Platelet-derived HMGB1 is a critical mediator of thrombosis.
ABSTRACT: Thrombosis and inflammation are intricately linked in several major clinical disorders, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute ischemic events. The damage-associated molecular pattern molecule high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is upregulated by activated platelets in multiple inflammatory diseases; however, the contribution of platelet-derived HMGB1 in thrombosis remains unexplored. Here, we generated transgenic mice with platelet-specific ablation of HMGB1 and determined that platelet-derived HMGB1 is a critical mediator of thrombosis. Mice lacking HMGB1 in platelets exhibited increased bleeding times as well as reduced thrombus formation, platelet aggregation, inflammation, and organ damage during experimental trauma/hemorrhagic shock. Platelets were the major source of HMGB1 within thrombi. In trauma patients, HMGB1 expression on the surface of circulating platelets was markedly upregulated. Moreover, evaluation of isolated platelets revealed that HMGB1 is critical for regulating platelet activation, granule secretion, adhesion, and spreading. These effects were mediated via TLR4- and MyD88-dependent recruitment of platelet guanylyl cyclase (GC) toward the plasma membrane, followed by MyD88/GC complex formation and activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). Thus, we establish platelet-derived HMGB1 as an important mediator of thrombosis and identify a HMGB1-driven link between MyD88 and GC/cGKI in platelets. Additionally, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic target for patients sustaining trauma and other inflammatory disorders associated with abnormal coagulation.
Project description:Platelets are circulating cellular sensors that express and release the damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) at sites of disrupted vascular and tissue integrity. We have recently identified platelet-derived HMGB1 as a critical mediator of thrombosis. The role of platelet-derived HMGB1 in mediating interactions with monocytes remains unknown. In transgenic mice with platelet-specific ablation of HMGB1 and neutralization studies, we show that HMGB1 derived from platelets promotes recruitment of monocytes and prevents monocytes from undergoing apoptosis. During experimental trauma and hemorrhagic shock, infiltrated monocytes in the lung and liver were significantly attenuated in mice lacking HMGB1 in platelets. Platelet-derived HMGB1 mediated monocyte migration via the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and suppressed apoptosis via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent activation of MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in monocytes. In conclusion, we identify platelet-derived HMGB1 as a critical regulator of monocyte recruitment and apoptosis, with potential implications in disease states associated with thrombosis and inflammation.
Project description:Mechanisms that limit thrombosis are poorly defined. One of the few known endogenous platelet inhibitors is nitric oxide (NO). NO activates NO sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) in platelets, resulting in an increase of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Here we show, using cGMP sensor mice to study spatiotemporal dynamics of platelet cGMP, that NO-induced cGMP production in pre-activated platelets is strongly shear-dependent. We delineate a new mode of platelet-inhibitory mechanotransduction via shear-activated NO-GC followed by cGMP synthesis, activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI), and suppression of Ca2+ signaling. Correlative profiling of cGMP dynamics and thrombus formation in vivo indicates that high cGMP concentrations in shear-exposed platelets at the thrombus periphery limit thrombosis, primarily through facilitation of thrombus dissolution. We propose that an increase in shear stress during thrombus growth activates the NO-cGMP-cGKI pathway, which acts as an auto-regulatory brake to prevent vessel occlusion, while preserving wound closure under low shear.
Project description:Platelets play a central role in thrombosis, hemostasis, and inflammation. We show that activated platelets release inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of 60-100 phosphate residues that directly bound to and activated the plasma protease factor XII. PolyP-driven factor XII activation triggered release of the inflammatory mediator bradykinin by plasma kallikrein-mediated kininogen processing. PolyP increased vascular permeability and induced fluid extravasation in skin microvessels of mice. Mice deficient in factor XII or bradykinin receptors were resistant to polyP-induced leakage. PolyP initiated clotting of plasma via the contact pathway. Ablation of intrinsic coagulation pathway proteases factor XII and factor XI protected mice from polyP-triggered lethal pulmonary embolism. Targeting polyP with phosphatases interfered with procoagulant activity of activated platelets and blocked platelet-induced thrombosis in mice. Addition of polyP restored defective plasma clotting of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome patients, who lack platelet polyP. The data identify polyP as a new class of mediator having fundamental roles in platelet-driven proinflammatory and procoagulant disorders.
