Impacts of impervious surface expansion on soil organic carbon--a spatially explicit study.
ABSTRACT: The rapid expansion of impervious surface areas (ISA) threatens soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in urbanized areas globally. The paucity of field observations on SOC under ISA (SOCISA), especially in dryland areas has limited our ability to assess the ecological impacts of ISA expansion. Based on systematically measured SOCISA (0-80 cm depth) of a dryland city, and land-use and land-cover change data derived from remotely sensed data, we investigated the magnitude and vertical/horizontal patterns of SOCISA and mapped the impact of ISA expansion on SOC storage. The mean SOCISA in the city was 5.36 ± 0.51 kg C m(-2), lower than that observed in humid cities but much higher than that assumed in many regional carbon assessments. SOCISA decreased linearly as the soil depth or the horizontal distance from the open area increased. SOCISA accounted for over half of the city's SOC stock, which decreased by 16% (primarily in the converted croplands) because of ISA expansion from 1990 to 2010. The impacts of the ISA expansion varied spatially, depending on the land- use and converted land-cover type.
Project description:Soil organic carbon (SOC) constitutes a large pool within the global carbon cycle. Changes in land-use/cover strongly drive variation of SOC stocks. We analyzed the changes in four types of land use/cover and their influence on SOC content, density, and regional stocks along the main channel of the Tarim River in China for 2000-2010 obtained from remotely sensed images and field surveys. The areas and structures of the land uses/covers changed greatly during this period. Specifically, the areas of cultivated, industrial and residential, and shrub land increased, particularly cultivated and shrub land. The areas of forestland, grassland, water bodies, and unused land decreased. SOC stocks in forestland, grassland and unused land decreased between 2000 and 2010. The total SOC stock for the forestland shrub land grassland and unused land was lower in 2010 than 2000. Land-use/cover conversion thus affected SOC stocks. Specifically, conversions from forestland to shrub land, forestland to grassland, forestland to unused land, grassland to shrub land, grassland to unused land, and shrub land to unused land decreased the SOC stocks. This study provides a scientific basis for eco-environmental protection in arid areas.
Project description:As cities warm and the need for climate adaptation strategies increases, a more detailed understanding of the cooling effects of land cover across a continuum of spatial scales will be necessary to guide management decisions. We asked how tree canopy cover and impervious surface cover interact to influence daytime and nighttime summer air temperature, and how effects vary with the spatial scale at which land-cover data are analyzed (10-, 30-, 60-, and 90-m radii). A bicycle-mounted measurement system was used to sample air temperature every 5 m along 10 transects (?7 km length, sampled 3-12 times each) spanning a range of impervious and tree canopy cover (0-100%, each) in a midsized city in the Upper Midwest United States. Variability in daytime air temperature within the urban landscape averaged 3.5 °C (range, 1.1-5.7 °C). Temperature decreased nonlinearly with increasing canopy cover, with the greatest cooling when canopy cover exceeded 40%. The magnitude of daytime cooling also increased with spatial scale and was greatest at the size of a typical city block (60-90 m). Daytime air temperature increased linearly with increasing impervious cover, but the magnitude of warming was less than the cooling associated with increased canopy cover. Variation in nighttime air temperature averaged 2.1 °C (range, 1.2-3.0 °C), and temperature increased with impervious surface. Effects of canopy were limited at night; thus, reduction of impervious surfaces remains critical for reducing nighttime urban heat. Results suggest strategies for managing urban land-cover patterns to enhance resilience of cities to climate warming.
Project description:The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage (Buxus megistophylla Levl.), lawns (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev), and roadside trees (Sophora japonica Linn.) in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil moisture content (SMC). The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and diversity across areas with different types of land cover, and soil properties play a more important role than heavy metals.
Project description:Recent interest in improving soil health and agricultural sustainability recognizes the value of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and nutrient cycling. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the response of various SOC and nitrogen (N) components in semiarid cropping systems transitioning from limited-irrigation to dryland and a restored grassland in the Southern High Plains of USA. Cropping systems evaluated include dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)-fallow with conventional tillage (DLCTF) and no-tillage (DLNTF), limited-irrigation winter wheat-sorghum-fallow with no-tillage and cover cropping (LINTC) and no-tillage fallow (LINTF), and an undisturbed grassland (NG). Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and analyzed for SOC, total N, inorganic N, and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) contents. The CO2 and N2O release during a eight-weeks long laboratory incubation were also analyzed. Results show 14% and 13% reduction in SOC and total N from 0-30 cm depth with the transition from limited-irrigation to dryland cropping systems while 51% more SOC and 41% more total N with the transition to grassland. The SMBC was 42% less in dryland cropping systems and 100% more in NG than the limited-irrigation cropping systems. However, the grassland was N limited, with 93% less inorganic N in NG compared to only 11% less in dryland cropping systems than in limited-irrigation cropping systems. The microbial respiration measured as CO2-C was highest in NG, followed by limited-irrigation and dryland cropping systems. The N2O-N release showed the lowest rate of N loss from dryland cropping systems, followed by NG and limited-irrigation cropping systems. This study demonstrated loss of SOC and N in agroecosystems transitioned to dryland crop-fallow systems, with greater magnitude of change observed in the biologically active fraction of soil organic matter. Grassland restoration could be an important strategy to increase SOC and nutrients in hot, dry, semiarid agroecosystems transitioning to dryland.
