Synthesis and evaluation of a new bifunctional NETA chelate for molecular targeted radiotherapy using(90)Y or(177)Lu.
ABSTRACT: Therapeutic potential of ?-emitting cytotoxic radionuclides (90)Y and (177)Lu has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical trials. A bifunctional chelate that can effectively complex with the radioisotopes is a critical component for molecular targeted radiotherapy (90)Y and (177)Lu. A new bifunctional chelate 5p-C-NETA with a relatively long alkyl spacer between the chelating backbone and the functional unit for conjugation to a tumor targeting moiety was synthesized. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to a model targeting moiety, a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys (RGDyK) peptide binding integrin ?v?3 protein overexpressed on various cancers. 5p-C-NETA was conjugated to c(RGDyK) peptide and evaluated for potential use in molecular targeted radiotherapy of (90)Y and (177)Lu.5p-C-NETA conjugated with c(RGDyK) was evaluated in vitro for radiolabeling, serum stability, binding affinity, and the result of the in vitro studies of 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was compared to that of 3p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK). (177)Lu-5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) was further evaluated for in vivo biodistribution using gliobastoma bearing mice.The new chelate rapidly and tightly bound to a cytotoxic radioisotope for cancer therapy, (90)Y or (177)Lu with excellent radiolabeling efficiency and maximum specific activity under mild condition (>99%, RT, <1 min). (90)Y- and (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes of the new chelator remained stable in human serum without any loss of the radiolanthanide for 14 days. Introduction of the tumor targeting RGD moiety to the new chelator made little impact on complexation kinetics and stability with (90)Y or (177)Lu. (177)Lu-radiolabeled 5p-C-NETA-c(RGDyK) conjugate was shown to target tumors in mice and produced a favorable in vivo stability profile.The results of in vitro and in vivo evaluation suggest that 5p-C-NETA is an effective bifunctional chelate of (90)Y and (177)Lu that can be applied for generation of versatile molecular targeted radiopharmaceuticals.
Project description:We report a practical and high-yield synthesis of a bimodal bifunctional ligand 3p-C-NETA-NCS containing the isothiocyanate group for conjugation to a tumor targeting antibody. 3p-C-NETA-NCS was conjugated to a tumor-targeting antibody, trastuzumab, and the corresponding 3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate was evaluated and compared to trastuzumab conjugates of the known bifunctional ligands C-DOTA, C-DTPA, and 3p-C-DEPA for radiolabeling kinetics with (90)Y and (177)Lu. 3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate exhibited extremely rapid complexation kinetics with (90)Y and (177)Lu. (90)Y-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab and (177)Lu-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugates were stable in human serum for 2 weeks. A pilot biodistribution study was conducted to evaluate in vivo stability and tumor targeting of (177)Lu-radiolabeled trastuzumab conjugate using nude mice bearing ZR-75-1 human breast cancer. (177)Lu-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate displayed low radioactivity level at blood (1.6%), low organ uptake (<2.2%), and high tumor-to-blood ratio (6.4) at 120 h. 3p-C-NETA possesses favorable in vitro and in vivo profiles and is an excellent bifunctional chelator that can be used for targeted RIT applications using (90)Y and (177)Lu and has the potential to replace DOTA and DTPA analogues in current clinical use.
Project description:Zevalin® is an antibody-drug conjugate radiolabeled with a cytotoxic radioisotope ((90)Y) that was approved for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A bifunctional ligand that displays favorable complexation kinetics and in vivo stability is required for effective RIT. New bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA for potential use in RIT were efficiently prepared by the synthetic route based on regiospecific ring opening of aziridinium ions with prealkylated triaza- or tetraaza-backboned macrocycles. The new bifunctional ligands 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA along with the known bimodal ligands 3p-C-NETA and 3p-C-DEPA were comparatively evaluated for potential use in targeted radiotherapy using ?-emitting radionuclides (90)Y and (177)Lu. The bifunctional ligands were evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with (90)Y and (177)Lu, and the corresponding (90)Y or (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes were studied for in vitro stability in human serum and in vivo biodistribution in mice. The results of the comparative complexation kinetic and stability studies indicate that size of macrocyclic cavity, ligand denticity, and bimodality of donor groups have a substantial impact on complexation of the bifunctional ligands with the radiolanthanides. The new promising bifunctional chelates in the DE4TA and NE3TA series were rapid in binding (90)Y and (177)Lu, and the corresponding (90)Y- and (177)Lu-radiolabeled complexes remained inert in human serum or in mice. The in vitro and in vivo data show that 3p-C-DE4TA and 3p-C-NE3TA are promising bifunctional ligands for targeted radiotherapy applications of (90)Y and (177)Lu.
