Viral and Cellular Genomes Activate Distinct DNA Damage Responses.
ABSTRACT: In response to cellular genome breaks, MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) activates a global ATM DNA damage response (DDR) that prevents cellular replication. Here, we show that MRN-ATM also has critical functions in defending the cell against DNA viruses. We reveal temporally distinct responses to adenovirus genomes: a critical MRN-ATM DDR that must be inactivated by E1B-55K/E4-ORF3 viral oncoproteins and a global MRN-independent ATM DDR to viral nuclear domains that does not impact viral replication. We show that MRN binds to adenovirus genomes and activates a localized ATM response that specifically prevents viral DNA replication. In contrast to chromosomal breaks, ATM activation is not amplified by H2AX across megabases of chromatin to induce global signaling and replicative arrest. Thus, ?H2AX foci discriminate "self" and "non-self" genomes and determine whether a localized anti-viral or global ATM response is appropriate. This provides an elegant mechanism to neutralize viral genomes without jeopardizing cellular viability.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) is a conglomerate of pathways designed to detect DNA damage and signal its presence to cell cycle checkpoints and to the repair machinery, allowing the cell to pause and mend the damage, or if the damage is too severe, to trigger apoptosis or senescence. Various DDR branches are regulated by kinases of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase family, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR). Replication intermediates and linear double-stranded genomes of DNA viruses are perceived by the cell as DNA damage and activate the DDR. If allowed to operate, the DDR will stimulate ligation of viral genomes and will inhibit virus replication. To prevent this outcome, many DNA viruses evolved ways to limit the DDR. As part of its attack on the DDR, adenovirus utilizes various viral proteins to cause degradation of DDR proteins and to sequester the MRN damage sensor outside virus replication centers. Here we show that adenovirus evolved yet another novel mechanism to inhibit the DDR. The E4orf4 protein, together with its cellular partner PP2A, reduces phosphorylation of ATM and ATR substrates in virus-infected cells and in cells treated with DNA damaging drugs, and causes accumulation of damaged DNA in the drug-treated cells. ATM and ATR are not mutually required for inhibition of their signaling pathways by E4orf4. ATM and ATR deficiency as well as E4orf4 expression enhance infection efficiency. Furthermore, E4orf4, previously reported to induce cancer-specific cell death when expressed alone, sensitizes cells to killing by sub-lethal concentrations of DNA damaging drugs, likely because it inhibits DNA damage repair. These findings provide one explanation for the cancer-specificity of E4orf4-induced cell death as many cancers have DDR deficiencies leading to increased reliance on the remaining intact DDR pathways and to enhanced susceptibility to DDR inhibitors such as E4orf4. Thus DDR inhibition by E4orf4 contributes both to the efficiency of adenovirus replication and to the ability of E4orf4 to kill cancer cells.
Project description:Adenovirus (Ad) type 5 (Ad5) E4 deletion mutants including H5dl1007 (E4-) induce a DNA damage response (DDR) that activates the kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which can interfere with efficient viral DNA replication. We find that localization of active phosphorylated ATM (pATM) to E4- viral replication centers (VRCs) is important for its inhibitory effect. ATM is necessary for localization of RNF8 and 53BP1 to E4 mutant VRCs, while recruitment of DDR factors Mre11, Mdc1 and ?H2AX is ATM-independent, raising the possibility that ATM may affect viral chromatin at VRCs. We assessed E4- and Ad5 chromatin organization by micrococcal nuclease (MN) digestion. A significant fraction of Ad5 DNA is somewhat resistant to MN digestion, whereas E4- DNA is more susceptible. ATM inhibition increases the fraction of E4- DNA that is resistant to MN digestion. Our results address possible mechanisms through which ATM inhibits E4- DNA replication.
Project description:The protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3 related (ATR) are activated in response to DNA damage, genotoxic stress and virus infections. Here we show that during infection with wild-type adenovirus, ATR and its cofactors RPA32, ATRIP and TopBP1 accumulate at viral replication centres, but there is minimal ATR activation. We show that the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is recruited to viral centres only during infection with adenoviruses lacking the early region E4 and ATR signaling is activated. This suggests a novel requirement for the MRN complex in ATR activation during virus infection, which is independent of Mre11 nuclease activity and recruitment of RPA/ATR/ATRIP/TopBP1. Unlike other damage scenarios, we found that ATM and ATR signaling are not dependent on each other during infection. We identify a region of the viral E4orf3 protein responsible for immobilization of the MRN complex and show that this prevents ATR signaling during adenovirus infection. We propose that immobilization of the MRN damage sensor by E4orf3 protein prevents recognition of viral genomes and blocks detrimental aspects of checkpoint signaling during virus infection.
