Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.
ABSTRACT: Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine.
Project description:Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are triggers of cardiac arrhythmia driven by L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) reactivation or sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. In large mammals the positive action potential plateau promotes ICaL reactivation, and the current paradigm holds that cardiac EAD dynamics are dominated by interaction between ICaL and the repolarizing K(+) currents. However, EADs are also frequent in the rapidly repolarizing mouse action potential, which should not readily permit ICaL reactivation. This suggests that murine EADs exhibit unique dynamics, which are key for interpreting arrhythmia mechanisms in this ubiquitous model organism. We investigated these dynamics in myocytes from arrhythmia-susceptible calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta C (CaMKII?C)-overexpressing mice (Tg), and via computational simulations.In Tg myocytes, ?-adrenergic challenge slowed late repolarization, potentiated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release, and initiated EADs below the ICaL activation range (-47 ± 0.7 mV). These EADs were abolished by caffeine and tetrodotoxin (but not ranolazine), suggesting that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and Na(+) current (INa), but not late INa, are required for EAD initiation. Simulations suggest that potentiated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange shape late action potential repolarization to favor nonequilibrium reactivation of INa and thereby drive the EAD upstroke. Action potential clamp experiments suggest that lidocaine eliminates virtually all inward current elicited by EADs, and that this effect occurs at concentrations (40-60 ?mol/L) for which lidocaine remains specific for inactivated Na(+) channels. This strongly suggests that previously inactive channels are recruited during the EAD upstroke, and that nonequilibrium INa dynamics underlie murine EADs.Nonequilibrium reactivation of INa drives murine EADs.
Project description:RATIONALE:Voltage-gated Na+ channel ( INa) function is critical for normal cardiac excitability. However, the Na+ channel late component ( INa,L) is directly associated with potentially fatal forms of congenital and acquired human arrhythmia. CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) enhances INa,L in response to increased adrenergic tone. However, the pathways that negatively regulate the CaMKII/Nav1.5 axis are unknown and essential for the design of new therapies to regulate the pathogenic INa,L. OBJECTIVE:To define phosphatase pathways that regulate INa,L in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS:A mouse model lacking a key regulatory subunit (B56?) of the PP (protein phosphatase) 2A holoenzyme displayed aberrant action potentials after adrenergic stimulation. Unbiased computational modeling of B56? KO (knockout) mouse myocyte action potentials revealed an unexpected role of PP2A in INa,L regulation that was confirmed by direct INa,L recordings from B56? KO myocytes. Further, B56? KO myocytes display decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol-induced induction of arrhythmogenic INa,L, and reduced CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of Nav1.5. At the molecular level, PP2A/B56? complex was found to localize and coimmunoprecipitate with the primary cardiac Nav channel, Nav1.5. CONCLUSIONS:PP2A regulates Nav1.5 activity in mouse cardiomyocytes. This regulation is critical for pathogenic Nav1.5 late current and requires PP2A-B56?. Our study supports B56? as a novel target for the treatment of arrhythmia.
Project description:Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs are highly effective in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients but carry a risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The antianginal agent ranolazine is a prototypic atrial-selective voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker but the mechanisms underlying its atrial-selective action remain unclear.The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the atrial-selective action of ranolazine.Whole-cell voltage-gated Na+ currents (INa) were recorded at room temperature (?22°C) from rabbit isolated left atrial and right ventricular myocytes.INa conductance density was ?1.8-fold greater in atrial than in ventricular cells. Atrial INa was activated at command potentials ?7 mV more negative and inactivated at conditioning potentials ?11 mV more negative than ventricular INa. The onset of inactivation of INa was faster in atrial cells than in ventricular myocytes. Ranolazine (30 ?M) inhibited INa in atrial and ventricular myocytes in a use-dependent manner consistent with preferential activated/inactivated state block. Ranolazine caused a significantly greater negative shift in voltage of half-maximal inactivation in atrial cells than in ventricular cells, the recovery from inactivation of INa was slowed by ranolazine to a greater extent in atrial myocytes than in ventricular cells, and ranolazine produced an instantaneous block that showed marked voltage dependence in atrial cells.Differences exist between rabbit atrial and ventricular myocytes in the biophysical properties of INa. The more negative voltage dependence of INa activation and inactivation, together with trapping of the drug in the inactivated channel, underlies an atrial-selective action of ranolazine.
Project description:Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (?KPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 ?M) was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ?KPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 ?M) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs) recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room temperature, but not at physiological temperature. While our study provides evidence for the presence of INa,late in human atria, the potential of such current as a target for the treatment of AF remains to be demonstrated.
