Oxidative Stress Resistance in Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Renewal by Self-Eating.
ABSTRACT: Resistant cancer phenotype is a key obstacle in the successful therapy of prostate cancer. The primary aim of our study was to explore resistance mechanisms in the advanced type of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and to clarify the role of autophagy in these processes. We performed time-lapse experiment (48 hours) with ROS generating plumbagin by using multimodal holographic microscope. Furthermore, we also performed the flow-cytometric analysis and the qRT-PCR gene expression analysis at 12 selected time points. TEM and confocal microscopy were used to verify the results. We found out that autophagy (namely mitophagy) is an important resistance mechanism. The major ROS producing mitochondria were coated by an autophagic membrane derived from endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. According to our results, increasing ROS resistance may be also accompanied by increased average cell size and polyploidization, which seems to be key resistance mechanism when connected with an escape from senescence. Many different types of cell-cell interactions were recorded including entosis, vesicular transfer, eating of dead or dying cells, and engulfment and cannibalism of living cells. Entosis was disclosed as a possible mechanism of polyploidization and enabled the long-term survival of cancer cells. Significantly reduced cell motility was found after the plumbagin treatment. We also found an extensive induction of pluripotency genes expression (NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1) at the time-point of 20 hours. We suppose, that overexpression of pluripotency genes in the portion of prostate tumour cell population exposed to ROS leads to higher developmental plasticity and capability to faster respond to changes in the extracellular environment that could ultimately lead to an alteration of cell fate.
Project description:Drug-induced haploinsufficiency (DIH) in yeast has been considered a valuable tool for drug target identification. A plant metabolite, plumbagin, has potent anticancer activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the detailed molecular targets of plumbagin for ROS generation are not understood. Here, using DIH and heterozygous deletion mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we identified 1, 4-phopshatidylinositol 5-kinase (PI5K) its3 as a new molecular target of plumbagin for ROS generation. Plumbagin showed potent anti-proliferative activity (GI(50); 10 µM) and induced cell elongation and septum formation in wild-type S. pombe. Furthermore, plumbagin dramatically increased the intracellular ROS level, and pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), protected against growth inhibition by plumbagin, suggesting that ROS play a crucial role in the anti-proliferative activity in S. pombe. Interestingly, significant DIH was observed in an its3-deleted heterozygous mutant, in which ROS generation by plumbagin was higher than that in wild-type cells, implying that its3 contributes to ROS generation by plumbagin in this yeast. In MCF7 human breast cancer cells, plumbagin significantly decreased the level of a human ortholog, 1, 4-phopshatidylinositol 5-kinase (PI5K)-1B, of yeast its3, and knockdown of PI5K-1B using siPI5K-1B increased the ROS level and decreased cell viability. Taken together, these results clearly show that PI5K-1B plays a crucial role in ROS generation as a new molecular target of plumbagin. Moreover, drug target screening using DIH in S. pombe deletion mutants is a valuable tool for identifying molecular targets of anticancer agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS: Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects.
Project description:Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) in cruciferous plants, which are part of the human diet, has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer. In this study, we show that BITC effectively suppresses the growth of cultured human prostate cancer cells (CRW-22Rv1 and PC3) by causing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase 3/7 activation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, BITC induces ROS generation in these cells. The induction of apoptosis by BITC was significantly attenuated in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and catalase (CAT), well-studied ROS scavengers. The induction of autophagy in BITC-treated cells were also diminished by the application of NAC or CAT. In addition, BITC-induced apoptosis and autophagy were both enhanced by the pretreatment of catalase inhibitor, 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT). Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of autophagy (3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1) or apoptosis (Z-VAD-FMK) reduced BITC-induced autophagy and apoptosis, respectively, but did not abolish BITC-induced ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences that BITC caused prostate cancer cell death was dependent on the ROS status, and clarified the mechanism underlying BITC-induced cell death, which involves the induction of ROS production, autophagy and apoptosis, and the relationship between these three important processes.
Project description:Background:Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is an emerging drug with a variety of pharmacological effects, including potent anticancer activity. We have previously shown that plumbagin improves the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer and it is now being evaluated in phase I clinical trial. However, the development of formulation of plumbagin as a compound with sparing solubility in water is challenging. Methods:We have formulated plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion using pneumatically controlled high pressure homogenization of oleic acid dispersions with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate as surfactant. Nanoemulsion formulations were characterized for particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The kinetics of in vitro drug release was determined by equilibrium dialysis. Anticancer activity toward prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 was assessed by MTS (Owen's reagent) assay. Results:Particle size distribution of nanoemulsions is tunable and depends on the surfactant concentration. Nanoemulsion formulations of plumbagin with 1-3.5% (w/w) of surfactant showed robust stability of size distribution over time. Plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion with average hydrodynamic diameter of 135?nm showed exponential release of plumbagin with a half-life of 6.1?h in simulated gastric fluid, 7.0?h in simulated intestinal fluid, and displayed enhanced antiproliferative effect toward prostate cancer cells PTEN-P2 compared to free plumbagin. Conclusion:High drug-loading capacity, retention of nanoparticle size, kinetics of release under simulated physiological conditions, and increased antiproliferative activity indicate that oleic-acid based nanoemulsion formulation is a suitable delivery system of plumbagin.
