Phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism analysis of BK virus VP2 gene isolated from renal transplant recipients in China.
ABSTRACT: BK polyomavirus (BKV) is important pathogen for kidney transplant recipients, as it is frequently re-activated, leading to nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism of the VP2 gene in BKV isolated from Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out in the VP2 region from 135 BKV-positive samples and 28 reference strains retrieved from GenBank. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) grouped all strains into subtypes, but failed to subdivide strains into subgroups. Among the plasma and urine samples, all plasma (23/23) and 82 urine samples (82/95) were identified to contain subtype I; the other 10 urine samples contained subtype IV. A 86-bp fragment was identified as a highly conserved sequence. Following alignment with 36 published BKV sequences from China, 92 sites of polymorphism were identified, including 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) prevalent in Chinese individuals and 30 SNPs that were specific to the two predominant subtypes I and IV. The limitations of the VP2 gene segment in subgrouping were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The conserved sequence and polymorphism identified in this study may be helpful in the detection and genotyping of BKV.
Project description:BK virus (BKV) is a polyomavirus that cause of allograft dysfunction among kidney transplant recipients. The role of BKV infection in non-renal solid organ transplant recipients is not well understood neither for the relationship between various BKV strains with occurrence of BKV viral viruria. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of BKV infection and identified of BKV various strains in the urine of liver transplant recipients. There was not significant difference of renal outcome between high BKV viruria and low BKV viruria in the liver transplant recipients. The WW-non-coding control region (NCCR) BKV detected in urine was associated with higher urinary BKV load, whereas the Dunlop-NCCR BKV was detected in the urine of low urinary BKV load. An in vitro cultivation system demonstrated that WW-BKV strain exhibiting the higher viral DNA replication efficiency and higher BKV load. Altogether, this is the first study to demonstrate the impact of BKV strains on the occurrence of BK viruria in the liver transplant recipients.
Project description:Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. While the BK virus was predominant in the BKV+ group, it was also found in the BKV- group patients. Additional viruses were also detected in all patients, notably including JC virus (JCV) and Torque teno virus (TTV) and interestingly, we detected multiple subtypes of the BKV, JCV and TTV. Analysis of the BKV subtypes showed that nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the VP1, VP2 and Large T Antigen proteins, suggesting potential functional effects for enhanced pathogenicity. Our results demonstrate a complex urinary virome in kidney transplant patients with multiple viruses with several distinct subtypes warranting further analysis of virus subtypes in immunosuppressed hosts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:BK virus (BKV) is a significant cause of nephropathy in kidney transplantation. The goal of this study was to characterize the course and source of BKV in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS:We prospectively collected pretransplant plasma and urine samples from living and deceased kidney donors and performed BKV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing on pretransplant and serially collected posttransplant samples in kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS:Among deceased donors, 8.1% (17/208) had detectable BKV DNA in urine prior to organ procurement. BK viruria was observed in 15.4% (6/39) of living donors and 8.5% (4/47) of deceased donors of recipients at our institution (P = .50). BKV VP1 sequencing revealed identical virus between donor-recipient pairs to suggest donor transmission of virus. Recipients of BK viruric donors were more likely to develop BK viruria (66.6% vs 7.8%; P < .001) and viremia (66.6% vs 8.9%; P < .001) with a shorter time to onset (log-rank test, P < .001). Though donor BKV IgG titers were higher in recipients who developed BK viremia, pretransplant donor, recipient, and combined donor/recipient serology status was not associated with BK viremia (P = .31, P = .75, and P = .51, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Donor BK viruria is associated with early BK viruria and viremia in kidney transplant recipients. BKV PCR testing of donor urine may be useful in identifying recipients at risk for BKV complications.
