Clinical utility of circulating tumor DNA for molecular assessment in pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies. The genomic landscape of the PDAC genome features four frequently mutated genes (KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53, and SMAD4) and dozens of candidate driver genes altered at low frequency, including potential clinical targets. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising resource to detect and monitor molecular characteristics of tumors. In the present study, we determined the mutational status of KRAS in plasma cfDNA using multiplex picoliter-droplet digital PCR in 259 patients with PDAC. We constructed a novel modified SureSelect-KAPA-Illumina platform and an original panel of 60 genes. We then performed targeted deep sequencing of cfDNA and matched germline DNA samples in 48 patients who had ?1% mutant allele frequencies of KRAS in plasma cfDNA. Importantly, potentially targetable somatic mutations were identified in 14 of 48 patients (29.2%) examined by targeted deep sequencing of cfDNA. We also analyzed somatic copy number alterations based on the targeted sequencing data using our in-house algorithm, and potentially targetable amplifications were detected. Assessment of mutations and copy number alterations in plasma cfDNA may provide a prognostic and diagnostic tool to assist decisions regarding optimal therapeutic strategies for PDAC patients.
Project description:Targeted deep sequencing across broad genomic regions has been used to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. However, since most PDACs harbor a mutation in KRAS, sequencing of broad regions needs to be systemically compared to analyzing only KRAS mutations for PDAC. Using capture-based targeted deep sequencing, we detected somatic tumor mutations in 17 fine needle aspiration biopsy and 69 longitudinal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from 17 PDAC patients. KRAS mutations were detected in 10 out of 17 pretreatment patient plasma samples. Next, interrogation of genetic alterations in matched primary tumor samples detected ctDNA in 12 of 17 pretreatment plasma samples and cfDNA sequencing across the 83 target genes identified ctDNA in 15 of 17 cases (88.2% sensitivity). This improved sensitivity of ctDNA detection resulted in enhanced tumor burden monitoring when we analyzed longitudinal plasma samples. We found that cfDNA sequencing detected the lowest mutant allelic fractions and number of variants when complete response or partial response to chemotherapy was achieved. We demonstrated that ctDNA levels measured by targeted deep sequencing sensitively indicate the presence of cancer and correlate well with clinical responses to therapy and disease progression in PDAC patients.
Project description:Serial biopsy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), to chart tumour evolution presents a significant challenge. We examined the utility of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) as a minimally invasive approach across a cohort of 55 treatment-naïve patients with PDAC; 31 with metastatic and 24 with locally advanced disease. Somatic mutations in cfDNA were detected using next generation sequencing in 15/24 (62.5%) and 27/31 (87%) of patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease, respectively. Copy number changes were detected in cfDNA of 10 patients of whom 7 exhibited gain of chromosome 12p harbouring KRAS as well as a canonical KRAS codon 12 mutation. In multivariable Cox Regression analysis, we show for the first time that patients with KRAS copy number gain and KRAS mutation have significantly worse outcomes, suggesting that this may be linked to PDAC progression. The simple cfDNA assay we describe will enable determination of the presence of KRAS copy number gain and KRAS mutations in larger studies and clinical trials.
Project description:The majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) are diagnosed late so that surgery is rarely curative. Earlier detection could significantly increase the likelihood of successful treatment and improve survival. The aim of the study was to provide proof of principle that point mutations in key cancer genes can be identified by sequencing circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and that this could be used to detect early PDACs and potentially, premalignant lesions, to help target early effective treatment. Targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) analysis of mutation hotspots in 50 cancer genes was conducted in 26 patients with PDAC, 14 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 12 healthy controls with KRAS status validated by digital droplet PCR. A higher median level of total cfDNA was observed in patients with PDAC (585 ng/ml) compared to either patients with CP (300 ng/ml) or healthy controls (175 ng/ml). PDAC tissue showed wide mutational heterogeneity, whereas KRAS was the most commonly mutated gene in cfDNA of patients with PDAC and was significantly associated with a poor disease specific survival (p=0.018). This study demonstrates that tNGS of cfDNA is feasible to characterise the circulating genomic profile in PDAC and that driver mutations in KRAS have prognostic value but cannot currently be used to detect early emergence of disease. Importantly, monitoring total cfDNA levels may have utility in individuals "at risk" and warrants further investigation.
