Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain.
ABSTRACT: The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country.In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and ?-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed.Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys. BIV was the most prevalent genetic variant of G. duodenalis found in individuals with symptomatic giardiasis in the population under study.Human giardiasis is an ongoing public health problem in Spain affecting primarily young children under four years of age but also individuals of all age groups. Our typing and sub-typing results demonstrate that assemblage B is the most prevalent G. duodenalis assemblage circulating in patients with clinical giardiasis in Central Spain. Our analyses also revealed a large genetic variability in assemblage B (but not assemblage A) isolates of the parasite, corroborating the information obtained in similar studies in other geographical regions. We believe that molecular data presented here provide epidemiological evidence at the population level in support of the existence of genetic exchange within assemblages of G. duodenalis.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is one of the main enteric pathogens associated with diarrheal disease. In developing countries, giardiasis is a major public health concern, particularly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis causing human infections in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran. Individual faecal specimens were collected from 1,163 individuals (male/female ratio: 0.9; age range 2-75 years) with (n = 258) and without (n = 905) gastrointestinal symptoms living in rural and urban settings during the period 2017-2018. Conventional (sucrose flotation and microscopy) methods were used for the initial detection of G. duodenalis cysts in faecal specimens. Microscopy-positive samples were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (ssu rRNA) gene of the parasite. A multilocus genotyping (MLG) scheme targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and the beta-giardin (bg) genes was used for genotyping purposes. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 7.7% (90/1,163) of samples by microscopy, of which 82 were confirmed by ssu-PCR. Successful amplification and sequencing results were obtained for 23.2% (19/82), 9.8% (8/82), and 8.5% (7/82) of the confirmed samples at the tpi, gdh, and bg loci, respectively. MLG data for the three loci were available for two samples only. Out of the 24 samples genotyped at any loci, 50% (12/24) were identified as assemblage A and the remaining half as assemblage B. Overall, AII was the most prevalent sub-assemblage detected (41.7%, 10/24), followed by BIII (25.0%, 6/24), discordant BIII/BIV (5/24) or AII/AIII (2/24) sequences, and BIV (1/24). No significant correlation was demonstrated between a given assemblage/sub-assemblage and the occurrence of clinical symptoms. No genotypes adapted to animal hosts other than humans (e.g. assemblages C-F) were found circulating in the investigated human population, suggesting that transmission of human giardiasis in this Iranian region is primarily of anthroponotic nature. Further molecular-based studies are needed to confirm and expand these results, and to ascertain the presence and public health relevance of the parasite in environmental (e.g. drinking water) samples.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important and widespread gastrointestinal parasites in the world. Despite its relevance as a causative agent of diarrhea, asymptomatic giardiasis occurs frequently, especially in low resources settings in which children are exposed to many risk factors. Based on microscopic examination and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes, we assessed G. duodenalis occurrence and genetic diversity in isolates of children attending a daycare center and living in low income families, in an economically successful region. Considering both, microscopic examination and PCR/sequencing methods, the overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 51.4%, with the highest frequency in children aged 1-4 years old (p<0.05). Genotyping of 50 isolates revealed that the assemblage A was found in 60% of the samples (30/50), followed by the assemblage B in 38% (19/50) and 2% of mixed-assemblage infections (1/50). At the sub-assemblage level, isolates genotyped as A were AII and among isolates B, BIII and BIV were identified. Both assemblages A and B were detected in children of all age groups, however assemblage A was more prevalent. The detection of anthroponotic assemblages and sub-assemblages (AII, BIII and BIV) reinforces human-to-human transmission, mainly in children of all age groups when they have not yet received toilet training, making them more vulnerable to infection.