Project description:The data presented in this paper shows the spatiotemporal expansion of Dire Dawa City (eastern Ethiopia) and the ensuing land use land cover changes in its peri-urban areas between 1985 and 2015. The data were generated from satellite images of Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) and OLI (Operational Land Image) with path/raw value of 166/053 by using Arc GIS 10.1 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Four LULC classes (built up area, vegetation, barren land and farmland) with their respective spatiotemporal dimensions were clearly identified in the analysis. Built up area had shown an overall annual increment of 15.8% (82 ha per year) from 517 ha in 1985 to 2976 ha in 2015. Expansion took place in all directions but it was more pronounced along the main road towards other nearby towns, recently established business/service areas and the Industrial Park. Barren land, farmland and vegetation areas showed speedy decline over the years.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level.<h4>Methods</h4>We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution.<h4>Results</h4>The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading.
Project description:Urban expansion is one of the major problems in Ethiopia resulting in displacement of the rural people inhabiting areas bordering the cities/towns. It is also resulting in land use land cover (LULC) changes affecting the livelihoods of the people and the ecosystems (Messay et al., 2017; Ganamo, 2013) [, ]. The data presented in this article, therefore shows the spatiotemporal LULC changes of peri-urban expansion areas of Shashemene City. The data were generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) images (with path/row numbers 168/055) from EarthExplorer.usgs.gow and the data was classified, interpreted and cross-tabulated using ERDAS IMAGIN 2013 and ArcGIS 10.4.1 software packages. The accuracy of the image classification was verified by geo-location data collected from ground control points by using Geo Positioning System (GPS) receiver and the spatial resolution (1?m) and very recent (2016) Imagery downloaded from Google Earth. The result indicates that the built-up areas have increased by 1938.71?ha (19.3871?km2) with 73.4%, and 17.6% decline in forest land and grassland respectively between 1973 and 2016.
Project description:Urban expansion is one of the key problems in Ethiopia resulting in displacement of the rural people inhabiting areas bordering the cities/towns. It is also resulting in land use land cover (LULC) changes affecting the livelihoods of the people and the ecosystems , . The data presented in this article, therefore, shows the spatiotemporal LULC changes of peri-urban expansion areas known as Koye-Feche and Qilinto, around Addis Ababa City (the capital of Ethiopia). The data were generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images (with path/row numbers 168/054) by using ERDAS EMAGINE 2014 software. The precision of the images was verified by geolocation data collected from ground control points by using Geographic Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The data indicate that the built-up areas have increased by 1017.85 ha (10.178 km2) with 89.1%, 58.4%, 47% and 13% decline of plantation (mostly eucalyptus woodlots), grasslands, riverine vegetation (forestland) and cropland, respectively, between 1986 and 2016.
Project description:Understanding the impacts of climate change on people and the environment requires an understanding of the dynamics of both climate and land use/land cover changes. A range of future climate scenarios is available for the conterminous United States that have been developed based on widely used international greenhouse gas emissions storylines. Climate scenarios derived from these emissions storylines have not been matched with logically consistent land use/cover maps for the United States. This gap is a critical barrier to conducting effective integrated assessments. This study develops novel national scenarios of housing density and impervious surface cover that are logically consistent with emissions storylines. Analysis of these scenarios suggests that combinations of climate and land use/cover can be important in determining environmental conditions regulated under the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. We found significant differences in patterns of habitat loss and the distribution of potentially impaired watersheds among scenarios, indicating that compact development patterns can reduce habitat loss and the number of impaired watersheds. These scenarios are also associated with lower global greenhouse gas emissions and, consequently, the potential to reduce both the drivers of anthropogenic climate change and the impacts of changing conditions. The residential housing and impervious surface datasets provide a substantial first step toward comprehensive national land use/land cover scenarios, which have broad applicability for integrated assessments as these data and tools are publicly available.
Project description:The present research datasets were processed for the article "The global homogenization of urban form. An assessment of 194 cities across time" . They consist of land cover spatial layers, longitude and latitude point data and tabulated data with computed landscape metrics and the characterization of urban form of 194 cities for 1990 and 2015. Contiguous urban fabric at 30?m spatial resolution was derived from the Atlas of Urban Expansion database for 1990 and 2015 . Landscape metrics were computed as quantitative measures of composition and spatial arrangement of each city and dimensions of the database were reduced employing correlation and principal components analysis. Hierarchical clustering was employed to group cities according to the similarity of their urban form and analysis of variance was applied to test for significant differences between them. The spatial layers contained in this article can be complemented with past and future land cover data to model urban form change at broader temporal scales. The landscape metrics are useful for cross-city comparisons at regional, national and global levels in combination with other complementary indicators. The datasets are valuable for urban planners, urban ecologists, NGO's, decision makers and other with interest on local and global landscape change in urban areas, particularly urban expansion and its impacts.