Project description:Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) offers an alternative to tissue biopsies for genomic profiling in tumors. Here, we sought to evaluate copy number alterations in PDAC through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of cfDNA and determine their clinical significance. Using shallow WGS across 90 plasma samples from 70 pancreatic cancer patients, we detected somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) in 34 subjects (48.6%). Additionally, a higher tumor fraction (TFx) was associated with increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), metastasis, and a worse prognosis. Serial cfDNA analysis suggested that CNAs were highly concordant even for progressive disease after chemotherapy. TFx dynamics were largely in line with changed CA19-9 levels and tumor burden following chemotherapy. Notably, patients with more abundant, baseline CNAs exhibited a better response to chemotherapy. In conclusion, shallow WGS for cfDNA enables a high-throughput characterization of CNAs and an estimation of tumor burden in metastatic pancreatic cancer. These findings reinforce our understanding of the genomic evolution of metastatic PDAC and might have clinical relevance for guiding treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Noninvasive genotyping using plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has the potential to obviate the need for some invasive biopsies in cancer patients while also elucidating disease heterogeneity. We sought to develop an ultra-deep plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for patients with non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that could detect targetable oncogenic drivers and resistance mutations in patients where tissue biopsy failed to identify an actionable alteration. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Plasma was prospectively collected from patients with advanced, progressive NSCLC. We carried out ultra-deep NGS using cfDNA extracted from plasma and matched white blood cells using a hybrid capture panel covering 37 lung cancer-related genes sequenced to 50 000× raw target coverage filtering somatic mutations attributable to clonal hematopoiesis. Clinical sensitivity and specificity for plasma detection of known oncogenic drivers were calculated and compared with tissue genotyping results. Orthogonal ddPCR validation was carried out in a subset of cases. RESULTS:In 127 assessable patients, plasma NGS detected driver mutations with variant allele fractions ranging from 0.14% to 52%. Plasma ddPCR for EGFR or KRAS mutations revealed findings nearly identical to those of plasma NGS in 21 of 22 patients, with high concordance of variant allele fraction (r?=?0.98). Blinded to tissue genotype, plasma NGS sensitivity for de novo plasma detection of known oncogenic drivers was 75% (68/91). Specificity of plasma NGS in those who were driver-negative by tissue NGS was 100% (19/19). In 17 patients with tumor tissue deemed insufficient for genotyping, plasma NGS identified four KRAS mutations. In 23 EGFR mutant cases with acquired resistance to targeted therapy, plasma NGS detected potential resistance mechanisms, including EGFR T790M and C797S mutations and ERBB2 amplification. CONCLUSIONS:Ultra-deep plasma NGS with clonal hematopoiesis filtering resulted in de novo detection of targetable oncogenic drivers and resistance mechanisms in patients with NSCLC, including when tissue biopsy was inadequate for genotyping.
Project description:Sequencing of the mutant allele fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) derived from tumors is increasingly utilized to detect actionable genomic alterations in cancer. We conducted a prospective blinded study of a comprehensive cfDNA sequencing panel with 54 cancer genes. To evaluate the concordance between cfDNA and tumor DNA (tDNA), sequencing results were compared between cfDNA from plasma and genomic tumor DNA (tDNA). Utilizing next generation digital sequencing technology (DST), we profiled approximately 78,000 bases encoding 512 complete exons in the targeted genes in cfDNA from plasma. Seventy-five patients were prospectively enrolled between February 2013 and March 2014, including 61 metastatic cancer patients and 14 clinical stage II CRC patients with matched plasma and tissue samples. Using the 54-gene panel, we detected at least one somatic mutation in 44 of 61 tDNA (72.1%) and 29 of 44 (65.9%) cfDNA. The overall concordance rate of cfDNA to tDNA was 85.9%, when all detected mutations were considered. We collected serial cfDNAs during cetuximab-based treatment in 2 metastatic KRAS wild-type CRC patients, one with acquired resistance and one with primary resistance. We demonstrate newly emerged KRAS mutation in cfDNA 1.5 months before radiologic progression. Another patient had a newly emerged PIK3CA H1047R mutation on cfDNA analysis at progression during cetuximab/irinotecan chemotherapy with gradual increase in allele frequency from 0.8 to 2.1%. This blinded, prospective study of a cfDNA sequencing showed high concordance to tDNA suggesting that the DST approach may be used as a non-invasive biopsy-free alternative to conventional sequencing using tumor biopsy.