Project description:The acyclic ligands H4C3octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4C3octapa were synthesized for the first time, using nosyl protection chemistry. These new ligands were compared to the previously studied ligands H4octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa to determine the extent to which the addition of a single carbon atom to the backbone of the ligand would affect metal coordination, complex stability, and, ultimately, utility for in vivo radiopharmaceutical applications. Although only a single carbon atom was added to H4C3octapa and the metal donor atoms and denticity were not changed, the solution chemistry and radiochemistry properties were drastically altered, highlighting the importance of careful ligand design and radiometal-ligand matching. It was found that [In(C3octapa)](-) and [Lu(C3octapa)](-) were substantially different from the analogous H4octapa complexes, exhibiting fluxional isomerization and a higher number of isomers, as observed by (1)H NMR, VT-NMR, and 2D COSY/HSQC-NMR experiments. Past evaluation of the DFT structures of [In(octapa)](-) and [Lu(octapa)](-) revealed very symmetric complexes; in contrast, the [In(C3octapa)](-) and [Lu(C3octapa)](-) complexes were much less symmetric, suggesting lower symmetry and less rigidity than that of the analogous H4octapa complexes. Potentiometric titrations revealed the formation constants (log K(ML), pM) were ~2 units lower for the In(3+) and Lu(3+) complexes of H4C3octapa when compared to that of the more favorable H4octapa ligand (~2 orders of magnitude less thermodynamically stable). The bifunctional ligands p-SCN-Bn-H4C3octapa and p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa were conjugated to the antibody trastuzumab and radiolabeled with (111)In and (177)Lu. Over a 5 day stability challenge experiment in blood serum, (111)In-octapa- and (111)In-C3octapa-trastuzumab immunoconjugates were determined to be ~91 and ~24% stable, respectively, and (177)Lu-octapa- and (177)Lu-C3octapa-trastuzumab, ~89% and ~4% stable, respectively. This work suggests that 5-membered chelate rings are superior to 6-membered chelate rings for large metal ions like In(3+) and Lu(3+), which is a crucial consideration for the design of bifunctional chelates for bioconjugation to targeting vectors for in vivo work.
Project description:The acyclic chelator H6phospa and the bifunctional derivative p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa have been synthesized using nosyl protection chemistry and evaluated with (89)Zr, (111)In, and (177)Lu. The p-SCN-Bn-H6phospa derivative was successfully conjugated to trastuzumab with isotopic dilution assays indicating 3.3 ± 0.1 chelates per antibody and in vitro cellular binding assays indicating an immunoreactivity value of 97.9 ± 2.6%. Radiolabeling of the H6phospa-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was achieved with (111)In in 70-90% yields at room temperature in 30 minutes, while (177)Lu under the same conditions produced more inconsistent yields of 40-80%. Stability experiments in human serum revealed the (111)In-phospa-trastuzumab complex to be 52.0 ± 5.3% intact after 5 days at 37 °C, while the (177)Lu-phospa-trastuzumab to be only 2.0 ± 0.3% intact. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging using mice bearing subcutaneous SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts was performed, and it was found that (111)In-phospa-trastuzumab successfully identified and delineated small (~2 mm in diameter) tumors from surrounding tissues, despite visible uptake in the kidneys and bone due to moderate chelate instability. As predicted from stability assays in serum, the (177)Lu-phospa-trastuzumab conjugate served as a negative control and displayed no tumor uptake, with high uptake in bones indicating rapid and complete radiometal dissociation and suggesting a potential application of H6phospa in transient lanthanide chelation for bone-delivery. Radiolabeling with (89)Zr was attempted, but even with elevated temperatures of 37 °C, the maximum observed radiometal incorporation over 18 hours was 12%. It can be concluded from this work that H6phospa is not superior to the previously studied H4octapa for use with (111)In and (177)Lu, but improvements in (89)Zr radiolabeling were observed over H4octapa, suggesting H6phospa to be an excellent starting point for elaboration of (89)Zr-based radiopharmaceutical development. To our knowledge, H6phospa is the best desferrioxamine alternative for (89)Zr radiolabeling to be studied to date.
