Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1.
ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactive(TM) Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactive(TM) Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions.
Project description:Lactobacilli are bacteria that are beneficial to host health, but information on communication between Lactobacilli and host cells in the intestine is lacking. In this study, we examined the proteomes of the Lactobacillus mucosae strain LM1, as a model of beneficial bacteria, and the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) after co-culture. Label-free proteomics demonstrated the high-throughput capability of the technique, and robust characterization of the functional profiles and changes in the bacteria and intestinal cells was achieved in pure and mixed cultures. After co-culture, we identified totals of 376 and 653 differentially expressed proteins in the LM1 and IPEC-J2 proteomes, respectively. The major proteomic changes in the LM1 strain occurred in the functional categories of transcription, general function, and translation, whereas those in IPEC-J2 cells involved metabolic and cellular processes, and cellular component organization/biogenesis. Among them, elongation factor Tu, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphocarrier protein HPr, which are known to be involved in bacterial adhesion, were upregulated in LM1. In contrast, proteins involved in tight junction assembly, actin organization, and genetic information processing (i.e., histones and signaling pathways) were significantly upregulated in IPEC-J2 cells. Furthermore, we identified functional pathways that are possibly involved in host-microbe crosstalk and response. These findings will provide novel insights into host-bacteria communication and the molecular mechanism of probiotic establishment in the intestine.
Project description:Lactobacillus mucosae LM1, isolated from stool samples of a healthy piglet, displays good in vitro mucin adhesion and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. To elucidate its antimicrobial effects and to find its epithelial cell and mucin adhesion genes, the genomic sequence of L. mucosae LM1 was investigated.
Project description:In order to systematically analyze proteins fulfilling effector functionalities during inflammation, here we present a comprehensive proteome study of inflammatory activated primary human endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Cells were stimulated with interleukin 1-? and fractionated in order to obtain secreted, cytoplasmic and nuclear protein fractions. Proteins were submitted to a data-dependent bottom up analytical platform using a QExactive orbitrap and the MaxQuant software for protein identification and label-free quantification. Results were further combined with similarly generated data previously obtained from the analysis of inflammatory activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Applying a false discovery rate of less than 0.01 at both, peptide and protein level, a total of 8370 protein groups assembled from 117,599 peptides was identified; mass spectrometry data have been made fully accessible via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003406 to PXD003417.Comparative proteome analysis allowed us to determine common and cell type-specific inflammation signatures comprising novel candidate marker molecules and related expression patterns of transcription factors. Cardinal features of inflammation such as interleukin 1-? processing and the interferon response differed substantially between the investigated cells. Furthermore, cells also exerted similar inflammation-related tasks; however, by making use of different sets of proteins. Hallmarks of inflammation thus emerged, including angiogenesis, extracellular matrix reorganization, adaptive and innate immune responses, oxidative stress response, cell proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion and migration in addition to monosaccharide metabolic processes, representing both, common and cell type-specific responsibilities of cells during inflammation.
Project description:Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle. Direct modifications of the EF-Tu switch I region or modifications in other regions stabilizing the ?-hairpin state of switch I result in an effective allosteric trap that restricts the normal dynamics of EF-Tu and enables the evasion of the control exerted by nucleotides on G proteins. These results highlight stabilization of a phosphorylation-induced conformational trap as an essential mechanism for phosphoregulation of bacterial translation and metabolism. We propose that this mechanism may lead to the multisite phosphorylation state observed during dormancy and stationary phase.
Project description:Sensitivity of FASP was tested using SDS lysates from HeLa cells and mouse brain. Peptides were analyzed using a QExactive HF-X instrument. Whole cell lysates of Hela cells were processed with FASP using single or double, consecutive or successive, digestion with LysC or trypsin. The generated peptides were analyzed using a LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. These datasets accompany "Filter Aided Sample Preparation - A Tutorial" (Wi?niewski, 2019).
Project description:The Pseudomonas aeruginosa methyltransferase EftM trimethylates elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu) on lysine 5 to form a post-translational modification important for initial bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. EftM methyltransferase activity is directly temperature regulated. The protein stability of EftM is tuned with a melting temperature (Tm) around 37 °C such that the enzyme is stable and active at 25 °C, but is completely inactivated by protein unfolding at higher temperatures. This leads to higher observable levels of EF-Tu trimethylation at the lower temperature. Here we report an additional layer of thermoregulation resulting in lower eftM mRNA transcript level at 37 °C compared to 25 °C and show that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription initiation. To begin to define the impact of this system on P. aeruginosa physiology, we demonstrate that EF-Tu is the only observable substrate for EftM. Further, we interrogated the proteome of three different wild-type P. aeruginosa strains, their eftM mutants, and these mutants complemented with eftM and conclude that trimethylation of EF-Tu by EftM does not impact EF-Tu's canonical function in translation. In addition to furthering our knowledge of this Pseudomonas virulence factor, this study provides an intriguing example of a protein with multiple layers of thermoregulation.
Project description:In this study, we employed a gel-free proteomic approach to investigate proteome changes in both LM1 and IPEC-J2 cells after co-incubation. QExactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS) was used for a full proteomic scan of bacterial and intestinal cells, and for a large-scale quantitative analysis of protein dynamics during host-microbe interaction. This is the first proteomic study to use this method to obtain novel insights into probiotic adhesion to IECs.
Project description:Cellular proteins are continuously degraded and synthesized. The turnover of proteins is essential to many cellular functions. Combined with metabolic labeling using stable isotopes, LC-MS estimates proteome dynamics in high-throughput and on a large scale. Modern mass spectrometers allow a range of instrumental settings to optimize experimental output for specific research goals. One such setting which affects the results for dynamic proteome studies is the mass resolution. The resolution is vital for distinguishing target species from co-eluting contaminants with close mass-to-charge ratios. However, for estimations of proteome dynamics from metabolic labeling with stable isotopes, the spectral accuracy is highly important. Studies examining the effects of increased mass resolutions (in modern mass spectrometers) on the proteome turnover output and accuracy have been lacking. Here, we use a publicly available heavy water labeling and mass spectral data sets of murine serum proteome (acquired on Orbitrap Fusion and Agilent 6530 QToF) to analyze the effect of mass resolution of the Orbitrap mass analyzer on the proteome dynamics estimation. Increased mass resolution affected the spectral accuracy and the number acquired tandem mass spectra.
Project description:<i>Mycobacterium avium</i> complex (MAC) is the most common non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and causes different types of pulmonary diseases. While genomic and transcriptomic analysis of <i>Mycobacterium avium</i> 104 (<i>M. avium</i> 104) has been extensive, little is known about the proteomics of <i>M. avium</i> 104. We utilized proteomics technology to analyze the changes in the whole proteome of <i>M. avium</i> 104 during exponential and stationary growth phases. We found 12 dys-regulated proteins; the up-regulated protein hits in the stationary phase were involved in aminopeptidase, choline dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, and ATP binding, while the down-regulated proteins in the stationary phase were acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, universal stress protein, catalase peroxidase, and elongation factor (Tu). The differently expressed proteins between exponential and stationary phases were implicated in metabolism and stress response, pointing to the functional adaptation of the cells to the environment. Proteomic analysis in different growth phases could participate in understanding the course of infection, the mechanisms of virulence, the means of survival, and the possible targets for treatment.