Effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family regulates two critical processes in neoplastic transformation, namely, cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to detect the effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo. We found that inhibition of survivin by interference decreased the sizes and weights of xenografts in nude mice. The number of apoptotic cells of the shRNA survivin group was higher than that of the black group and the shRNA control group. The downregulated expression of survivin decreased the expression levels of bcl2 and ki67. Our results indicated that inhibition of survivin significantly enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth and induced apoptosis. Survivin is an attractive target for CRC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand the influence of Survivin plasmid with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on the cell cycle, invasion, and the silencing effect of Survivin gene in the SW480 cell of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: A eukaryotic expression vector, PGCH1/Survivin shRNA, a segment sequence of Survivin as target, was created and transfected into colorectal carcinoma cell line SW480 by the non-lipid method. The influence on the Survivin protein was analyzed by Western blotting, while the cell cycle, cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, and invasion of the cell was analyzed by Transwell's chamber method. RESULTS: After the transfection of PGCH1/Survivin shRNA, the expression of Survivin protein in SW480 cells was dramatically decreased by 60.68%, in which the cells were stopped at G2/M phase, even though no apoptosis was detected. The number of transmembranous cells of the experimental group, negative control group, and blank control group were 14.46 +/- 2.11, 25.12 +/- 8.37, and 25.86 +/- 7.45, respectively (P <0.05). CONCLUSION: Survivin shRNA could significantly reduce the expression of Survivin protein and invasion of SW480 cells. Changes in cell cycle were observed, but no apoptosis was induced.
Project description:Survivin is highly expressed in most cancers, including glioblastoma, and it plays a significant role in inhibiting apoptosis and promoting tumor growth. Treatment of cancer cells with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) induces apoptosis through destabilization of mitochondrial membrane and activation of caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways. We studied the efficacy of a combination of survivin knockdown and 4-HPR treatment to induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion, angiogenesis, and growth of human glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. Using a plasmid encoding survivin shRNA, we downregulated survivin in glioblastoma U251MG and U118MG cells and simultaneously treated with 1 µM 4-HPR for 48 hours. Cells following treatments were subjected to the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and invasion assays. In vivo angiogenesis and tumor regression studies were performed in nude mice. TUNEL assay demonstrated apoptosis in more than 80% of cells after survivin knockdown and 4-HPR treatment. Matrigel invasion assays demonstrated marked decreases in tumor cell invasion. In vivo angiogenesis studies depicted a remarkable inhibition of neovascularization due to the knockdown of survivin and 4-HPR treatment. Imaging of intracerebral tumorigenesis and longitudinal studies on subcutaneous solid tumor formation showed dramatic decreases in tumorigenesis and solid tumor progression, respectively, after treatment with the combination. Studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor regression demonstrated marked decreases in proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metalloproteinase-9, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and CD31 in solid tumors. Our data demonstrated that survivin knockdown and concurrent 4-HPR treatment could be a novel therapeutic strategy for controlling growth of human glioblastomas.
Project description:Although the cure rate of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved over the past four decades, the outcome for patients who relapse remains poor. New therapies are needed for these patients. Our previous global gene expression analysis in a series of paired diagnosis-relapse pediatric patient samples revealed that the antiapoptotic gene survivin was consistently upregulated upon disease relapse. In this study, we demonstrate a link between survivin expression and drug resistance and test the efficacy of a novel antisense agent in promoting apoptosis when combined with chemotherapy. Gene-silencing experiments targeting survivin mRNA using either short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or a locked antisense oligonucleotide (LNA-ON) specifically reduced gene expression and induced apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. When used in combination with chemotherapy, the survivin shRNA and LNA-ON potentiated the chemotherapeutic antileukemia effect. Moreover, in a mouse primary xenograft model of relapse ALL, the survivin LNA-ON decreased survivin expression in a subset of animals, and produced a statistically significant decrease in tumor progression. Taken together, these findings suggest that targeting endogenous levels of survivin mRNA by LNA-ON methods may augment the response to standard chemotherapy by sensitizing otherwise resistant tumor cells to chemotherapy.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are enzymes that transfer ADP-ribose groups to target proteins and are involved in a variety of biological processes. PARP6 is a novel member, and our previous findings suggest that PARP6 may act as a tumor suppressor via suppressing cell cycle progression. However, it is still unclear that PARP6 function besides growth suppression in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we examined tumor suppressive roles of PAPR6 in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We found that PARP6 inhibited colony formation, invasion and migration as well as cell proliferation. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of PARP6 decreased Survivin expression, which acts as an oncogene and is involved in apoptosis and mitosis. We confirmed the inverse correlation between PARP6 and Survivin expression in CRC cases by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, CRC cases with downregulation of PARP6 and upregulation of Survivin showed poor prognosis. In summary, PARP6 acts as a tumor suppressor via downregulating Survivin expression in CRC. PARP6 can be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target together with Survivin for CRC.