Project description:Preliminary experiments with the novel acyclic triazole-containing bifunctional chelator H2azapa and the radiometals (64)Cu, (67)Ga, (111)In, and (177)Lu have established its significant versatile potential as an alternative to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for metal-based radiopharmaceuticals. Unlike DOTA, H2azapa radiolabels quantitatively with (64)Cu, (67)Ga, (111)In, and (177)Lu in 10 min at room temperature. In vitro competition experiments with human blood serum show that (64)Cu remained predominantly chelate-bound, with only 2% transchelated to serum proteins after 20 h. Biodistribution experiments with [(64)Cu(azapa)] in mice reveal uptake in various organs, particularly in the liver, lungs, heart, intestines, and kidneys. When compared to [(64)Cu(DOTA)](2-), the lipophilic neutral [(64)Cu(azapa)] was cleared through the gastrointestinal tract and accumulated in the liver, which is common for lipophilic compounds or free (64)Cu. The chelator H2azapa is a model complex for a click-based bifunctional chelating agent, and the lipophilic benzyl "place-holders" will be replaced by hydrophilic peptides to modulate the pharmacokinetics and direct activity away from the liver and gut. The solid-state molecular structure of [In(azapa)(H2O)][ClO4] reveals a very rare eight-coordinate distorted square antiprismatic geometry with one triazole arm bound, and the structure of [(64)Cu(azapa)] shows a distorted octahedral geometry. The present study demonstrates significant potential for bioconjugates of H2azapa as alternatives to DOTA in copper-based radiopharmaceuticals, with the highly modular and "clickable" molecular scaffold of H2azapa easily modified into a variety of bioconjugates. H2azapa is a versatile addition to the "pa" family, joining the previously published H2dedpa ((67/68)Ga and (64)Cu), H4octapa ((111)In, (177)Lu, and (90)Y), and H5decapa ((225)Ac) to cover a wide range of important nuclides.
Project description:A bifunctional derivative of the versatile acyclic chelator H4octapa, p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa, has been synthesized for the first time. The chelator was conjugated to the HER2/neu-targeting antibody trastuzumab and labeled in high radiochemical purity and specific activity with the radioisotopes (111)In and (177)Lu. The in vivo behavior of the resulting radioimmunoconjugates was investigated in mice bearing ovarian cancer xenografts and compared to analogous radioimmunoconjugates employing the ubiquitous chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The H4octapa-trastuzumab conjugates displayed faster radiolabeling kinetics with more reproducible yields under milder conditions (15 min, RT, ~94-95%) than those based on DOTA-trastuzumab (60 min, 37 °C, ~50-88%). Further, antibody integrity was better preserved in the (111)In- and (177)Lu-octapa-trastuzumab constructs, with immunoreactive fractions of 0.99 for each compared to 0.93-0.95 for (111)In- and (177)Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab. These results translated to improved in vivo biodistribution profiles and SPECT imaging results for (111)In- and (177)Lu-octapa-trastuzumab compared to (111)In- and (177)Lu-DOTA-trastuzumab, with increased tumor uptake and higher tumor-to-tissue activity ratios.
Project description:Monoclonal antibody (mAb) L8A4 binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) that is present on gliomas but not on normal tissues, and is internalized rapidly after receptor binding. Because of the short range of its ?-emissions, labeling this mAb with (177)Lu would be an attractive approach for the treatment of residual tumor margins remaining after surgical debulking of brain tumors.L8A4 mAb was labeled with (177)Lu using the acyclic ligands [(R)-2-amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A?-DTPA) and 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyldiethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA), and the macrocyclic ligands S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA) and ?-(5-isothiocyanato-2-methoxyphenyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (MeO-DOTA). Paired-label tissue distribution experiments were performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous EGFRvIII-expressing U87.?EGFR glioma xenografts over a period of 1 to 8 days to directly compare (177)Lu-labeled L8A4 to L8A4 labeled with (125)I using N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[(125)I]iodobenzoate ([(125)I]SGMIB).Except with C-DOTA, tumor uptake for the (177)Lu-labeled mAb was significantly higher than the co-administered radioiodinated preparation; however, this was also the case for spleen, liver, bone and kidneys. Tumor/normal tissue ratios for (177)Lu-1B4M-DTPA-L8A4 and, to an even greater extent, (177)Lu-MeO-DOTA-L8A4 were higher than those for [(125)I]SGMIB-L8A4 in most other tissues.Tumor and normal tissue distribution patterns for this anti-EGFRvIII mAb were dependent on the nature of the bifunctional chelate used for (177)Lu labeling. Optimal results were obtained with 1B4M-DTPA and MeO-DOTA, suggesting no clear advantage for acyclic vs. macrocyclic ligands for this application.