Project description:Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) are essential for myocyte membrane excitability and cardiac function. Nav current (INa) is a large-amplitude, short-duration spike generated by rapid channel activation followed immediately by inactivation. However, even under normal conditions, a small late component of INa (INa,L) persists because of incomplete/failed inactivation of a subpopulation of channels. Notably, INa,L is directly linked with both congenital and acquired disease states. The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been identified as an important activator of INa,L in disease. Several potential CaMKII phosphorylation sites have been discovered, including Ser571 in the Nav1.5 DI-DII linker, but the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII-dependent regulation of INa,L in vivo remains unknown.To determine the in vivo role of Ser571, 2 Scn5a knock-in mouse models were generated expressing either: (1) Nav1.5 with a phosphomimetic mutation at Ser571 (S571E), or (2) Nav1.5 with the phosphorylation site ablated (S571A). Electrophysiology studies revealed that Ser571 regulates INa,L but not other channel properties previously linked to CaMKII. Ser571-mediated increases in INa,L promote abnormal repolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) handling and increase susceptibility to arrhythmia at the cellular and animal level. Importantly, Ser571 is required for maladaptive remodeling and arrhythmias in response to pressure overload.Our data provide the first in vivo evidence for the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII activation of the pathogenic INa,L. Relevant for improved rational design of potential therapies, our findings demonstrate that Ser571-dependent regulation of Nav1.5 specifically tunes INa,L without altering critical physiological components of the current.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) mediate neuronal action potentials. Tetrodotoxin inhibits all Nav isoforms, but Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are relatively tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) compared to other isoforms. Nav1.8 is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons and is functionally linked to nociception, but the sensitivity of TTX-r isoforms to inhaled anesthetics is unclear.The sensitivities of heterologously expressed rat TTX-r Nav1.8 and endogenous tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) Nav to the prototypic inhaled anesthetic isoflurane were tested in mammalian ND7/23 cells using patch-clamp electrophysiology.From a holding potential of -70 mV, isoflurane (0.53 +/- 0.06 mM, 1.8 minimum alveolar concentration at 24 degrees C) reduced normalized peak Na current (INa) of Nav1.8 to 0.55 +/- 0.03 and of endogenous TTX-s Nav to 0.56 +/- 0.06. Isoflurane minimally inhibited INa from a holding potential of -140 mV. Isoflurane did not affect voltage-dependence of activation, but it significantly shifted voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation by -6 mV for Nav1.8 and by -7 mV for TTX-s Nav. IC50 values for inhibition of peak INa were 0.67 +/- 0.06 mM for Nav1.8 and 0.66 +/- 0.09 mM for TTX-s Nav; significant inhibition occurred at clinically relevant concentrations as low as 0.58 minimum alveolar concentration. Isoflurane produced use-dependent block of Nav1.8; at a stimulation frequency of 10 Hz, 0.56 +/- 0.08 mM isoflurane reduced INa to 0.64 +/- 0.01 versus 0.78 +/- 0.01 for control.Isoflurane inhibited the tetrodotoxin-resistant isoform Nav1.8 with potency comparable to that for endogenous tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav isoforms, indicating that sensitivity to inhaled anesthetics is conserved across diverse Nav family members. Block of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglion neurons could contribute to the effects of inhaled anesthetics on peripheral nociceptive mechanisms.
Project description:We have previously shown that non-equilibrium Na(+) current (INa) reactivation drives isoproterenol-induced phase-3 early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in mouse ventricular myocytes. In these cells, EAD initiation occurs secondary to potentiated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCX). This can be abolished by tetrodotoxin-blockade of INa, but not ranolazine, which selectively inhibits ventricular late INa.Since repolarization of human atrial myocytes is similar to mouse ventricular myocytes in that it is relatively rapid and potently modulated by Ca(2+), we investigated whether similar mechanisms can evoke EADs in human atrium. Indeed, phase-3 EADs have been shown to re-initiate atrial fibrillation (AF) during autonomic stimulation, which is a well-recognized initiator of AF.We integrated a Markov model of INa gating in our human atrial myocyte model. To simulate experimental results, we rapidly paced this cell model at 10Hz in the presence of 0.1?M acetylcholine and 1?M isoproterenol, and assessed EAD occurrence upon return to sinus rhythm (1Hz).Cellular Ca(2+) loading during fast pacing results in a transient period of hypercontractility after return to sinus rhythm. Here, fast repolarization and enhanced NCX facilitate INa reactivation via the canonical gating mode (i.e., not late INa burst mode), which drives EAD initiation. Simulating ranolazine administration reduces atrial peak INa and leads to faster repolarization, during which INa fails to reactivate and EADs are prevented.Non-equilibrium INa reactivation can critically contribute to arrhythmias, specifically in human atrial myocytes. Ranolazine might be beneficial in this context by blocking peak (not late) atrial INa.