Project description:Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.
Project description:CONTEXT:Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is one of the most challenging cancers to treat with modest recent improvements in survival from new systemic therapies. There is growing interest in individualized therapy underpinned by somatic and germline genomic alterations. OBJECTIVE:A systematic review of data on therapies targeting somatic and germline alterations, and their downstream pathways in PDAC. METHOD:A systematic literature search was conducted using PRISMA guidelines to include relevant results published after January 1, 2008. RESULTS:A total of 71 relevant studies were included. We identified 36 studies targeting the KRAS-pathway, the most common being with MEK-inhibitor therapy. Twenty-two studies were identified that evaluated platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors in patients with deleterious mutations in DNA damage repair genes and have shown encouraging results. Immunotherapy has demonstrated activity in patients with mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability. CONCLUSION:Evidence from translational and clinical research presents an exciting platform for genomic targeted therapy in PDAC. Validity for targeting BRCA with platinum and PARP inhibitors and microsatellite instability with immune therapy has been established, nonetheless, evidence for targeting the common driver oncogenes is lacking and much work is needed. Of importance is identifying the subgroup of KRAS -wild type PDAC (approximately 5%) where there is enrichment for targetable opportunities.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from peripheral blood has recently been shown to be an alternative source to detect gene mutations in primary tumors; however, most previous studies have focused on advanced stage cancers, and few have evaluated ctDNA detection in early-stage lung cancer. In the present study, blood and tumor samples were collected prospectively from 58 early-stage non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (stages IA, IB, and IIA) and a targeted sequencing approach was used to detect somatic driver mutations in matched tumor DNA (tDNA) and plasma ctDNA. We identified frequent driver mutations in plasma ctDNA and tDNA in EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53, and less frequent mutations in other genes, with an overall study concordance of 50.4% and sensitivity and specificity of 53.8% and 47.3%, respectively. Cell-free (cfDNA) concentrations were found to be significantly associated with some clinical features, including tumor stage and subtype. Importantly, the presence of cfDNA had a higher positive predictive value than that of currently used protein tumor biomarkers. This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying plasma ctDNA mutations in the earliest stage lung cancer patients via targeted sequencing, demonstrating a potential utility of targeted sequencing of ctDNA in the clinical management of NSCLC.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have recurrent genomic alterations. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate that targeted sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by PCNSL at the time of diagnosis could identify somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS).PlasmacfDNA and matched tumor DNA (tDNA) from 25 PCNSL patients were sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies®). First, patient-specific targeted sequencing of identified somatic mutations in tDNA was performed. Then, a second sequencing targeting MYD88 c.T778C was performed and compared to plasma samples from 25 age-matched control patients suffering from other types of cancer.According to the patient-specific targeted sequencing, eight patients (32% [95% CI 15-54%]) had detectable somatic mutations in cfDNA. Considering MYD88 sequencing, six patients had the specific c.T778C alteration detected in plasma. Using a control group, the sensitivity was 24% [9-45%] and the specificity was 100%. Tumor volume or deep brain structure involvement did not influence the detection of somatic mutations in plasma.This pilot study provided evidence that somatic mutations can be detected by NGS in the cfDNA of a subset of patients suffering from PCNSL.