Project description:Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease, consisting of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Current prophylactic measures are insufficient to prevent all occurrence in part due to an incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Mounting evidence describes interplay between activation of the innate immune system and thrombus development. Recent work has demonstrated that platelet release of HMGB1 leads to increased microvascular complications following injury. Additionally, platelet HMGB1 was found to enhance DVT and increase the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), although the role of HMGB1 induced NET release in thrombosis remains unexplored. Utilizing a transgenic mouse lacking HMGB1 specifically from platelets and megakaryocytes we now demonstrate the specific role of platelet-derived HMGB1 in acute and subacute/chronic venous thrombosis. Platelets account for the majority of circulating HMGB1 and HMGB1 deposition within the developing clot. The pro-thrombotic effect of platelet-derived HMGB1 is mediated through enhanced neutrophil recruitment, NET formation and specifically release of extracellular DNA during NET formation. Taken together, these data suggest that platelet HMGB1 mediated NET release is a primary regulator of DVT formation in mice.
Project description:Thrombocytopenia impairs host defense and hemostasis in sepsis. However, the mechanisms of how platelets regulate host defense are not fully understood. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a danger-associated molecular pattern protein, is released during infection and contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Platelets express HMGB1, which is released on activation and has been shown to play a critical role in thrombosis, monocyte recruitment, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) production. However, the contribution of platelet HMGB1 to host defense is unknown. To determine the role of platelet HMGB1 in polymicrobial sepsis, platelet-specific HMGB1 knockout (HMGB1 platelet factor 4 [PF4]) mice were generated and were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant intra-abdominal sepsis model. Compared with HMGB1 Flox mice and wild-type (WT) mice, HMGB1 PF4 mice showed significantly higher bacterial loads in the peritoneum and blood, an exaggerated systemic inflammation response, and significantly greater mortality after CLP. Deletion of HMGB1 in platelets was associated with lower platelet-derived chemokines (PF4 and RANTES) in the peritoneal cavity, and a decrease of platelet-neutrophil interaction in the lung after CLP. In vitro, neutrophils cocultured with activated HMGB1 knockout platelets showed fewer platelet-neutrophil aggregates, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst as compared with control. Taken together, these data reveal an unrecognized role of platelet HMGB1 in the regulation of neutrophil recruitment and activation via modulation of platelet activation during sepsis.
Project description:RATIONALE:Platelet hyperreactivity, which is common in many pathological conditions, is associated with increased atherothrombotic risk. The mechanisms leading to platelet hyperreactivity are complex and not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVE:Platelet hyperreactivity and accelerated thrombosis, specifically in dyslipidemia, have been mechanistically linked to the accumulation in the circulation of a specific group of oxidized phospholipids (oxPCCD36) that are ligands for the platelet pattern recognition receptor CD36. In the current article, we tested whether the platelet innate immune system contributes to responses to oxPCCD36 and accelerated thrombosis observed in hyperlipidemia. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using in vitro approaches, as well as platelets from mice with genetic deletion of MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) or TLRs (Toll-like receptors), we demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR6 are required for the activation of human and murine platelets by oxPCCD36. oxPCCD36 induce formation of CD36/TLR2/TLR6 complex in platelets and activate downstream signaling via TIRAP (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein)-MyD88-IRAK (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase)1/4-TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), leading to integrin activation via the SFK (Src family kinase)-Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase)-PLC?2 (phospholipase C?2) pathway. Intravital thrombosis studies using ApoE-/- mice with genetic deficiency of TLR2 or TLR6 have demonstrated that oxPCCD36 contribute to accelerated thrombosis specifically in the setting of hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies reveal that TLR2 plays a key role in platelet hyperreactivity and the prothrombotic state in the setting of hyperlipidemia by sensing a wide range of endogenous lipid peroxidation ligands and activating innate immune signaling cascade in platelets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelets have distinct roles in the vascular system in that they are the major mediator of thrombosis, critical for restoration of tissue integrity, and players in vascular inflammatory conditions. In close spatiotemporal proximity, the complement system acts as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms and is a key mediator of inflammation. Whereas the fluid phase cross-talk between the complement and coagulation systems is well appreciated, the understanding of the pathophysiological implications of such interactions is still scant. METHODS:We analyzed coexpression of the anaphylatoxin receptor C3aR with activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on platelets of 501 patients with coronary artery disease using flow cytometry; detected C3aR expression in human or murine specimen by polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, or flow cytometry; and examined the importance