Project description:Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis.The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro. In order to discriminate the genetic assemblages/sub-assemblages, G. lamblia isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and qPCR using four loci genes (bg, gdh, tpi and orfC4). Of the 65 positive samples, 41 (63.1%) were successfully amplified by nested-PCR of bg and gdh genes. Among them, 16 were typed as sub-assemblage AII, 7 as BIII, 4 as BIV and 8 as a mixture of BIII and BIV. After the analysis by qPCR assay, a total of 55 (84.6%) samples were amplified using at least one locus: bg gene was amplified in 38 (58.5%) samples, gdh in 41 (63.1%), tpi in 39 (60%), and orfC4 in 39 (60%). Multilocus genotyping results showed that 29 (52.7%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 26 (47.3%) samples belonged to Assemblage B. In 2011 and 2012, 20 (74.1%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 7 (25.9%) belonged to Assemblage B. In subsequent years (2013-2015) there was a predominance of Assemblage B, 19 (67.9%) versus 9 (32.1%) Assemblage A.This is the first time that Assemblage B of G. lamblia was reported in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and is the first report about genetic characterization using four genes. The qPCR assemblage-specific showed no mixed infections by Assemblages A and B. A switch in genetic profile over the years was observed, firstly predominance of Assemblage A and lastly of Assemblage B.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and ?-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly, the elevated degree of genetic diversity observed within assemblage B is consistent with the occurrence of intra-assemblage recombination in G. duodenalis.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in humans worldwide with high infection rates occurring in densely populated and low resource settings. The parasite has been recorded to cause diarrhea in children. This study was carried out to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in children presenting with diarrhea in Kenya.A total of 2112 faecal samples were collected from children aged ? 5 years and screened for the presence of Giardia cysts using microscopy. A total of 96 (4.5%) samples were identified as Giardia positive samples and were genotyped using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and ?-giardin loci.The three markers successfully genotyped 72 isolates and grouped 2 (1.4) isolates as Assemblage A, 64 (88.9) as Assemblage B and 7 (9.7%) consisted of mixed infections with assemblage A and B. A further analysis of 50 isolates using GDH Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) categorized 2 assemblage A isolates as sub-assemblage AII while 6 and 14 assemblage B isolates were categorized into sub-assemblage BIII and BIV respectively. A mixed infection with sub-assemblage BIII and BIV was recorded in 28 isolates. Over half (55.6%) of Giardia infections were recorded among the children between 13 to 48 months old.This paper reports the first data on the assemblages and sub-assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in children representing with diarrhea in Kenya.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite commonly detected in children. Exposure to this organism may lead to asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. Additionally, early-life infections by this protozoan have been associated with impaired growth and cognitive function in poor resource settings. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Mozambique demonstrated that G. duodenalis was more frequent among controls than in diarrhoeal cases (?3 loosing stools in the previous 24 hours). However, no molecular investigation was conducted to ascertain the molecular variability of the parasite. Therefore, we describe here the frequency and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis infections in children younger than five years of age with and without diarrhoea from the Manhiça district in southern Mozambique enrolled in the context of GEMS. Genomic DNA from 757 G. duodenalis-positive stool samples by immunoassay collected between 2007-2012, were reanalysed by multiplex PCR targeting the E1-HP and C1-P21 genes for the differentiation of assemblages A and B. Overall, 47% (353) of the samples were successfully amplified in at least one locus. Assemblage B accounted for 90% (319/353) of all positives, followed by assemblage A (8%, 29/353) and mixed A+B infections (1%, 5/353). No association between the presence of a given assemblage and the occurrence of diarrhoea could be demonstrated. A total of 351 samples were further analysed by a multi-locus sequence genotyping (MLSG) approach at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), ß-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall, 63% (222/351) of samples were genotyped and/or sub-genotyped in at least one of the three markers. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of assemblages A (10%; 23/222) and B (90%; 199/222) with high molecular diversity at the nucleotide level within the latter; no mixed infections were identified under the MLSG scheme. Assemblage A sequences were assigned to sub-assemblages AI (0.5%, 1/222), AII (7%, 15/222) or ambiguous AII/AIII (3%, 7/222). Within assemblage B, sequences were assigned to sub-assemblages BIII (13%, 28/222), BIV (14%, 31/222) and ambiguous BIII/BIV (59%, 132/222). BIII/BIV sequences accumulated the majority of the single nucleotide polymorphisms detected, particularly in the form of double peaks at chromatogram inspection. This study demonstrated that the occurrence of gastrointestinal illness (diarrhoea) was not associated to a given genotype of G. duodenalis in Mozambican children younger than five years of age. The assemblage B of the parasite was responsible for nine out of ten infections detected in this paediatric population. The extremely high genetic diversity observed within assemblage B isolates was compatible with an hyperendemic epidemiological scenario where infections and reinfections were common. The obtained molecular data may be indicative of high coinfection rates by different G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages and/or genetic recombination events, although the exact contribution of both mechanisms to the genetic diversity of the parasite remains unknown.