Magnetically controlled planar hyperbolic metamaterials for subwavelength resolution.
ABSTRACT: Breaking diffraction limitation is one of the most important issues and still remains to be solved for the demand of high-density optoelectronic components, especially for the photolithography industry. Since the scattered signals of fine feature (i.e. the size is smaller than half of the illuminating wavelength ?) are evanescent, these signals cannot be captured by using conventional glass- or plastic-based optical lens. Hence the corresponding fine feature is lost. In this work, we propose and analyze a magnetically controlled InSb-dielectric multi-layered structure with ability of subwavelength resolution at THz region. This layered structure can resolve subwavelength structures at different frequencies merely changing the magnitude of external magnetic field. Furthermore, the resolving power for a fixed incident frequency can be increased by only increasing the magnitude of applied external magnetic field. By using transfer matrix method and effective medium approach, the mechanism of achieving super resolution is elucidated. The electromagnetic numerical simulation results also prove the rationality and feasibility of the proposed design. Because the proposed device can be dynamically reconfigured by simply changing the magnitude of external magnetic field, it would provide a practical route for multi-functional material, real-time super-resolution imaging, and photolithography.
Project description:We report magnetotransport investigation of nonmagnetic InSb single crystal doped with manganese at Mn concentration NMn ~ 1,5 × 10(17) cm(-3) in the temperature range T = 300 K-40 mK, magnetic field B = 0-25T and hydrostatic pressure P = 0-17 kbar. Resistivity saturation was observed in the absence of magnetic field at temperatures below 200 mK while applied increasing external magnetic field induced colossal drop of resistivity (by factor 10(4)) at B ~ 4T with further gigantic resistivity increase (by factor 10(4)) at 15T. Under pressure, P = 17 kbar, resistivity saturation temperature increased up to 1,2 K. Existing models are discussed in attempt to explain resistivity saturation, dramatic influence of magnetic field and pressure on resistivity with the focus on possible manifestation of three dimensional Wigner crystal formed in InSb by light electrons and heavy holes.
Project description:The principal challenge for achieving reconfigurable optical antennas and metasurfaces is the need to generate continuous and large tunability of subwavelength, low-Q resonators. We demonstrate continuous and steady-state refractive index tuning at mid-infrared wavelengths using temperature-dependent control over the low-loss plasma frequency in III-V semiconductors. In doped InSb we demonstrate nearly two-fold increase in the electron effective mass leading to a positive refractive index shift (?n?>?1.5) that is an order of magnitude greater than conventional thermo-optic effects. In undoped films we demonstrate more than 10-fold change in the thermal free-carrier concentration producing a near-unity negative refractive index shift. Exploiting both effects within a single resonator system-intrinsic InSb wires on a heavily doped (epsilon-near-zero) InSb substrate-we demonstrate dynamically steady-state tunable Mie resonances. The observed line-width resonance shifts (???>?1.7??m) suggest new avenues for highly tunable and steady-state mid-infrared semiconductor antennas.Achieving large tunability of subwavelength resonators is a central challenge in nanophotonics. Here the authors demonstrate refractive index tuning at mid-infrared wavelengths using temperature-dependent control over the low loss plasma frequency in III-V semiconductors.
Project description:Hyperbolic metamaterials, the highly anisotropic subwavelength media, immensely widen the engineering feasibilities for wave manipulation. However, limited by the empirical structural topologies, the reported hyperbolic elastic metamaterials (HEMMs) suffer from the limitations of the relatively narrow frequency width, inflexible adjustable operating subwavelength scale and difficulty to further improve the imaging resolution. Here, we show an inverse-design strategy for HEMMs by topology optimization. We design broadband single-phase HEMMs supporting multipolar resonances at different prescribed deep-subwavelength scales, and demonstrate the super-resolution imaging for longitudinal waves. Benefiting from the extreme enhancement of the evanescent waves, an optimized HEMM at an ultra-low frequency can yield an imaging resolution of ~?/64, representing the record in the field of elastic metamaterials. The present research provides a novel and general design methodology for exploring the HEMMs with unrevealed mechanisms and guides the ultrasonography and general biomedical applications.
Project description:Topological superconductivity is an exotic state of matter characterized by spinless p-wave Cooper pairing of electrons and by Majorana zero modes at the edges. The first signature of topological superconductivity is a robust zero-bias peak in tunneling conductance. We perform tunneling experiments on semiconductor nanowires (InSb) coupled to superconductors (NbTiN) and establish the zero-bias peak phase in the space of gate voltage and external magnetic field. Our findings are consistent with calculations for a finite-length topological nanowire and provide means for Majorana manipulation as required for braiding and topological quantum bits.