Project description:The antianginal ranolazine blocks the human ether-a-go-go-related gene-based current IKr at therapeutic concentrations and causes QT interval prolongation. Thus, ranolazine is contraindicated for patients with preexisting long-QT and those with repolarization abnormalities. However, with its preferential targeting of late INa (INaL), patients with disease resulting from increased INaL from inherited defects (eg, long-QT syndrome type 3 or disease-induced electric remodeling (eg, ischemic heart failure) might be exactly the ones to benefit most from the presumed antiarrhythmic properties of ranolazine.We developed a computational model to predict if therapeutic effects of pharmacological targeting of INaL by ranolazine prevailed over the off-target block of IKr in the setting of inherited long-QT syndrome type 3 and heart failure.We developed computational models describing the kinetics and the interaction of ranolazine with cardiac Na(+) channels in the setting of normal physiology, long-QT syndrome type 3-linked ?KPQ mutation, and heart failure. We then simulated clinically relevant concentrations of ranolazine and predicted the combined effects of Na(+) channel and IKr blockade by both the parent compound ranolazine and its active metabolites, which have shown potent blocking effects in the therapeutically relevant range. Our simulations suggest that ranolazine is effective at normalizing arrhythmia triggers in bradycardia-dependent arrhythmias in long-QT syndrome type 3 as well tachyarrhythmogenic triggers arising from heart failure-induced remodeling.Our model predictions suggest that acute targeting of INaL with ranolazine may be an effective therapeutic strategy in diverse arrhythmia-provoking situations that arise from a common pathway of increased pathological INaL.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons normally express transcripts for five isoforms of the ?-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels: NaV 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) readily blocks all but NaV 1.8 and 1.9, and pharmacological agents that discriminate among the TTX-sensitive NaV 1-isoforms are scarce. Recently, we used the activity profile of a panel of ?-conotoxins in blocking cloned rodent NaV 1-isoforms expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to conclude that action potentials of A- and C-fibres in rat sciatic nerve were, respectively, mediated primarily by NaV 1.6 and NaV 1.7.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>We used three ?-conotoxins, ?-TIIIA, ?-PIIIA and ?-SmIIIA, applied individually and in combinations, to pharmacologically differentiate the TTX-sensitive INa of voltage-clamped neurons acutely dissociated from adult rat DRG. We examined only small and large neurons whose respective INa were >50% and >80% TTX-sensitive.<h4>Key results</h4>In both small and large neurons, the ability of the toxins to block TTX-sensitive INa was ?-TIIIA < ?-PIIIA < ?-SmIIIA, with the latter blocking ?90%. Comparison of the toxin-susceptibility profiles of the neuronal INa with recently acquired profiles of rat NaV 1-isoforms, co-expressed with various NaV ?-subunits in X.?laevis oocytes, were consistent: NaV 1.1, 1.6 and 1.7 could account for all of the TTX-sensitive INa , with NaV 1.1 < NaV 1.6 < NaV 1.7 for small neurons and NaV 1.7 < NaV 1.1 < NaV 1.6 for large neurons.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>Combinations of ?-conotoxins can be used to determine the probable NaV 1-isoforms underlying the INa in DRG neurons. Preliminary experiments with sympathetic neurons suggest that this approach is extendable to other neurons.
Project description:Flecainide suppresses cardiac tachyarrhythmias including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia and arrhythmic long QT syndromes (LQTS), as well as the Ca2+ -mediated, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). However, flecainide can also exert pro-arrhythmic effects most notably following myocardial infarction and when used to diagnose Brugada syndrome (BrS). These divergent actions result from its physiological and pharmacological actions at multiple, interacting levels of cellular organization. These were studied in murine genetic models with modified Nav channel or intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-Ca2+ channel function. Flecainide accesses its transmembrane Nav 1.5 channel binding site during activated, open, states producing a use-dependent antagonism. Closing either activation or inactivation gates traps flecainide within the pore. An early peak INa related to activation of Nav channels followed by rapid de-activation, drives action potential (AP) upstrokes and their propagation. This is diminished in pro-arrhythmic conditions reflecting loss of function of Nav 1.5 channels, such as BrS, accordingly exacerbated by flecainide challenge. Contrastingly, pro-arrhythmic effects attributed to prolonged AP recovery by abnormal late INaL following gain-of-function modifications of Nav 1.5 channels in LQTS3 are reduced by flecainide. Anti-arrhythmic effects of flecainide that reduce triggering in CPVT models mediated by sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release could arise from its primary actions on Nav channels indirectly decreasing [Ca2+ ]i through a reduced [Na+ ]i and/or direct open-state RyR2-Ca2+ channel antagonism. The consequent [Ca2+ ]i alterations could also modify AP propagation velocity and therefore arrhythmic substrate through its actions on Nav 1.5 channel function. This is consistent with the paradoxical differences between flecainide actions upon Na+ currents, AP conduction and arrhythmogenesis under circumstances of normal and increased RyR2 function. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc.