The transcriptional repressor HDAC7 promotes apoptosis and c-Myc downregulation in particular types of leukemia and lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: The generation of B cells is a complex process requiring several cellular transitions, including cell commitment and differentiation. Proper transcriptional control to establish the genetic programs characteristic of each cellular stage is essential for the correct development of B lymphocytes. Deregulation of these particular transcriptional programs may result in a block in B-cell maturation, contributing to the development of hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, very little is currently known about the role of transcriptional repressors in normal and aberrant B lymphopoiesis. Here we report that histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) is underexpressed in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pro-B-ALL) and Burkitt lymphoma. Ectopic expression of HDAC7 induces apoptosis, leads to the downregulation of c-Myc and inhibits the oncogenic potential of cells in vivo, in a xenograft model. Most significantly, we have observed low levels of HDAC7 expression in B-ALL patient samples, which is correlated with the increased levels of c-Myc. From a mechanistic angle, we show that ectopically expressed HDAC7 localizes to the nucleus and interacts with the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor C (MEF2C) and the corepressors HDAC3 and SMRT. Accordingly, both the HDAC7-MEF2C interaction domain as well as its catalytic domain are involved in the reduced cell viability induced by HDAC7. We conclude that HDAC7 has a potent anti-oncogenic effect on specific B-cell malignancies, indicating that its deregulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7), a member of class IIa HDACs, has been described to be an important regulator for B cell development and has a potential role in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). CC1007, a BML-210 analog, is designed to indirectly inhibit class IIa HDACs by binding to myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) and blocking the recruitment of class IIa HDACs to MEF2-targeted genes to enhance the expression of these targets. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of CC1007 in breakpoint cluster region-Abelson 1 fusion gene-negative (BCR-ABL1-) pre-B-ALL cell lines and primary patient-derived BCR-ABL1- pre-B-ALL cells. CC1007 had obvious antileukemic activity toward pre-B-ALL cells in vitro and in vivo; it also significantly prolonged median survival time of pre-B-ALL-bearing mice. Interestingly, low dose of CC1007 could inhibit proliferation of BCR-ABL1- pre-B-ALL cells in a time-dependent manner not accompanied by significant cell apoptosis, but along with cross-lineage differentiation toward monocytic lineage. From a mechanistic angle, we showed that HDAC7 was overexpressed in BCR-ABL1- pre-B-ALL cells compared to normal bone marrow samples, and CC1007 could reduce the binding of HDAC7 at the promoters of monocyte-macrophage-specific genes via inhibition of HDAC7 expression and HDAC7:MEF2C interaction. These data indicated that CC1007 may be a promising agent for the treatment of BCR-ABL1- pre-B-ALL.
Project description:B lymphopoiesis is the result of several cell-commitment, lineage-choice, and differentiation processes. Every differentiation step is characterized by the activation of a new, lineage-specific, genetic program and the extinction of the previous one. To date, the central role of specific transcription factors in positively regulating these distinct differentiation processes to acquire a B cell-specific genetic program is well established. However, the existence of specific transcriptional repressors responsible for the silencing of lineage inappropriate genes remains elusive. Here we addressed the molecular mechanism behind repression of non-lymphoid genes in B cells. We report that the histone deacetylase HDAC7 was highly expressed in pre-B cells but dramatically down-regulated during cellular lineage conversion to macrophages. Microarray analysis demonstrated that HDAC7 re-expression interfered with the acquisition of the gene transcriptional program characteristic of macrophages during cell transdifferentiation; the presence of HDAC7 blocked the induction of key genes for macrophage function, such as immune, inflammatory, and defense response, cellular response to infections, positive regulation of cytokines production, and phagocytosis. Moreover, re-introduction of HDAC7 suppressed crucial functions of macrophages, such as the ability to phagocytose bacteria and to respond to endotoxin by expressing major pro-inflammatory cytokines. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating HDAC7 repression in pre-B cells, we undertook co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation experimental approaches. We found that HDAC7 specifically interacted with the transcription factor MEF2C in pre-B cells and was recruited to MEF2 binding sites located at the promoters of genes critical for macrophage function. Thus, in B cells HDAC7 is a transcriptional repressor of undesirable genes. Our findings uncover a novel role for HDAC7 in maintaining the identity of a particular cell type by silencing lineage-inappropriate genes.
Project description:In normal cells, aberrant oncogene expression leads to the accumulation of cytotoxic metabolites, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative DNA-damage and apoptosis as an intrinsic barrier against neoplastic disease. The c-Myc oncoprotein is overexpressed in many lymphoid cancers due to c-myc gene amplification and/or 8q24 chromosomal translocations. Intriguingly, p53 is a downstream target of c-Myc and hematological malignancies, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), frequently contain wildtype p53 and c-Myc overexpression. We therefore hypothesized that p53-regulated pro-survival signals may thwart the cell's metabolic anticancer defenses to support oncogene-activation in lymphoid cancers. Here we show that the Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) promotes c-myc oncogene-activation by the human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) latency-maintenance factor p30II, associated with c-Myc deregulation in ATL clinical isolates. TIGAR prevents the intracellular accumulation of c-Myc-induced ROS and inhibits oncogene-induced cellular senescence in ATL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma cells with elevated c-Myc expression. Our results allude to a pivotal role for p53-regulated antioxidant signals as mediators of c-Myc oncogenic functions in viral and non-viral lymphoid tumors.
