Discovery of a Novel Inhibitor of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2.
ABSTRACT: Shp2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) related to adult acute myelogenous leukemia and human solid tumors. In this report, we describe identification of a potent Shp2 inhibitor, Fumosorinone (Fumos) from entomogenous fungi, which shows selective inhibition of Shp2 over other tested PTPs. Using a surface plasmon resonance analysis, we further confirmed the physical interaction between Shp2 and Fumos. Fumos inhibits Shp2-dependent activation of the Ras/ERK signal pathway downstream of EGFR, and interrupts EGF-induced Gab1-Shp2 association. As expected, Fumos shows little effects on the Shp2-independent ERK1/2 activation induced by PMA or oncogenic Ras. Furthermore, Fumos down-regulates Src activation, inhibits phosphorylation of Paxillin and prevents tumor cell invasion. These results suggest that Fumos can inhibit Shp2-dependent cell signaling in human cells and has a potential for treatment of Shp2-associated diseases.
Project description:Evidence suggests that Src homologous protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (SHP2) mutations promote cancer development in several solid tumours. In this study, we focused on the in vivo and in vitro effects of an SHP2 mutation on the breast cancer phenotype to determine whether this mutation is correlated with a malignant phenotype.Mutant PTPN11 cDNA (D61G) was transduced into MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells. The effects of the D61G mutation on tumourigenesis and malignant behaviours, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion, were examined. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms, i.e., activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis, were also examined.In vitro experiments revealed that tumour adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly increased in the SHP2 D61G mutant groups. Consistently, in vivo experiments also showed that the tumour sizes and weights were increased significantly in the SHP2 D61G-MB231 group (p < 0.001) in association with tumour metastasis. Mechanistically, the PTPN11 mutation resulted in activation of the Ras-ErK pathway. The binding between Gab1 and mutant SHP2 was significantly increased.Mutant SHP2 significantly promotes tumour migration and invasion at least partially through activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis. This finding could have direct implications for breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Project description:Mutations in RAS signaling pathway components cause diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, collectively called RASopathies. Previous studies have suggested that dysregulation in RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is restricted to distinct cell types in different RASopathies. Some cases of Noonan syndrome (NS) are associated with gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11); however, SHP2 is abundant in multiple cell types, so it is unclear which cell type(s) contribute to NS phenotypes. Here, we found that expressing the NS-associated mutant SHP2D61G in excitatory, but not inhibitory, hippocampal neurons increased ERK signaling and impaired both long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in mice, although endogenous SHP2 was expressed in both neuronal types. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the genes encoding SHP2-interacting proteins that are critical for ERK activation, such as GAB1 and GRB2, were enriched in excitatory neurons. Accordingly, expressing a dominant-negative mutant of GAB1, which reduced its interaction with SHP2D61G, selectively in excitatory neurons, reversed SHP2D61G-mediated deficits. Moreover, ectopic expression of GAB1 and GRB2 together with SHP2D61G in inhibitory neurons resulted in ERK activation. These results demonstrate that RAS-ERK signaling networks are notably different between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, accounting for the cell type-specific pathophysiology of NS and perhaps other RASopathies.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) participates in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1-2) activation according to signal strength, through unknown mechanisms. We report herein that Gab1/Shp2 constitutes a PI3K-dependent checkpoint of ERK1-2 activation regulated according to signal intensity. Indeed, by up- and down-regulation of signal strength in different cell lines and through different methods, we observed that Gab1/Shp2 and Ras/ERK1-2 in concert become independent of PI3K upon strong epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation and dependent on PI3K upon limited EGFR activation. Using Gab1 mutants, we observed that this conditional role of PI3K is dictated by the EGFR capability of recruiting Gab1 through Grb2 or through the PI3K lipid product PIP(3), according to a high or weak level of receptor stimulation, respectively. In agreement, Grb2 siRNA generates, in cells with maximal EGFR stimulation, a strong dependence on PI3K for both Gab1/Shp2 and ERK1-2 activation. Therefore, Ras/ERK1-2 depends on PI3K only when PIP(3) is required to recruit Gab1/Shp2, which occurs only under weak EGFR mobilization. Finally, we show that, in glioblastoma cells displaying residual EGFR activation, this compensatory mechanism becomes necessary to efficiently activate ERK1-2, which could probably contribute to tumor resistance to EGFR inhibitors.