Project description:DNA damage resulting from intrinsic or extrinsic sources activates DNA damage responses (DDRs) centered on protein kinase signaling cascades. The usual consequences of inducing DDRs include the activation of cell cycle checkpoints together with repair of the damaged DNA or induction of apoptosis. Many DNA viruses elicit host DDRs during infection and some viruses require the DDR for efficient replication. However, the mechanism by which DDRs are activated by viral infection is poorly understood. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces a DDR centered on the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. Here we show that HCMV replication is compromised in cells with inactivated or depleted ATM and that ATM is essential for the host DDR early during infection. Likewise, a downstream target of ATM phosphorylation, H2AX, also contributes to viral replication. The ATM-dependent DDR is detected as discrete, nuclear ?H2AX foci early in infection and can be activated by IE proteins. By 24 hpi, ?H2AX is observed primarily in HCMV DNA replication compartments. We identified a role for the E2F1 transcription factor in mediating this DDR and viral replication. E2F1, but not E2F2 or E2F3, promotes the accumulation of ?H2AX during HCMV infection or IE protein expression. Moreover, E2F1 expression, but not the expression of E2F2 or E2F3, is required for efficient HCMV replication. These results reveal a novel role for E2F1 in mediating an ATM-dependent DDR that contributes to viral replication. Given that E2F activity is often deregulated by infection with DNA viruses, these observations raise the possibility that an E2F1-mediated mechanism of DDR activation may be conserved among DNA viruses.
Project description:The cellular activity of Yondelis (trabectedin, Ecteinascidin 743, Et743) is known to depend on transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TCR). However, the subsequent cellular effects of Et743 are not fully understood. Here we show that Et743 induces both transcription- and replication-coupled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are detectible by neutral COMET assay and as gamma-H2AX foci that colocalize with 53BP1, Mre11, Ser(1981)-pATM, and Thr(68)-pChk2. The transcription coupled-DSBs (TC-DSBs) induced by Et743 depended both on TCR and Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and were associated with DNA-PK-dependent gamma-H2AX foci. In contrast to DNA-PK, ATM phosphorylated H2AX both in NER-proficient and -deficient cells, but its full activation was dependent on H2AX as well as DNA-PK, suggesting a positive feedback loop: DNA-PK-gamma-H2AX-ATM. Knocking-out H2AX or inactivating DNA-PK reduced Et743's antiproliferative activity, whereas ATM and MRN tended to act as survival factors. Our results highlight the interplays between ATM and DNA-PK and their impacts on H2AX phosphorylation and cell survival. They also suggest that gamma-H2AX may serve as a biomarker in patients treated with Et743 and that molecular profiling of tumors for TCR, MRN, ATM, and DNA-PK might be useful to anticipate tumor response to Et743 treatment.