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intestinal protozoan parasites are major contributors to the global burden of gastrointestinal disease causing significant socioeconomic consequences. Children living in resource-poor settings with restricted access to water and sanitary services are particularly at risk of these infections. METHODS:A prospective, community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Paraná (southern Brazil) between May 2015 and May 2016. A total of 766 stool samples were individually collected from volunteers (male/female ratio: 0.99; age range: 0-76 years) and used for investigating the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan species by routine microscopic procedures including the Kato-Katz and modified Ritchie concentration methods and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain technique. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed microscopy-positive samples for Giardia duodenalis and the assemblages and sub-assemblages determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and ?-giardin (bg) genes of the parasite. Identification of Blastocystis subtypes was carried out by amplification and sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of this heterokont microorganism. RESULTS:Overall, 46.1% (353/766) of the participants were infected/colonised by at least one intestinal parasite/commensal species. Protozoan and helminth species were detected in 42.7% and 10.1% of the surveyed population, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (28.2%), Endolimax nana (14.9%), and Giardia duodenalis (11.0%) were the most prevalent species found among protozoans and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%), Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) and hookworms (1.0%) among helminths. A total of 38 G. duodenalis-positive samples were genotyped at gdh and bg markers, revealing the presence of the sub-assemblages AII (47.4%), AII/AIII (2.6%), BIII (5.3%), BIV (26.3%) and BIII/BIV (13.1%). Two samples (5.3%) were only identified as assemblage B. AII was predominantly found in females aged 5-9 years and was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 102 Blastocystis-positive samples were successfully subtyped at the SSU rRNA gene revealing the presence of ST1 (36.3%), ST2 (15.7%), ST3 (41.2%), ST4 (2.9%), ST6 (1.0%) and ST8 (2.9%). CONCLUSIONS:Data presented here indicate that enteric parasites still represent a pressing health concern in Paraná, Brazil, probably due to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene conditions. A mostly anthroponotic origin is suspected for G. duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle) at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits) in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.
Project description:Background:This study is the first phylogenetic genotype analysis of Giardia lamblia in Iran. The main objective was to determine genotyping and identify the sub-assemblages of Giardia lamblia isolates involved in the transmission of giardiasis in Fars Province, south of Iran, in 2012. Methods:Forty G. lamblia isolates were collected from the patient's fecal samples with gastrointestinal discomfort referred to the health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Fars Province, south of Iran. Purification of G. lamblia cysts from fecal samples and DNA extraction were performed using monolayer of sucrose density gradient and Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI) respectively. Semi-nested PCR and sequence analysis were then performed using the primers (GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR) which amplified a 432-bp fragment of Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using a neighbor-joining tree composed of the nucleotide sequences of G. lamblia isolates obtained in this study and the known sequences isolates published in GenBank. Results:G. lamblia sub-assemblage AII was the most prevalent genotype with 80% of the cases and 20% of the cases belong to sub-assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence of the gdh. G. lamblia isolates at Fars Province were widely distributed within assemblage A cluster (sub-assemblage AII) and the remaining isolates were dispersed throughout the assemblage B cluster (sub-assemblage BIII and BIV). Conclusion:PCR Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was a proper molecular method for genotyping and discriminating of the of G. lamblia sub-assemblages in fecal samples, using the glutamate dehydrogenase gene that suggests a human contamination origin of giardiasis.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans with about 250-300 million cases per year. It is considered to be a species complex comprising of eight genetic assemblages (A to H), with assemblages A and B being the major causes of human infections. In this study we carried out genotypic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates detected in asymptomatic school-going children aged 3-16?years. Between May and September 2017, a total of 329 fecal samples were collected from school-going children from Chawama compound of Lusaka City and were screened for Giardia by microscopic examination. All microscopically positive fecal samples were analyzed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Genotyping of amplified PCR products was conducted by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence analysis. Microscopically, Giardia was found in 10% (33/329) of fecal samples. The PCR-RFLP analysis of the gdh gene revealed assemblages A and B in 27.3% (9/33) and 72.7% (24/33), respectively. Furthermore, analysis with restriction enzymes identified sub-assemblages AII (27.3%, 9/33), BIII (12.1%, 4/33), BIV (51.5%, 17/33) and mixed infections of BIII and BIV (9.1%, 3/33). Phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of 27.6% (8/29) and 72.4% (21/29) of Zambian Giardia gdh gene sequences into assemblages A and B, respectively. This study has revealed the presence of both assemblage A and B and that spread of G. duodenalis in school-going children appears to be mostly through anthroponotic transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genotypic characterization of G. duodenalis identified in Zambia.