Project description:Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) coordinates various receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Although skeletal muscle differentiation is regulated by some growth factors, it remains elusive whether Gab1 coordinates myogenic signals. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated myogenic differentiation, focusing on Gab1 and its downstream signaling. Gab1 underwent tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent complex formation with protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 upon IGF-I stimulation in C2C12 myoblasts. On the other hand, Gab1 constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85. To delineate the role of Gab1 in IGF-I-dependent signaling, we examined the effect of adenovirus-mediated forced expression of wild-type Gab1 (Gab1(WT)), mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind SHP2 (Gab1(DeltaSHP2)), or mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind p85 (Gab1(Deltap85)), on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation was enhanced in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2), but inhibited in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Conversely, IGF-I-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was significantly repressed in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2) but enhanced in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Furthermore, small interference RNA-mediated Gab1 knockdown enhanced myogenic differentiation. Overexpression of catalytic-inactive SHP2 modulated IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation and ERK1/2 activation similarly to that of Gab1(DeltaSHP2), suggesting that Gab1-SHP2 complex inhibits IGF-I-dependent myogenesis through ERK1/2. Consistently, the blockade of ERK1/2 pathway reversed the inhibitory effect of Gab1(WT) overexpression on myogenic differentiation, and constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 pathway suppressed the enhanced myogenic differentiation by overexpression of Gab1(DeltaSHP2). Collectively, these data suggest that the Gab1-SHP2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway comprises an inhibitory axis for IGF-I-dependent myogenic differentiation.
Project description:The protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 has been implicated in many immunoreceptor signaling pathways, but its role in immunoreceptor Fc?RI signaling, which leads to the activation of mast cells and blood basophils, is still largely undefined. Using Shp2 knockdown RBL-2H3 (RBL) mast cells, we here reported that Shp2 is required for the activation of RBL cells induced by Fc?RI. Fc?R?-evoked degranulation, calcium mobilization, and synthesis of cytokine transcripts (IL-1?, IL-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)) were reduced in Shp2 knockdown RBL cells. Signaling regulatory mechanism investigation using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and GST pull-down assay reveals that the down-regulation of Shp2 expression in RBL cells leads to decreased activities of Fyn, PLC?, JNK, p38MAPK, and Ras/Erk1/2 after Fc?R? aggregation. Further studies suggest that Paxillin phosphoryaltion was also impaired, but PAG phosphorylation was normal after Fc?R? stimulation as a consequence of the inhibition of Shp2 expression in RBL cells. Collectively, our data strongly indicate that Shp2 is essential for the activation of RBL cells in response to Fc?R? aggregation. Shp2 regulates this process through Fyn and Ras with no involvement of PAG. In addition, we identify Paxillin as an indirect substrate of Shp2 in Fc?R?-initiated signaling of RBL cells.
Project description:The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 (PTPN11) is an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it mediates growth factor signaling and its gain-of-function mutants are causally linked to leukemias. We previously synthesized SPI-112 from a lead compound of Shp2 inhibitor, NSC-117199. In this study, we demonstrated that SPI-112 bound to Shp2 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and displayed competitive inhibitor kinetics to Shp2. Like some other compounds in the PTP inhibitor discovery efforts, SPI-112 was not cell permeable, precluding its use in biological studies. To overcome the cell permeation issue, we prepared a methyl ester SPI-112 analog (SPI-112Me) that is predicted to be hydrolyzed to SPI-112 upon entry into cells. Fluorescence uptake assay and confocal imaging suggested that SPI-112Me was taken up by cells. Incubation of cells with SPI-112Me inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Shp2 PTP activity and Shp2-mediated paxillin dephosphorylation, Erk1/2 activation, and cell migration. SPI-112Me treatment also inhibited Erk1/2 activation by a Gab1-Shp2 chimera. Treatment of Shp2(E76K) mutant-transformed TF-1 myeloid cells with SPI-112Me resulted in inhibition of Shp2(E76K)-dependent cell survival, which is associated with inhibition of Shp2(E76K) PTP activity, Shp2(E76K)-induced Erk1/2 activation, and Bcl-XL expression. Furthermore, SPI-112Me enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, ISRE-luciferase reporter activity, p21 expression, and the anti-proliferative effect. Thus, the SPI-112 methyl ester analog was able to inhibit cellular Shp2 PTP activity.