Project description:Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage response (DDR) is the fundamental cellular response for maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis. The activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is central to DNA double-strand break (DSB) for maintaining host-genome integrity in mammalian cells. Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can selectively replicate in tumor cells; however, its influence on the genome integrity of tumor cells is not well-elucidated. Here, we found that membrane fusion and NDV infection triggered DSBs in tumor cells. The late replication and membrane fusion of NDV mechanistically activated the ATM-mediated DSB pathway via the ATM-Chk2 axis, as evidenced by the hallmarks of DSBs, i.e., auto-phosphorylated ATM and phosphorylated H2AX and Chk2. Immunofluorescence data showed that multifaceted ATM-controlled phosphorylation markedly induced the formation of pan-nuclear punctum foci in response to NDV infection and F-HN co-expression. Specific drug-inhibitory experiments on ATM kinase activity further suggested that ATM-mediated DSBs facilitated NDV replication and membrane fusion. We confirmed that the Mre11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex sensed the DSB signal activation triggered by NDV infection and membrane fusion. The pharmacological inhibition of MRN activity also significantly inhibited intracellular and extracellular NDV replication and syncytia formation. Collectively, these data identified for the first time a direct link between the membrane fusion induced by virus infection and DDR pathways, thereby providing new insights into the efficient replication of oncolytic NDV in tumor cells.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV), like other oncogenic viruses, modulates the activity of cellular DNA damage responses (DDR) during its life cycle. Our aim was to characterize the role of early lytic proteins and viral lytic DNA replication in activation of DNA damage signaling during the EBV lytic cycle. Our data challenge the prevalent hypothesis that activation of DDR pathways during the EBV lytic cycle occurs solely in response to large amounts of exogenous double stranded DNA products generated during lytic viral DNA replication. In immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays, DDR activation markers, specifically phosphorylated ATM (pATM), H2AX (?H2AX), or 53BP1 (p53BP1), were induced in the presence or absence of viral DNA amplification or replication compartments during the EBV lytic cycle. In assays with an ATM inhibitor and DNA damaging reagents in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, ?H2AX induction was necessary for optimal expression of early EBV genes, but not sufficient for lytic reactivation. Studies in lytically reactivated EBV-positive cells in which early EBV proteins, BGLF4, BGLF5, or BALF2, were not expressed showed that these proteins were not necessary for DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle. Expression of ZEBRA, a viral protein that is necessary for EBV entry into the lytic phase, induced pATM foci and ?H2AX independent of other EBV gene products. ZEBRA mutants deficient in DNA binding, Z(R183E) and Z(S186E), did not induce foci of pATM. ZEBRA co-localized with HP1?, a heterochromatin associated protein involved in DNA damage signaling. We propose a model of DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle in which ZEBRA induces ATM kinase phosphorylation, in a DNA binding dependent manner, to modulate gene expression. ATM and H2AX phosphorylation induced prior to EBV replication may be critical for creating a microenvironment of viral and cellular gene expression that enables lytic cycle progression.
Project description:During adeno-associated virus and adenovirus (AAV/Ad) coinfection, accumulation of viral genomes and proteins can alter cellular stress responses. To determine how AAV/Ad coinfection affects the host we screened over 60 cellular proteins for their responses. AAV/Ad coinfections induce a robust DNA damage response (DDR) that is distinct from that induced by Ad infection alone. Using chemical inhibitors, deficient cell lines and siRNA knockdowns of the DDR kinases, ATM, ATR and DNA-PK, we determined that DNA-PK and ATM kinases are the initial transducers of this response. AAV/Ad coinfection induces ATM- and DNA-PK mediated phosphorylation of RPA2, NBS1, H2AX and the checkpoint kinases CHK1/2. Inhibition of one or more of the DDR kinases reduces the level of phosphorylation of downstream targets but does not dramatically reduce Ad or AAV protein expression. However, AAV DNA levels are moderately affected by kinase inhibition. These experiments provide new insights into the cellular responses to AAV/Ad coinfections.
Project description:Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette-ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection. MRN can interfere with cancer therapy and is an attractive target for precision medicine. Its conformations change the paradigm whereby kinases initiate damage sensing. Delineated results reveal kinase activation, posttranslational targeting, functional scaffolding, conformations storing binding energy and enabling access, interactions with hub proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), and distinct networks at DNA breaks and forks. MRN biochemistry provides prototypic insights into how it initiates, implements, and regulates multifunctional responses to genomic stress.
Project description:Two kinases, ATM and DNA-PKcs, control rapid responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The paradigm for ATM control is recruitment and activation by the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 (MRN) sensor complex, whereas DNA-PKcs requires the sensor Ku (Ku70-Ku80). Using mouse cells containing targeted mutant alleles of Mre11 (Mre11a) and/or Ku70 (Xrcc6), together with pharmacologic kinase inhibition, we demonstrate that ATM can be activated by DSBs in the absence of MRN. When MRN is deficient, DNA-PKcs efficiently substitutes for ATM in facilitating local chromatin responses. In the absence of both MRN and Ku, ATM is recruited to chromatin, where it phosphorylates H2AX and triggers the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, but the DNA-repair functions of MRN are not restored. These results suggest that, in contrast to straightforward recruitment and activation by MRN, a complex interplay between sensors has a substantial role in ATM control.