Project description:Survivin is a bifunctional protein that suppresses apoptosis and regulates cell division, and is highly expressed in various cancer types. Mucins are high-molecular-weight, heavily glycosylated proteins. In the present study, the association between survivin, mucin 2 (MUC2) and MUC5 expression, and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) were investigated. The immunohistochemistry and western blotting results demonstrated that survivin was highly expressed in CRC tissues and rarely expressed in normal colon tissues. Moreover, the overexpression of survivin and MUC5 was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor cellular differentiation, advanced tumor stage and a poor prognosis in CRC. By contrast, low expression of MUC2 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor cellular differentiation and an advanced tumor stage in CRC. The results of the present study suggest that survivin, MUC2 and MUC5 levels may be associated with tumor progression and could be used to aid the early diagnosis and clinical characterization of CRC.
Project description:Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment.We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth.Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium.
Project description:Relapse of drug-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been associated with increased expression of survivin/BIRC5, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, suggesting a survival advantage for ALL cells. In the present study, we report that inhibition of survivin in patient-derived ALL can eradicate leukemia. Targeting survivin with shRNA in combination with chemotherapy resulted in no detectable minimal residual disease in a xenograft model of primary ALL. Similarly, pharmacologic knock-down of survivin using EZN-3042, a novel locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy eliminated drug-resistant ALL cells. These findings show the importance of survivin expression in drug resistance and demonstrate that survivin inhibition may represent a powerful approach to overcoming drug resistance and preventing relapse in patients with ALL.
Project description:Persistent activation of Survivin and its overexpression contribute to the formation, progression and metastasis of several different tumor types. Therefore, Survivin is an ideal target for RNA interference mediated-growth inhibition. Blockade of Survivin using specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) can significantly reduce prostate tumor growth. RNA interference does not fully ablate target gene expression, owing to the idiosyncrasies associated with shRNAs and their targets. To enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Survivin-specific shRNA, we employed a combinatorial expression of Survivin-specific shRNA and gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19). Then, the GRIM-19 coding sequences and Survivin-specific shRNAs were used to create a dual expression plasmid vector and were carried by an attenuated strain of Salmonella enteric serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to treat prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that the co-expressed Survivin-specific shRNA and GRIM-19 synergistically and more effectively inhibited prostate tumor proliferation and survival, when compared with treatment with either single agent alone in vitro and in vivo. This study has provided a novel cancer gene therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.
Project description:Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, is upregulated in multiple cancers including ovarian cancer, but is rarely detectable in normal tissues. We previously reported that survivin promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that survivin may contribute to ovarian tumor metastasis and chemoresistance. In this study, we tested whether knockout or pharmacologic inhibition of survivin overcomes chemoresistance and suppresses tumor metastasis. The genetic loss of survivin suppressed tumor metastasis in an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model. To pharmacologically test the role of survivin on ovarian tumor metastasis, we treated chemo-resistant ovarian cancer cells with a selective survivin inhibitor, MX106, and found that MX106 effectively overcame chemoresistance in vitro MX106 inhibited cell migration and invasion by attenuating the TGF? pathway and inhibiting EMT in ovarian cancer cells. To evaluate the efficacy of MX106 in inhibiting ovarian tumor metastasis, we treated an orthotopic ovarian cancer mouse model with MX106, and found that MX106 efficiently inhibited primary tumor growth in ovaries and metastasis in multiple peritoneal organs as compared with vehicle-treated control mice. Our data demonstrate that inhibition of survivin using either genetic knockout or a novel inhibitor MX106 suppresses primary ovarian tumor growth and metastasis, supporting that targeting survivin could be an effective therapeutic approach in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly prevailing cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Aberrant expression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins is closely linked to neoplastic progression and chemoresistance. Obatoclax is a clinically developed drug, which binds antiapoptotic BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1 for inhibition to elicit apoptosis. Survivin is an antiapoptotic protein, whose upregulation correlates with pathogenesis, therapeutic resistance, and poor prognosis in CRC. Herein, we provide the first evidence delineating the functional linkage between Obatoclax and survivin in the context of human CRC cells. In detail, Obatoclax was found to markedly downregulate survivin. This downregulation was mainly achieved via transcriptional repression, as Obatoclax lowered the levels of both survivin mRNA and promoter activity, while blocking proteasomal degradation failed to prevent survivin from downregulation by Obatoclax. Notably, ectopic survivin expression curtailed Obatoclax-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity, confirming an essential role of survivin downregulation in Obatoclax-elicited anti-CRC effect. Moreover, Obatoclax was found to repress hyperactive WNT/?-catenin signaling activity commonly present in human CRC cells, and, markedly, ectopic expression of dominant-active ?-catenin mutant rescued the levels of survivin along with elevated cell viability. We further revealed that, depending on the cell context, Obatoclax suppresses WNT/?-catenin signaling in HCT 116 cells likely via inducing ?-catenin destabilization, or by downregulating LEF1 in DLD-1 cells. Collectively, we for the first time define survivin downregulation as a novel, pro-apoptotic mechanism of Obatoclax as a consequence of Obatocalx acting as an antagonist to WNT/?-catenin signaling.