Novel Compound Heterozygous CBS Mutations Cause Homocystinuria in a Han Chinese Family.
ABSTRACT: The cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) gene has been shown to be related to homocystinuria. This study was aimed to detect the mutations in CBS in a Han Chinese family with homocystinuria. A four-generation family from Shandong Province of China was recruited in this study. All available members of the family underwent comprehensive medical examinations. Genomic DNA was collected from peripheral blood of all the participants. The coding sequence of CBS was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by direct DNA sequencing. Among all the family members, three affected individuals showed typical clinical features of homocystinuria. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CBS gene, c.407T?>?C (p. L136P) and c.473C?>?T (p.A158V), were identified by sequencing analysis in this family. Both of the two missense mutations were detected in the three patients. Other available normal individuals, including the patients' parents, grand parents, her younger sister and brother in this family either carried one of the two mutations, or none. In addition, the two mutations were not found in 600 ethnically matched normal controls. This study provides a mutation spectrum of CBS resulting in homocystinuriain a Chinese population, which may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of CBS-associated homocystinuria.
Project description:We present the results of the 45-year clinical observation of 27 Russian homocystinuria patients. We made a mutation analysis of the CBS gene for thirteen patients from eleven unrelated genealogies. All patients except for the two were compound heterozygotes for the mutations detected. The most frequent mutation in the cohort investigated was splice mutation IVS11-2a->c. We detected one new nonsense mutation, one new missense-mutation and three novel small deletions. We also report the clinical case of the B6-responsive patient genotyped as Ile278Thr/Cys109Arg.
Project description:Classical homocystinuria is the most common cause of isolated homocystinuria. The variants of the CBS gene remain unidentified in Indian children with this disorder. Based on the hallmark clinical features, family history, and/or biochemical clues for classical homocystinuria, 16 children below the age of 18 years were evaluated by Sanger sequencing of the coding exons of CBS gene with flanking intronic regions. The common C677T variant of the MTHFR gene was also screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Fifteen children were clinically suspected of having classical homocystinuria and one asymptomatic child with positive family history. Only seven children had biochemical features of classical homocystinuria. Sanger sequencing of the CBS gene confirmed 15 different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 14 cases. Of these, seven variants were novel (three frameshift deletions, two nonsense, one missense, one splice site variant) and were predicted to be deleterious by Mutation Taster software. Seven cases were homozygous, another six were compound heterozygous, and one case was single heterozygous in the study. None of the three most frequent mutations reported worldwide viz., I278T, G307S, and IVS 11-2A>C were found in our cohort. No variants were detected in the exons 2, 8, 12, and 14 as compared to reported literature. Eleven out of 15 variants were associated with the conserved catalytic domain of the CBS polypeptide. The MTHFR polymorphism C677T was observed in heterozygous state in six cases. Our study reports the detailed genotype and seven novel variants in the CBS gene, causing classical homocystinuria in Indian children. The genetic analysis will help to offer accurate genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and development of mutation-based novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Classical homocystinuria due to cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency (OMIM 236200) is a recessively inherited condition caused by mutations in the CBS gene. The founder mutation p.R336C accounts for almost all CBS deficiency in Qatar, affecting approximately 1 in 1,800 births, making it the most prevalent monogenic disease among the Qatari population. Untreated patients can have severe intellectual disability (ID), devastating multisystem complications and premature death. Current treatment is based on pharmacology therapy and life-long methionine-restricted diet, which is difficult to maintain particularly in late diagnosed individuals. Data on the neurodevelopmental and psychological impact of the disease on outcomes among Qatari patients are generally lacking and have not been studied. OBJECTIVES:To examine the cognitive, educational and psychological outcomes of classical homocystinuria on Qatari patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Thirty-two cases with classical homocystinuria and 25 sibling controls were recruited to evaluate the neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcomes. We reviewed the subjects' medical record and collected pertinent clinical and educational data from parents. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test (Arabic translation - 4th ed.) was used for cognitive (IQ) testing. RESULTS:The mean age for the subjects was 11.2 years (range 0.6-29) with 56% males. The majority of cases (93%) carried the mutation (p.R336C), and parental consanguinity was 84%. There were no differences between the two groups in the fine motor, expressive language, behavioural and visual skills. However, cases have much lower total IQ particularly in the domains of short memory, quantitative reasoning and visual-spatial domains. A significant number of adolescents and adult cases had medical co-morbidities as well as behavioural and emotional problems. CONCLUSION:Individuals with classical homocystinuria have many developmental and cognitive difficulties with significant number of cases having learning disability and lower IQs (cf. sibling controls) with adolescents and adults more affected. Those diagnosed by newborn screening have better developmental and cognitive outcomes compared to late diagnosed cases. Psychological and psychiatric referrals should be part of the standard of care for those cases.