Project description:Recently, the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis has become an important factor in chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Inhibition of autophagy may be an effective strategy to improve the treatment of chemo-resistant cancer by consistent exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. However, no reports have clearly elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, we assessed whether salinomycin, a promising anticancer drug, induces apoptosis and elucidated potential antitumor mechanisms in chemo-resistant prostate cancer cells. Cell viability assay, Western blot, annexin V/propidium iodide assay, acridine orange (AO) staining, caspase-3 activity assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondrial membrane potential were assayed. Our data showed that salinomycin alters the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to autophagy. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, enhanced the salinomycin-induced apoptosis. Notably, salinomycin decreased phosphorylated of AKT and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in prostate cancer cells. Pretreatment with LY294002, an autophagy and PI3K inhibitor, enhanced the salinomycin-induced apoptosis by decreasing the AKT and mTOR activities and suppressing autophagy. However, pretreatment with PD98059 and SB203580, an extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and p38 inhibitors, suppressed the salinomycin-induced autophagy by reversing the upregulation of ERK and p38. In addition, pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, inhibited salinomycin-induced autophagy by suppressing ROS production. Our results suggested that salinomycin induces apoptosis, which was related to ROS-mediated autophagy through regulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
Project description:Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a naturally occurring flavolignan isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris. Recently, it has been reported that DPT inhibits tubulin polymerization and induces G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis through multiple cellular processes. Despite these findings, details regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the DPT-mediated cell death have been poorly understood. To define a mechanism of DPT-mediated cell death response, we examined whether DPT activates signaling pathways for autophagy and apoptosis. We demonstrated that DPT inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines, as evidenced by a mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), primarily generated from the mitochondria, play an important role in various cellular responses, such as apoptosis and autophagy. DPT significantly triggered mitochondrial ROS, which were detected by MitoSOX, a selective fluorescent dye of mitochondria-derived ROS. Furthermore, DPT induced autophagy through an up-regulation of autophagic biomarkers, including a conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 - I (LC3-I) into LC3-II and a formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS promoted AKT-independent autophagy and ERK signaling. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or LC3 knockdown enhanced DPT-induced apoptosis, suggesting that an autophagy plays a protective role in cell survival against apoptotic prostate cancer cells. Additionally, the results from an in vivo xenograft model confirmed that DPT inhibited tumor growth by regulating the apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins.
Project description:Stem cell characteristics have been associated with treatment resistance and poor prognosis across many cancer types. The ability to induce and regulate the pathways that sustain these characteristic hallmarks of lethal cancers in a novel in vitro model would greatly enhance our understanding of cancer progression and treatment resistance. In this work, we present such a model, based simply on applying standard pluripotency/embryonic stem cell media alone. Core pluripotency stem cell master regulators (OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG) along with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (Snail, Slug, vimentin and N-cadherin) were induced in human prostate, breast, lung, bladder, colorectal, and renal cancer cells. RNA sequencing revealed pathways activated by pluripotency inducing culture that were shared across all cancers examined. These pathways highlight a potential core mechanism of treatment resistance. With a focus on prostate cancer, the culture-based induction of core pluripotent stem cell regulators was shown to promote survival in castrate conditions-mimicking first line treatment resistance with hormonal therapies. This acquired phenotype was shown to be mediated through the upregulation of iodothyronine deiodinase DIO2, a critical modulator of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway. Subsequent inhibition of DIO2 was shown to supress expression of prostate specific antigen, the cardinal clinical biomarker of prostate cancer progression and highlighted a novel target for clinical translation in this otherwise fatal disease. This study identifies a new and widely accessible simple preclinical model to recreate and explore underpinning pathways of lethal disease and treatment resistance.
Project description:Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer.
Project description:Entosis is a phenomenon, in which one cell enters a second one. New clinico-histopathological studies of entosis prompted us to summarize its significance in cancer. It appears that entosis might be a novel, independent prognostic predictor factor in cancer histopathology. We briefly discuss the biological basis of entosis, followed by a summary of published clinico-histopathological studies on entosis significance in cancer prognosis. The correlation of entosis with cancer prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, anal carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic ductal carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma, is shown. Numerous entotic figures are associated with a more malignant cancer phenotype and poor prognosis in many cancers. We also showed that some anticancer drugs could induce entosis in cell culture, even as an escape mechanism. Thus, entosis is likely beneficial for survival of malignant cells, i.e., an entotic cell can hide from unfavourable factors in another cell and subsequently leave the host cell remaining intact, leading to failure in therapy or cancer recurrence. Finally, we highlight the potential relationship of cell adhesion with entosis in vitro, based on the model of the BxPc3 cells cultured in full adhesive conditions, comparing them to a commonly used MCF7 semiadhesive model of entosis.
Project description:Treatment of mice harboring PTEN-P2 tumors in the prostate or on prostate tissue in vivo with 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, also known as plumbagin, results in tumor regression in castrated mice, but not in intact mice. This suggested that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) production in the testes may prevent cell death due to plumbagin treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. We performed RNA-seq analysis on cells treated with combinations of plumbagin and DHT, and analyzed differential gene expression, to gain insight into the interactions between androgen and plumbgin. DHT and plumbagin synergize to alter the expression of many genes that are not differentially regulated by either single agent when used alone. These experiments revealed that, for many genes, increases in mRNAs caused by DHT are sharply down-regulated by plumbagin, and that many transcripts change in response to plumbagin in a DHT-dependent manner. This suggests that androgen receptor mediates some of the effects of plumbagin on gene expression.