those who engaged in ?3 h of screen time daily (ß = 0.98 kg, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.94), and lower among women who were physically active during pregnancy (ß = -1.00 kg, 95% CI: -1.99, -0.03). Eating breakfast daily was associated with lower risk of inadequate GWG (aRRR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83). Depressive symptoms and poor adherence to dietary recommendations were prevalent, but none of the psychosocial or dietary variables were associated with GWG. In this cohort of primarily immigrant, low-income, Hispanic women, there were high rates of poor adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations, and a majority of women did not meet GWG guidelines. Modifiable health behaviors were associated with GWG, and their promotion should be included in prenatal care.
Project description:Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021) and 24 g/week (p = 0.041) higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006) and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003). Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern-high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats-and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain) in urban South African women.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study was a randomized controlled trial in 360 obese women allocated in early pregnancy to lifestyle intervention or control. The intervention program included dietary guidance, free membership in fitness centers, physical training, and personal coaching. RESULTS: A total of 360 obese pregnant women were included, and 304 (84%) were followed up until delivery. The intervention group had a significantly lower median (range) GWG compared with the control group of 7.0 (4.7-10.6) vs. 8.6 kg (5.7-11.5; P = 0.01). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on GWG were exceeded in 35.4% of women in the intervention group compared with 46.6% in the control group (P = 0.058). Overall, the obstetric outcomes between the two groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle intervention in pregnancy resulted in limited GWG in obese pregnant women. Overall obstetric outcomes were similar in the two groups. Lifestyle intervention resulted in a higher adherence to the IOM weight gain recommendations; however, a significant number of women still exceeded the upper threshold.
Project description:Background:Gestational weight gain (GWG) has important health implications for both the mother and offspring. Maternal diet during pregnancy may play an important role in achieving adequate GWG, although its precise role is unclear. Objectives:Associations between maternal dietary components (fruits and vegetables, added sugar, percentage energy from fat, dairy) and GWG were examined in 327 pregnant women from the Archive for Research on Child Health cohort. Methods:Self-reported usual dietary intake was assessed with validated dietary screening tools at the first prenatal visit. GWG was obtained from the birth certificate and was categorized as inadequate, adequate, or excessive according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Associations between dietary components and GWG were assessed using multivariable regression models, stratified by maternal prepregnancy BMI category. Results:Only 31.5% of women had adequate GWG, with 24.8% gaining insufficient weight and 43.7% gaining excessively. Women who consumed more fruits and vegetables were suggestively less likely to have excessive GWG (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) in the minimally adjusted model, but the association became nonsignificant after adjusting for covariates (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03). In stratified models, higher fruit and vegetable intake was linked to lower likelihood of excessive GWG among women with obesity (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97), whereas higher added sugar intake was linked to a slight reduction in likelihood of excessive GWG (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99) among women with a prepregnancy BMI in the normal range. Other dietary components were not significantly associated with GWG. Conclusions:These results suggest that consuming fruits and vegetables during pregnancy may reduce risk of excessive GWG among women with obesity. With the rising prevalence of obesity among women of reproductive age, interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy may have broad public health impact by improving maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is of public health concern. This trial examined whether a clinically proven lifestyle modification program (LMP) in early pregnancy was superior to routine antenatal care in improving GDM, maternal and infant outcomes. Chinese pregnant women at risk of GDM (n?=?220) were recruited at or before 12-week gestation and randomized to either a LMP group or a routine care control group. Eighty subjects completed a dietitian-led LMP including dietary and exercise components from early pregnancy till 24-week gestation. Data were compared with those of 86 control subjects. Twenty three (26.7%) control subjects and 20 (25.0%) LMP subjects developed GDM (p?=?0.798). The proportion of infants born large for gestational age and macrosomia was similar between groups. The LMP group showed a lower proportion of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Subgroup analysis suggested that those with higher LMP adherence showed more desirable dietary composition and energy intake, and lower proportion of excessive GWG compared with the low LMP adherence group and the control group. The potential effect of LMP on GDM and other maternal and infant outcomes, in particular GWG, as well as barriers for making lifestyle changes warrant further investigations (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02368600).
Project description:Obesity-risk genes have been associated with dietary intake, appetite regulation, and gestational weight gain (GWG). The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary intake including total energy intake and macronutrients modify or mediate the association between obesity-risk genes and GWG. An observational study was conducted with 85 African American pregnant women. Sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle factors and dietary recalls were collected during pregnancy. Seven obesity-risk genetic variants were genotyped. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the moderation and mediation effects of dietary intake. The mean GWG was 14.2?kg, and 55.3% of the women gained above the Institute of Medicine GWG guidelines. A nominally significant association was found between rs17782313 (close to MC4R) and percentage of energy intake from fat (P=0.043). A variant downstream of KCTD15 (rs11084753) was nominally significantly related to GWG (P=0.023). There was a significant interaction between the KCTD15 polymorphism and dietary fat intake (P=0.048). Women with the AG genotype gained more weight during pregnancy with more dietary fat consumption. In conclusion, our results indicate that dietary macronutrients, especially fat intake, may modify the effect of the KCTD15 gene on GWG. Improved knowledge of gene-diet interactions can facilitate the development of personalized interventions.