of platelet C3aR by various in vitro platelet function tests, in vivo bleeding time, and intravital microscopy. The pathophysiological relevance of C3aR was scrutinized with the use of disease models of myocardial infarction and stroke. To approach underlying molecular mechanisms, we identified the platelet small GTPase Rap1b using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS:We found a strong positive correlation of platelet complement C3aR expression with activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in patients with coronary artery disease and coexpression of C3aR with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in thrombi obtained from patients with myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrate that the C3a/C3aR axis on platelets regulates distinct steps of thrombus formation such as platelet adhesion, spreading, and Ca2+ influx. Using C3aR-/- mice or C3-/- mice with reinjection of C3a, we uncovered that the complement activation fragment C3a regulates bleeding time after tail injury and thrombosis. Notably, C3aR-/- mice were less prone to experimental stroke and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, reconstitution of C3aR-/- mice with C3aR+/+ platelets and platelet depletion experiments demonstrated that the observed effects on thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke were specifically caused by platelet C3aR. Mechanistically, C3aR-mediated signaling regulates the activation of Rap1b and thereby bleeding arrest after injury and in vivo thrombus formation. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, our findings uncover a novel function of the anaphylatoxin C3a for platelet function and thrombus formation, highlighting a detrimental role of imbalanced complement activation in cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Platelets are anucleated blood cells that participate in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions. Their major role is mediating haemostasis and thrombosis. In addition to these classic functions, platelets have emerged as important players in the innate immune system. In particular, they interact with leukocytes, secrete pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, and express a wide range of inflammatory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), for example, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4, which is the most extensively studied TLR in nucleated cells, recognises lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are compounds of the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Unlike other TLRs, TLR4 is able to signal through both the MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. Notably, despite both pathways culminating in the activation of transcription factors, TLR4 has a prominent functional impact on platelet activity, haemostasis, and thrombosis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on TLR4 signalling in platelets, critically discuss its impact on platelet function, and highlight the open questions in this area.
Project description:A prothrombotic state and increased platelet reactivity are common in pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress and infections. Such conditions are associated with an appearance of altered-self ligands in circulation that can be recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Platelets express a number of TLRs, including TLR9; however, the role of TLR in platelet function and thrombosis is poorly understood.To investigate the biological activities of carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts, an altered-self ligand generated in oxidative stress, on platelet function and thrombosis.In this study we show that carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts represent novel unconventional ligands for TLR9. Furthermore, using human and murine platelets, we demonstrate that carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts promote platelet activation, granule secretion, and aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo via the TLR9/MyD88 pathway. Platelet activation by TLR9 ligands induces IRAK1 and AKT phosphorylation, and it is Src kinase-dependent. Physiological platelet agonists act synergistically with TLR9 ligands by inducing TLR9 expression on the platelet surface.Our study demonstrates that platelet TLR9 is a functional platelet receptor that links oxidative stress, innate immunity, and thrombosis.
Project description:Although platelets play a central role in haemostasis, the dynamics of platelet counts during haemostatic resuscitation, the response to platelet transfusion, and effects on clinical outcome are poorly described for trauma patients. As a sub-study of the already published randomized controlled RETIC Study "Reversal of Trauma-induced Coagulopathy using First-line Coagulation Factor Concentrates or Fresh-Frozen Plasma" trial, we here analysed whether the type of first-line haemostatic resuscitation influences the frequency of platelet transfusion and determined the effects of platelet transfusion in coagulopathic patients with major trauma. Patients randomly received first-line plasma (FFP) or coagulation factor concentrates (CFC), mainly fibrinogen concentrate. In both groups, platelets were transfused to maintain platelet counts between 50 and 100 × 109 /L. Transfusion rates were significantly higher in the FFP (n = 44) vs. CFC (n = 50) group (FFP 47.7% vs. CFC 26%); p = 0.0335. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for the stratification variables injury severity score (ISS) and brain injury confirmed that first-line FFP therapy increases the odds for platelet transfusion (odds ratio (OR) 5.79 (1.89 to 20.62), p = 0.0036) and this effect was larger than a 16-point increase in ISS (OR 4.33 (2.17 to 9.74), p =0.0001). In conclusion, early fibrinogen supplementation exerted a platelet-saving effect while platelet transfusions did not substantially improve platelet count and might contribute to poor clinical outcome.