Project description:Polyomavirus BK (BKV) has emerged as an important pathogen in kidney transplant patients. Existing taxonomic classifications of BKV come from conventional DNA sequence alignments based on limited data derived from the VP1 gene. We have used a phylogenetic whole-genome approach to examine the pattern of diversity and evolutionary relationships between 45 BKV strains isolated from multiple clinical settings. This analysis supports the classification of BKV into six genotypes, of which types V and VI have not been previously recognized. BKV strains hitherto classified as type I are, in fact, quite heterogeneous, and several cluster with our newly defined genotypes V and VI. The sequence information needed for assigning genotypes can be captured by VP1, VP2, VP3, or large T-gene sequencing. The most polymorphic coding region in the viral genome is VP1, but significant variation is also present in the large T-antigen gene, wherein polymorphisms are found in 11.39% of all nucleotide sites, 46.22% of which are cluster specific. Type-specific amino acid changes within the VP1 region are predicted to map to the BC and DE loops. The number of taxonomically informative amino acid changes in the large T antigen exceeds even that of the VP1 region. Viral strains isolated from healthy subjects and from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and vasculopathy with capillary leak syndrome formed distinct subclusters. However, within the kidney transplant population, BKV strains derived from patients with asymptomatic viruria did not show complete separation from strains associated with allograft nephropathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The diagnosis and management of BK virus (BKV) reactivation following renal transplantation continues to be a significant clinical problem. Following reactivation of latent virus, impaired cellular immunity enables sustained viral replication to occur in urothelial cells, which potentially leads to the development of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance for BKV reactivation through the detection of infected urothelial cells in urine (decoy cells) or viral nucleic acid in urine or blood. However, these methods have variable sensitivity and cannot routinely distinguish between different viral subtypes. We therefore asked whether mass spectrometry might be able to overcome these limitations and provide an additional non-invasive technique for the surveillance of BKV and identification of recipients at increased risk of BKVAN. RESULTS:Here we describe a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for the detection of BKV derived proteins directly isolated from clinical urine samples. Peptides detected by MS derived from Viral Protein 1 (VP1) allowed differentiation between subtypes I and IV. Using this approach, we observed an association between higher decoy cell numbers and the presence of the VP1 subtype Ib-2 in urine samples derived from a cohort of 20 renal transplant recipients, consistent with the hypothesis that certain viral subtypes may be associated with more severe BKVAN. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to identify BK virus proteins in clinical samples by MS and that this approach makes it possible to distinguish between different viral subtypes. Further studies are required to establish whether this information could lead to stratification of patients at risk of BKVAN, facilitate distinction between BKVAN and acute rejection (AR), and ultimately improve patient treatment and outcomes.
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare skin cancer associated with immunosuppression and the integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA into the tumor cell genome. Little is known about the natural history of MCPyV infection.To investigate the presence of MCPyV, BK and JC polyomaviruses in serum and urine from immunosuppressed kidney transplant patients (KTx) and a control group of normal volunteers.Quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) was used to assess MCPyV, BKV and JCV viral load in urine and serum samples collected from normal donors (Group A), prospectively enrolled KTx patients (Group B) and from KTx with documented BK reactivation and/or nephropathy (Group C).Low levels of MCPyV viruria was seen in 15% of the subjects in Group A, 30% of Group B, and was not detected in Group C. No individuals in the study developed MCPyV viremia. BK viruria was seen in 5% of Group A, 30% of Group B, and 100% of Group C. Consistent with previous reports, the mean BKV urinary load was significantly higher in immunosuppressed patients compared to non-immunosuppressed controls and also higher in urine compared to serum samples.Like BKV and JCV, MCPyV is likely a common infection in adult humans. Low level shedding of MCPyV in urine was similar in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients to non-immunosuppressed subjects. However, MCPyV was not detected and JCV was infrequent in samples from KTx patients with clinical BKV reactivation.
Project description:Bkv-miR-B1-5p, one of the microRNAs encoded by BK virus, was recently reported to be elevated in the blood among the patients with BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). Urinary exosome was suggested to be a possible source of biomarker for kidney diseases, but it was unknown whether it could contain viral microRNA as well as human microRNAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether urinary exosomal BK viral microRNA were expressed during replication and could be used to diagnose BKVN in kidney transplant recipients.In a cross-sectional multicenter study, we collected and analyzed 458 graft biopsies from 385 kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples were collected at the time of graft biopsy, and microRNAs in urinary exosome were measured once. For 13 patients with BKVN and 67 age, sex-matched kidney transplant recipients, we measured BK viral microRNA B1-5p, 3p and human microRNA-16 in urinary exosomal fraction and compared the diagnostic value with BK viral load in plasma and urine.Pathology proven BKVN was diagnosed in 13 patients (2.8%). High levels of bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-3p were shown in all patients with BKVN. Meanwhile, plasma BK viral load assay (cut-off value of ? 4.0 log10 copies/mL) showed false negative in 3 cases and urinary BK viral load assay (cut-off value of ? 7.0 log10 copies/mL) showed false negative in 1 case among these 13 patients. The receiver operator characteristics curve analysis for bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-5p/miR-16 showed excellent discriminative power for the diagnosis of BKVN, with area under the curve values of 0.989 and 0.985, respectively.This study suggests that urinary exosomal bkv-miR-B1-5p and bkv-miR-B1-5p/miR-16 could be surrogate markers for the diagnosis of BKVN.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:BK virus (BKV) infection in renal transplant patients may cause kidney allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Accurate determination of BKV viral load is critical to prevent BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) but the cut-off that best predicts BKVAN remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the performance of a commercial and an in-house qPCR test for quantitative detection of BK virus in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS:This was a prospective study with kidney transplant recipients from two large university hospitals in Brazil. Patients were screened for BKV infection every 3 months in the first year post-transplant with a commercial and an in-house real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test. BKVAN was confirmed based on histopathology. The area under the curve for plasma qPCR was determined from receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS:A total of 200 patients were enrolled. Fifty-eight percent were male, 19.5% had diabetes mellitus, and 82% had the kidney transplanted from a deceased donor. BKV viremia was detected in 32.5% and BKVAN was diagnosed in 8 patients (4%). BKVAN was associated with viremia of 4.1 log copies/mL, using a commercial kit. The cut-off for the in-house assay was 6.1 log copies/mL. The linearity between the commercial kit and the in-house assay was R2=0.83. CONCLUSION:Our study shows that marked variability occurs in BKV viral load when different qPCR methodologies are used. The in-house qPCR assay proved clinically useful, a cheaper option in comparison to commercial qPCR kits. There is an urgent need to make BKV standards available to the international community.
Project description:BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) causes renal allograft dysfunction. The current management of BKVAN relies on pre-emptive adaptation of immunosuppression according to viral load monitoring. However, this empiric strategy is not always successful. Therefore, pretransplant predictive markers are needed. In a prospective longitudinal study, we enrolled 168 kidney transplant recipients and 69 matched donors. To assess the value of BKV genotype-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers as a predictive marker for BKV replication, we measured BKV DNA load and NAb titers at transplant and followed patients for 24 months. After transplant, 52 (31%) patients displayed BKV replication: 24 (46%) patients were viruric and 28 (54%) patients were viremic, including 13 with biopsy-confirmed BKVAN. At any time, patients with high NAb titers against the replicating strain had a lower risk of developing BKV viremia (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.26 to 0.73; P=0.002). Each log10 increase in NAb titer decreased the risk of developing viremia by 56%. Replicating strains were consistent with donor transmission in 95% of cases of early BKV replication. Genotype mismatch between recipients' neutralization profiles before transplant and their subsequently replicating strain significantly increased the risk of developing viremia (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06 to 4.88; P=0.04). A NAb titer against the donor's strain <4 log10 before transplant significantly associated with BKV replication after transplant (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.45; P=0.03). BKV genotype-specific NAb titers may be a meaningful predictive marker that allows patient stratification by BKV disease risk before and after transplant.
Project description:BK virus (BKV)-associated diseases in transplant recipients are an emerging issue. However, identification of the various BK virus subtypes/subgroups is a long and delicate process on the basis of currently available data. Therefore, we wanted to define a simple and effective one-step strategy for characterizing all BK virus strains from the VP1 gene sequence. Based on the analysis of 199 available complete DNA VP1 sequences, phylogenetic trees, alignments, and isolated polymorphisms were used to define an effective strategy for distinguishing the 12 different BK virus subtypes/subgroups. Based on the 12 subtypes identified from the 199 complete BKV VP1 sequences (1,089 bp), 60 mutations that can be used to differentiate these various subtypes/subgroups were identified. Some genomic areas were more variable and comprised mutational hot spots. From a subregion of only 100 bp in the VP1 region (1977 through 2076), we therefore constructed an algorithm that enabled rapid determination of all BKV subtypes/subgroups with 99% agreement (197/199) relative to the complete VP1 sequence. We called this domain of the BK viral genome the BK typing and grouping region (BKTGR). Finally, we validated our viral subtype identification process in a population of 100 transplant recipients with 100% efficiency. The new simpler method of BKV subtyping/subgrouping reported here constitutes a useful tool for future studies that will help us to more clearly understand the impact of BKV subtypes/subgroups on diagnosis, infection, and BK virus-associated diseases.