Project description:Homocystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) enzyme activity. It leads to the elevation of both homocysteine and methionine levels in the blood and urine. Consequently, this build-up could lead to several complications such as nearsightedness, dislocated eye lenses, a variety of psychiatric and behavioral disorders, as well as vascular system complications. The prevalence of homocystinuria is around 1/200,000 births worldwide. However, its prevalence in the Gulf region, notably Qatar, is exceptionally high and reached 1:1800. To date, more than 191 pathogenic CBS mutations have been documented. The majority of these mutations were identified in Caucasians of European ancestry, whereas only a few mutations from African-Americans or Asians were reported. Approximately 87% of all CBS mutations are missense and do not target the CBS catalytic site, but rather result in unstable misfolded proteins lacking the normal biological function, designating them for degradation. The early detection of homocystinuria along with low protein and methionine-restricted diet is the best treatment approach for all types of homocystinuria patients. Yet, less than 50% of affected individuals show a significant reduction in plasma homocysteine levels after treatment. Patients who fail to lower the elevated homocysteine levels, through high protein-restricted diet or by B6 and folic acid supplements, are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, neural tube defects, and other severe clinical complications. This review aims to examine the mutations spectrum of the CBS gene, the disease management, as well as the current and potential treatment approaches with a greater emphasis on studies reported in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is a monogenic disease caused by the deficient activity of cystathionine ?-synthase (C?S). The objective of this study was to identify the CBS mutations in Brazilian patients with HCU. METHODS:gDNA samples were obtained for 35 patients (30 families) with biochemically confirmed diagnosis of HCU. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of CBS gene were sequenced. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR was performed in six patients. Novel missense point mutations were expressed in E. coli by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS:Parental consanguinity was reported in 16 families, and pyridoxine responsiveness in five (15%) patients. Among individuals from the same family, all presented the same phenotype. Both pathogenic mutations were identified in 29/30 patients. Twenty-one different mutations were detected in nine exons and three introns; being six common mutations. Most prevalent were p.Ile278Thr (18.2%), p.Trp323Ter (11.3%), p.Thr191Met (11.3%), and c.828+1G>A (11.3%). Eight novel mutations were found [c.2T>C, c.209+1delG, c.284T>C, c.329A>T, c.444delG, c.864_868delGAG c.989_991delAGG, and c.1223+5G>T]. Enzyme activity in E. coli-expressed mutations was 1.5% for c.329A>T and 17.5% for c.284T>C. qRT-PCR analysis revealed reduced gene expression in all evaluated genotypes: [c.209+1delG; c.572C>T]; [c.2T>C; c.828+1G>A]; [c.828+1G>A; c.1126G>A]; [c.833T>C; c.989_991delAGG]; [c.1058C>T; c.146C>T]; and [c.444delG; c.444delG]. The expected phenotype according to the genotype (pyridoxine responsiveness) matched in all cases. CONCLUSIONS:Most patients studied were pyridoxine nonresponsive and presented early manifestations, suggesting severe phenotypes. Many private mutations were observed, but the four most prevalent mutations together accounted for over 50% of mutated alleles. A good genotype-phenotype relationship was observed within families and for the four most common mutations.
Project description:Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, is the most prevalent inborn error of methionine metabolism. Its diverse clinical expression may include ectopia lentis, skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, and premature arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. This variability is likely caused by considerable genetic heterogeneity. We investigated the molecular basis of CBS deficiency in 29 Dutch patients from 21 unrelated pedigrees and studied the possibility of a genotype-phenotype relationship with regard to biochemical and clinical expression and response to homocysteine-lowering treatment. Clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters were recorded at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Of 10 different mutations detected in the CBS gene, 833T-->C (I278T) was predominant, present in 23 (55%) of 42 independent alleles. At diagnosis, homozygotes for this mutation (n=12) tended to have higher homocysteine levels than those seen in patients with other genotypes (n=17), but similar clinical manifestations. During follow-up, I278T homozygotes responded more efficiently to homocysteine-lowering treatment. After 378 patient-years of treatment, only 2 vascular events were recorded; without treatment, at least 30 would have been expected (P<.01). This intervention in Dutch patients significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and other sequelae of classical homocystinuria syndrome.