Project description:Nanophotonics-photonic structures with subwavelength features-allow accessing high intensity and localized electromagnetic field and hence is an ideal platform for investigating and exploiting strong lightmatter interaction. In particular, such a strong light-matter interaction requires investigating the interaction of a magnetic dipole with the electromagnetic field- a less-explored topic, which has usually been ignored within the framework of electric dipole approximation. Motivated by recent advances in the emerging field of multipolar nanophotonics, here we develop an analytical model that provides a new insight into analyzing a magnetic dipole and a nanofiber. This method enables us to examine the effect of second term in the multipolar expansion of light-matter interaction, magnetic dipole approximation, with individual guided and radiation modes of the nanofiber. This is a critical key in developing nanophotonic integrated devices based on magnetic nature of light for super-imaging, biosensing, and optical computing.
Project description:This work develops and analyzes a planar subwavelength device with the ability of one-dimensional resolution at visible frequencies that is based on alternately arranged insulator-metal (IM) and insulator-insulator-metal (IIM) composite structures. The mechanism for the proposed device to accomplish subwavelength resolution is elucidated by analyzing the dispersion relations of the IM-IIM composite structures. Electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) are performed to verify that the design of the device has subwavelength resolution. The ability of subwavelength resolution of the proposed device at various visible frequencies is achieved by slightly varying the constituent materials and geometric parameters. The proposed devices have potential applications in multi-functional material, real-time super-resolution imaging, and high-density photonic components.
Project description:Resolution enhancement in far-field photolithography is demonstrated using a plasmonic metamask in the proximity regime, in which Fresnel diffraction is dominant. The transverse magnetic component of the diffracted wave from the photomask, which reduces the pattern visibility and lowers the resolution, was successfully controlled by coupling with the anti-symmetric mode of the excited surface plasmon. We obtained a consistently finely-patterned photoresist surface at a distance of up to 15??m from the mask surface for 3-?m-pitch slits because of conserved field visibility when propagating from the near-field to the proximity regime. We confirmed that sharp edge patterning is indeed possible when using a wafer-scale photomask in the proximity photolithography regime. Our plasmonic metamask method produces cost savings for ultra-large-scale high-density display fabrication by maintaining longer photomask lifetimes and by allowing sufficient tolerance for the distance between the photomask and the photoresist.
Project description:In this work, the terahertz (THz) Smith-Purcell radiations (SPRs) for the relativistic electron bunch passing over an indium antimonide (InSb)-based substrate with a subwavelength grating under various temperatures of substrate are investigated by FDTD simulations and theoretical analyses. The explored SPR is locked and enhanced at a certain emission wavelength with the emission angle still following the wavelength-angle relation of the traditional SPR. This wavelength agrees with the (vacuum) wavelength of surface plasmons (SPs) at the air-InSb interface excited by the electron bunch. The enhancement of SPR at this wavelength is attributed to the energy from electron concentrated in the excited SPs and then transformed into radiation via the SPR mechanism. When the temperature of InSb increases, the emission wavelength of the enhanced SPR decreases along with the emission angles increasing gradually. This work demonstrates that the emission wavelength and angle of the enhanced SPR from the InSb grating can be manipulated by the temperature of InSb. The temperature tunability of SP-enhanced SPR has potential applications in the fields of optical beam steering and metamaterial light source.
Project description:Due to their exceptional optical and magnetic properties, negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) have been identified as an indispensable tool for imaging, sensing and quantum bit manipulation. The investigation of the emission behaviors of single NV- centers at the nanoscale is of paramount importance and underpins their use in applications ranging from quantum computation to super-resolution imaging. Here, we report on a spin-manipulated nanoscopy method for nanoscale resolutions of the collectively blinking NV- centers confined within the diffraction-limited region. Using wide-field localization microscopy combined with nanoscale spin manipulation and the assistance of a microwave source tuned to the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) frequency, we discovered that two collectively blinking NV- centers can be resolved. Furthermore, when the collective emitters possess the same ground state spin transition frequency, the proposed method allows the resolving of each single NV- center via an external magnetic field used to split the resonant dips. In spin manipulation, the three-level blinking dynamics provide the means to resolve two NV- centers separated by distances of 23?nm. The method presented here offers a new platform for studying and imaging spin-related quantum interactions at the nanoscale with super-resolution techniques.
Project description:A novel nanofibrous composite scaffold composed of super-paramagnetic ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (MNP), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) and poly lactide acid (PLA) was prepared using electrospinning technique. The scaffold well responds extern static magnetic field with typical saturation magnetization value of 0.049?emu/g as well as possesses nanofibrous architecture. The scaffolds were implanted in white rabbit model of lumbar transverse defects. Permanent magnets are fixed in the rabbit cages to provide static magnetic field for the rabbits post surgery. Results show that MNP incorporated in the nanofibers endows the scaffolds super-paramagnetic responsive under the applied static magnetic field, which accelerates new bone tissue formation and remodeling in the rabbit defect. The scaffold also exhibits good compatibility of CK, Cr, ALT and ALP within normal limits in the serum within 110 days post implantation. In conclusion, the super-paramagnetic responding scaffold with applying of external magnetic field provides a novel strategy for scaffold-guided bone repair.