Postadsorption Work Function Tuning via Hydrogen Pressure Control.
ABSTRACT: The work function of metal substrates can be easily tuned, for instance, by adsorbing layers of molecular electron donors and acceptors. In this work, we discuss the possibility of changing the donor/acceptor mixing ratio reversibly after adsorption by choosing a donor/acceptor pair that is coupled via a redox reaction and that is in equilibrium with a surrounding gas phase. We discuss such a situation for the example of tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenediol (TFBD)/tetrafluoro-1,4-benzoquinone (TFBQ), adsorbed on Cu(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. We use density functional theory and ab initio thermodynamics to show that arbitrary TFBD/TFBQ mixing ratios can be set using hydrogen pressures attainable in low to ultrahigh vacuum. Adjusting the mixing ratio allows modifying the work function over a range of about 1 eV. Finally, we contrast single-species submonolayers with mixed layers to discuss why the resulting inhomogeneities in the electrostatic energy above the surface have different impacts on the interfacial level alignment and the work function.
Project description:Trap-assisted recombination loss in the cathode buffer layers (CBLs) is detrimental to the electron extraction process and severely restricts the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, a novel organic-inorganic hybrid film composed of zinc oxide (ZnO) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is designed to fill the intrinsic charge traps of ZnO-based CBLs by doping F4TCNQ for high-performance inverted OSCs. Thus, constructed ZnO:F4TCNQ hybrid film exhibits enhanced surface hydrophobicity and adjustable energy levels, providing favorable interfacial condition for electron extraction process. Consequently, trap-assisted recombination loss in the CBLs was efficiently suppressed, leading to the significantly improved fill factor and PCEs of both fullerene- and non-fullerene-based OSCs using the ZnO:F4TCNQ hybrid CBLs. This work illustrates a convenient organic acceptor doping approach to suppress the internal charge traps of traditional inorganic CBLs, which will shed new light on the fabrication of high-performance CBLs with facile electron extraction processes in inverted OSC devices.
Project description:The electronic structure of metal-organic interfaces is of paramount importance for the properties of organic electronic and single-molecule devices. Here, we use so-called orbital overlap populations derived from slab-type band-structure calculations to analyze the covalent contribution to the bonding between an adsorbate layer and a metal. Using two prototypical molecules, the strong acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) on Ag(111) and the strong donor 1H,1'H-[4,4']bipyridinylidene (HV0) on Au(111), we present overlap populations as particularly versatile tools for describing the metal-organic interaction. Going beyond traditional approaches, in which overlap populations are represented in an atomic orbital basis, we also explore the use of a molecular orbital basis to gain significant additional insight. On the basis of the derived quantities, it is possible to identify the parts of the molecules responsible for the bonding and to analyze which of the molecular orbitals and metal bands most strongly contribute to the interaction and where on the energy scale they interact in bonding or antibonding fashion.
Project description:Fullerene single molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2N@C80 and Dy2ScN@C80 are functionalized via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with surface-anchoring thioether groups. The SMM properties of Dy-fullerenes are substantially affected by the cycloaddition. Submonolayers of the physisorbed derivatives exhibit magnetic hysteresis on an Au(111) surface at 2 K as revealed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.
Project description:The electronic structure of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) surfaces is modeled using slab-type density-functional theory calculations. The studied molecules have a dipolar character induced by polar and electron donating or accepting tail-group substituents. The resulting electronic structure of mixed layers is found to differ qualitatively from a simple superposition of those of the respective pure layers. Specifically, the positions of the frontier electronic states are shifted relative to the metal Fermi level, with the sign and magnitude of that shift depending on the dipole moment of the molecules and the mixing ratio in the film. This appears counterintuitive considering previous investigations, in which it has been shown that, for densely packed layers, tail-group substituents have no impact on the interfacial energy-level alignment. The seeming contradiction can be lifted by considering the local electrostatic interactions within the films in both mixed and homogeneous monolayers. Beyond that, we show that mixed SAMs provide an efficient tool for continuously tuning substrate work functions over a range that far exceeds that accessible by merely changing the coverage of homogeneous layers, with the net effect depending linearly on the mixing ratio in agreement with recent experimental findings.
Project description:Two novel tetrafluorinated 1,5-benzodiazepinones were synthesized and their X-ray structures determined. 6,7,8,9-Tetrafluoro-4-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group and 6,7,8,9-tetrafluoro-1,4-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one in the triclinic P-1 space group. Density functional theory studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level were carried out on these compounds and on four non-fluorinated derivatives, allowing to calculate geometries, tautomeric energies and ring-inversion barriers, that were compared with the experimental results obtained by static and dynamic NMR in solution and in solid state.
Project description:The title complex (CX1), [Na(C18H36N2O6)]I·1.5C2F4I2, is a three-component adduct containing a [2.2.2]-cryptand, sodium iodide and 1,1,2,2-tetra-fluoro-1,2-di-iodo-ethane. The di-iodo-ethane works as a bidentate halogen-bonding (XB) donor, the [2.2.2]-cryptand chelates the sodium cation, and the iodide counter-ion acts as a tridentate XB acceptor. A (6,3) network is formed in which iodide anions are the nodes and halocarbons the sides. The network symmetry is C 3i and the I?I(-) XB distance is 3.4492?(5)?Å. This network is strongly deformed and wrinkled. It forms a layer 9.6686?(18)?Å high and the inter-layer distance is 4.4889?(10)?Å. The cations, inter-acting with each other via weak O?H hydrogen bonds, are confined between two anionic layers and also form a (6,3) net. The structure of CX1 is closely related to that of the KI homologue (CX2). The 1,1,2,2,-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodoethane molecule is rotationally disordered around the I?I axis, resulting in an 1:1 disorder of the C2F4 moiety.
Project description:Development of new antimicrobial agents, capable of combating resistant and multidrug-resistant fungal and bacterial clinical strains, is necessary. This study presents the synthesis and antimicrobial screening of 42 2-substituted-1,4-benzenediols, being 10 novel compounds. In total, 23 compounds showed activity against fungi and/or bacteria. Benzenediol compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, 11, and 12 demonstrated broad spectrum antimicrobial actions, including resistant and multidrug-resistant species of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes), Candida spp. and the ESKAPE panel of bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds for fungi and bacterial strains ranged from 25 to 50?µg/ml and 8-128?µg/ml, respectively. The antifungal mechanism of action is related to the fungal cell wall of dermatophytes and membrane disruption to dermatophytes and yeasts, in the presence of compound 8. Specific structural changes, such as widespread thinning along the hyphae and yeast lysis, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The effects of compound 8 on cell viability are dose-dependent; however they did not cause genotoxicity and mutagenicity in human leukocyte cells nor haemolysis. Moreover, the compounds were identified as nonirritant by the ex-vivo Hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). The furan-1,4-benzenediol compound 5 showed in vivo efficacy to combat S. aureus infection using embryonated chicken eggs. Therefore, the compounds 8, and 5 are promising as hits for the development of new antimicrobial drugs with reduced toxicity.
Project description:Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and differential (optical) reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) have proven independently to be versatile analytical tools for monitoring the evolution of organic thin films during growth. In this paper, we present the first experiment in which both techniques have been applied simultaneously and synchronously. We illustrate how the combined PEEM and DRS results can be correlated to obtain an extended perspective on the electronic and optical properties of a molecular film dependent on the film thickness and morphology. As an example, we studied the deposition of the organic molecule ?-sexithiophene on Ag(111) in the thickness range from submonolayers up to several monolayers.
Project description:Anatase nanowires were synthesized in solution by using a simple mixing of titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate), lactic acid and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. We discuss effects of reaction parameters and post treatment (annealing) on the nanowire morphology, surface area, and crystallinity, as well as the competing morphology directing effects of lactic acid and sodium hydroxide. Then the room temperature nanowires were directly grown onto fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) glass to form photoanodes. Photoelectrochemical measurements of the different nanowires were performed and compared to conventional nanowires produced by high temperature synthesis. Clearly the nanowires introduced in this work show a significant increase in the maximum photocurrent, compared to classic hydrothermal nanowire layers.
Project description:Burkholderia sp. strain AK-5 utilized 4-aminophenol as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of 4-aminophenol in strain AK-5 was proposed based on the identification of three key metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Strain AK-5 converted 4-aminophenol to 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene via 1,4-benzenediol. 1,2,4-Trihydroxybenzene 1,2-dioxygenase cleaved the benzene ring of 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene to form maleylacetic acid. The enzyme showed a high dioxygenase activity only for 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, with K(m) and V(max) values of 9.6 micro M and 6.8 micro mol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), respectively.