Project description:In this communication, we describe the successful encapsulation of (177)Lu into the endohedral metallofullerene (177)Lu(x)Lu(3-x)N@C(80) (x = 1-3) starting with (177)LuCl(3) in a modified quartz Kraschmer-Huffman electric generator. We demonstrate that the (177)Lu (beta-emitter) in this fullerene cage is not significantly released for a period of up to at least one-half-life (6.7 days). We also demonstrate that this agent can be conjugated with an interleukin-13 peptide that is designed to target an overexpressed receptor in glioblastoma multiforme tumors. This nanoparticle delivery platform provides flexibility for a wide range of radiotherapeutic and radiodiagnostic multimodal applications.
Project description:We aimed to explore the effects of (90)Y-DOTATOC and (90)Y-DOTATOC plus (177)Lu-DOTATOC on survival of patients with metastasized gastrinoma. Patients with progressive metastasized gastrinoma were treated with repeated cycles of (90)Y-DOTATOC or with cycles alternating between (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC until tumor progression or permanent toxicity. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to study predictors of survival. A total of 36 patients were enrolled; 30 patients received (90)Y-DOTATOC (median activity per patient 11.8GBq; range: 6.1-62.2GBq) and 6 patients received (90)Y-DOTATOC plus (177)Lu-DOTATOC (median activity per patient: 14.8GBq; range: 7.4-14.8GBq). Response was found in 26 patients (72.2%), including morphological (n=12, 33.3%), biochemical (n=14, 38.9%) and/or clinical response (n=6, 16.2%). A total of 21 patients (58.3%) experienced hematotoxicity grade 1/2, while 1 patient (2.8%) experienced hematotoxicity grade 3; no grade 4 hematotoxicity occurred. Furthermore, 2 patients (5.6%) developed grade 4 renal toxicity; no grade 5 renal toxicity occurred. Responders had a significantly longer median survival from time of enrollment than non-responders (45.1 months, range: 37.1-53.1 months vs. 12.6 months, range: 11.0-14.2, hazard ratio: 0.12 (0.027-0.52), p=0.005). Additionally, there was a trend towards longer median survival with (90)Y-DOTATOC plus (177)Lu-DOTATOC as compared to (90)Y-DOTATOC alone (60.2 months, range: 19.8-100.6 months vs. 27.0 months, range: 4.0-50.0, hazard ratio: 0.21 (0.01-3.98), p=0.16). Response to (90)Y-DOTATOC and (90)Y-DOTATOC plus (177)Lu-DOTATOC therapy is associated with a longer survival in patients with metastasized gastrinoma. Both treatment regimens are promising tools for management of progressive gastrinoma.
Project description:We have developed structurally unique bifunctional chelators in the NETA, NE3TA, and DEPA series for potential radiopharmaceutical applications. As part of our continued research efforts to generate efficient bifunctional chelators for targeted radionuclide therapy and imaging of various diseases, we designed a scorpion-like chelator that is proposed to completely saturate the coordination spheres of Y(III) and Lu(III). We herein report the synthesis and evaluation of a new chelator (3p-C-NEPA) with 10 donor groups for complexation with ?-emitting radionuclides 90Y(III), 86Y(III), and 177Lu(III). The chelator was synthesized and evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with the readily available radioisotopes 90Y and 177Lu, and the corresponding 90Y or 177Lu-radiolabeled complexes were evaluated for in vitro stability in human serum and in vivo complex stability in mice. The new chelator rapidly bound 90Y or 177Lu and formed a stable complex with the radionuclides. The new chelator 3p-C-NEPA radiolabeled with either 90Y or 177Lu remains stable in human serum without dissociation for 10 days. 177Lu-labeled 3p-C-NEPA produced a favorable in vivo biodistribution profile in normal mice.