Project description:The present report concerns the first case of a spontaneous arterial coronary dissection in adult onset homocystinuria leading to a premature myocardial infarct. The patient had also presented an unexplained lower limb venous thrombosis at the age of 41. A carotid artery thrombosis was found at the aged of 61 during the investigations for facial nerve palsy. The diagnosis of homocystinuria was delayed as it was only performed 20 years after the first thrombotic event. From observation, a pectus carinatum was the only clinical characteristic that could be related to homocystinuria phenotype. Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) gene analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations. After 3 months of pyridoxine, the plasma homocysteine level was totally normalised.
Project description:Homocystinuria, which typically results from cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency, is the most common defect of sulfur amino acid metabolism. CBS condenses homocysteine and serine to cystathionine that is then converted to cysteine. Individuals with homocystinuria have markedly elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and methionine and reduced concentrations of cystathionine and cysteine. Clinical disease manifestations include thromboembolism and neuropsychiatric, ocular, and skeletal complications. Here, we have shown that administration of PEGylated CBS into the circulation of homocystinuria model mice alters the extra- and intracellular equilibrium of sulfur amino acids, resulting in a decrease of approximately 75% in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and normalization of cysteine concentrations. Moreover, the decrease in homocysteine and the normalization of cysteine in PEGylated CBS-treated model mice were accompanied by improvement of histopathological liver symptoms and increased survival. Together, these data suggest that CBS enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a promising approach for the treatment of homocystinuria and that ERT for metabolic diseases may not necessitate introduction of the deficient enzyme into its natural intracellular compartment.
Project description:CBS domains are defined as sequence motifs that occur in several different proteins in all kingdoms of life. Although thought to be regulatory, their exact functions have been unknown. However, their importance was underlined by findings that mutations in conserved residues within them cause a variety of human hereditary diseases, including (with the gene mutated in parentheses): Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (gamma 2 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase); retinitis pigmentosa (IMP dehydrogenase-1); congenital myotonia, idiopathic generalized epilepsy, hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, and classic Bartter syndrome (CLC chloride channel family members); and homocystinuria (cystathionine beta-synthase). AMP-activated protein kinase is a sensor of cellular energy status that is activated by AMP and inhibited by ATP, but the location of the regulatory nucleotide-binding sites (which are prime targets for drugs to treat obesity and diabetes) was not characterized. We now show that tandem pairs of CBS domains from AMP-activated protein kinase, IMP dehydrogenase-2, the chloride channel CLC2, and cystathionine beta-synthase bind AMP, ATP, or S-adenosyl methionine,while mutations that cause hereditary diseases impair this binding. This shows that tandem pairs of CBS domains act, in most cases, as sensors of cellular energy status and, as such, represent a newly identified class of binding domain for adenosine derivatives.
Project description:During the past 20 years, cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency has been detected in the former Czechoslovakia with a calculated frequency of 1:349,000. The clinical manifestation was typical of homocystinuria, and about half of the 21 patients were not responsive to pyridoxine. Twelve distinct mutations were detected in 30 independent homocystinuric alleles. One half of the alleles carried either the c.833 T-->C or the IVS11-2A-->C mutation; the remaining alleles contained private mutations. The abundance of five mutant mRNAs with premature stop codons was analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Two mRNAs, c.828_931ins104 (IVS7+1G-->A) and c.1226 G-->A, were severely reduced in the cytoplasm as a result of nonsense-mediated decay. In contrast, the other three mRNAs-c.19_20insC, c.28_29delG, and c.210_235del26 (IVS1-1G-->C)-were stable. Native western blot analysis of 14 mutant fibroblast lines showed a paucity of CBS antigen, which was detectable only in aggregates. Five mutations-A114V (c.341C-->T), A155T (c.463G-->A), E176K (c.526G-->A), I278T (c.833T-->C), and W409_G453del (IVS11-2A-->C)-were expressed in Escherichia coli. All five mutant proteins formed substantially more aggregates than did the wild-type CBS, and no aggregates contained heme. These data suggest that abnormal folding, impaired heme binding, and aggregation of mutant CBS polypeptides may be common pathogenic mechanisms in CBS deficiency.