Project description:Deregulation of c-myc by translocation onto immunoglobulin (Ig) loci can promote B cell malignant proliferations with phenotypes as diverse as acute lymphoid leukemia, Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, myeloma... The B cell receptor (BCR) normally providing tonic signals for cell survival and mitogenic responses to antigens, can also contribute to lymphomagenesis upon sustained ligand binding or activating mutations. BCR signaling varies among cell compartments and BCR classes. For unknown reasons, some malignancies associate with expression of either IgM or class-switched Ig. We explored whether an IgA BCR, with strong tonic signaling, would affect lymphomagenesis in c-myc IgH 3'RR transgenic mice prone to lymphoproliferations. Breeding c-myc transgenics in a background where IgM expression was replaced with IgA delayed lymphomagenesis. By comparison to single c-myc transgenics, lymphomas from double mutant animals were more differentiated and less aggressive, with an altered transcriptional program. Larger tumor cells more often expressed CD43 and CD138, which culminated in a plasma cell phenotype in 10% of cases. BCR class-specific signals thus appear to modulate lymphomagenesis and may partly explain the observed association of specific Ig classes with human B cell malignancies of differential phenotype, progression and prognosis.
Project description:Overexpression HDAC7 can enhance iPS efficiency in SKO by supressing MEF2 factors We used microarrays to identify changes induced by overexpression of HDAC7 or MEF2C. MEFs were transduced with SKO plus HDAC7 or MEF2C compared to SKO plus empty vector(Flag), GFP as controls. TRIZOL cell lysates were prepared from D6 and D10.
Project description:The MYC transcription factor is a master regulator of diverse cellular functions and has been long considered a compelling therapeutic target because of its role in a range of human malignancies. However, pharmacologic inhibition of MYC function has proven challenging because of both the diverse mechanisms driving its aberrant expression and the challenge of disrupting protein-DNA interactions. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and potent abrogation of MYC gene transcription by representative small molecule inhibitors of the BET family of chromatin adaptors. MYC transcriptional suppression was observed in the context of the natural, chromosomally translocated, and amplified gene locus. Inhibition of BET bromodomain-promoter interactions and subsequent reduction of MYC transcript and protein levels resulted in G(1) arrest and extensive apoptosis in a variety of leukemia and lymphoma cell lines. Exogenous expression of MYC from an artificial promoter that is resistant to BET regulation significantly protected cells from cell cycle arrest and growth suppression by BET inhibitors. MYC suppression was accompanied by deregulation of the MYC transcriptome, including potent reactivation of the p21 tumor suppressor. Treatment with a BET inhibitor resulted in significant antitumor activity in xenograft models of Burkitt's lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These findings demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of MYC is achievable through targeting BET bromodomains. Such inhibitors may have clinical utility given the widespread pathogenetic role of MYC in cancer.
Project description:The generation of B cells is a complex process requiring several cellular transitions, including cell commitment and differentiation, that are tightly controlled by the action of linage-specific transcription factors. Proper transcriptional control to establish the genetic programs characteristic of each cellular stage is essential for the correct development of B lymphocytes. In fact, deregulation of these particular transcriptional programs may result in a block in B cell maturation, contributing to the development of hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. In this experiments, We study the HDAC7 expression levels in pro-B-ALL and Burkitt lymphoma. SD-1 Tet-On-Tight-HDAC7 or SD-1 cells were treated or not for 24 hours with doxycycline. We compare the effects in gene expression between the different situations (in presence or in absence of doxycycline)
Project description:The Cks1 component of the SCF(Skp2) complex is necessary for p27(Kip1) ubiquitylation and degradation. Cks1 expression is elevated in various B cell malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma and multiple myeloma. We have previously shown that loss of Cks1 results in elevated p27(Kip1) levels and delayed tumor development in a mouse model of Myc-induced B cell lymphoma. Surprisingly, loss of Skp2 in the same mouse model also resulted in elevated p27(Kip1) levels but exhibited no impact on tumor onset. This raises the possibility that Cks1 could have other oncogenic activities than suppressing p27(Kip1). To challenge this notion we have targeted overexpression of Cks1 to B cells using a conditional retroviral bone marrow transduction-transplantation system. Despite potent ectopic overexpression, Cks1 was unable to promote B cell hyperproliferation or B cell malignancies, indicating that Cks1 is not oncogenic when overexpressed in B cells. Since Skp2 overexpression can drive T-cell tumorigenesis or other cancers we also widened the quest for oncogenic activity of Cks1 by ubiquitously expressing Cks1 in hematopoetic progenitors. At variance with c-Myc overexpression, which caused acute myeloid leukemia, Cks1 overexpression did not induce myeloproliferation or leukemia. Therefore, despite being associated with a poor prognosis in various malignancies, sole Cks1 expression is insufficient to induce lymphoma or a myeloproliferative disease in vivo.
Project description:Overexpression HDAC7 can enhance iPS efficiency in SKO by supressing MEF2 factors We used microarrays to identify changes induced by overexpression of HDAC7 or MEF2C. Overall design: MEFs were transduced with SKO plus HDAC7 or MEF2C compared to SKO plus empty vector(Flag), GFP as controls. TRIZOL cell lysates were prepared from D6 and D10.
Project description:Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) are key regulators of cellular metabolism and growth, but their role in cardiomyocyte plasticity and heart failure pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we showed that loss of SIK1 kinase activity protected against adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure pathogenesis in rodent models and cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. We found that SIK1 phosphorylated and stabilized histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) protein during cardiac stress, an event that is required for pathologic cardiomyocyte remodeling. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of HDAC7 in cultured cardiomyocytes implicated HDAC7 as a prohypertrophic signaling effector that can induce c-Myc expression, indicating a functional departure from the canonical MEF2 corepressor function of class IIa HDACs. Taken together, our findings reveal what we believe to be a previously unrecognized role for a SIK1/HDAC7 axis in regulating cardiac stress responses and implicate this pathway as a potential target in human heart failure.