Project description:Despite being a cell-matrix adhesion molecule, beta4 integrin can prompt the multiplication of neoplastic cells dislodged from their substrates (anchorage-independent growth). However, the molecular events underlying this atypical behavior remain partly unexplored. We found that activation of the Met receptor for hepatocyte growth factor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4, which is instrumental for integrin-mediated recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. Shp2 binding to beta4 enhances the activation of Src, which, in turn, phosphorylates the multiadaptor Gab1 predominantly on consensus sites for Grb2 association, leading to privileged stimulation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. This signaling axis can be inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated beta4 depletion, by a beta4 mutant unable to bind Shp2, and by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Shp2 or Src. Preservation of the beta4 docking sites for Shp2 as well as the integrity of Shp2, Src, or ERK activity are required for the beta4-mediated induction of anchorage-independent growth. These results unravel a novel pathway whereby beta4 directs tyrosine kinase-based signals toward adhesion-unrelated outcomes.
Project description:Noonan syndrome (NS), a genetic disease caused in half of cases by activating mutations of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (PTPN11), is characterized by congenital cardiopathies, facial dysmorphic features, and short stature. How mutated SHP2 induces growth retardation remains poorly understood. We report here that early postnatal growth delay is associated with low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in a mouse model of NS expressing the D61G mutant of SHP2. Conversely, inhibition of SHP2 expression in growth hormone (GH)-responsive cell lines results in increased IGF-1 release upon GH stimulation. SHP2-deficient cells display decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and rat sarcoma (RAS) activation in response to GH, whereas expression of NS-associated SHP2 mutants results in ERK1/2 hyperactivation in vitro and in vivo. RAS/ERK1/2 inhibition in SHP2-deficient cells correlates with impaired dephosphorylation of the adaptor Grb2-associated binder-1 (GAB1) on its RAS GTPase-activating protein (RASGAP) binding sites and is rescued by interfering with RASGAP recruitment or function. We demonstrate that inhibition of ERK1/2 activation results in an increase of IGF-1 levels in vitro and in vivo, which is associated with significant growth improvement in NS mice. In conclusion, NS-causing SHP2 mutants inhibit GH-induced IGF-1 release through RAS/ERK1/2 hyperactivation, a mechanism that could contribute to growth retardation. This finding suggests that, in addition to its previously shown beneficial effect on NS-linked cardiac and craniofacial defects, RAS/ERK1/2 modulation could also alleviate the short stature phenotype in NS caused by PTPN11 mutations.
Project description:To understand the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonist-induced signaling events, we have studied the capacity of thrombin in the activation of Gab1-SHP2 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Thrombin activated both Gab1 and SHP2 in EGFR-dependent manner. Similarly, thrombin induced Rac1 and Cdc42 activation, and these responses were suppressed when either Gab1 or SHP2 stimulation is blocked. Thrombin also induced PAK1 activation in a time- and EGFR-Gab1-SHP2-Rac1/Cdc42-dependent manner. Inhibition of activation of EGFR, Gab1, SHP2, Rac1, Cdc42, or PAK1 by pharmacological or genetic approaches attenuated thrombin-induced VSMC stress fiber formation and motility. Thrombin activated RhoA in a time-dependent manner in VSMCs. LARG, a RhoA-specific GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor), was found to be associated with Gab1 and siRNA-mediated depletion of its levels suppressed RhoA, Rac1 and PAK1 activation. Dominant negative mutant-mediated interference of RhoA activation inhibited thrombin-induced Rac1 and PAK1 stimulation in VSMCs and their stress fiber formation and migration. Balloon injury induced PAK1 activity and interference with its activation led to attenuation of SMC migration from media to intima, resulting in reduced neointima formation and increased lumen size. Inhibition of thrombin signaling by recombinant hirudin also blocked balloon injury-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation and PAK1 activity. These results show that thrombin-mediated PAK1 activation plays a crucial role in vascular wall remodeling and it could be a potential target for drug development against these vascular lesions.