Cardiac Disease Status Dictates Functional mRNA Targeting Profiles of Individual MicroRNAs.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are key players in cardiac stress responses, but the mRNAs, whose abundance and translational potential are primarily affected by changes in cardiac microRNAs, are not well defined. Stimulus-induced, large-scale alterations in the cardiac transcriptome, together with consideration of the law of mass action, further suggest that the mRNAs most substantively targeted by individual microRNAs will vary between unstressed and stressed conditions. To test the hypothesis that microRNA target profiles differ in health and disease, we traced the fate of empirically determined miR-133a and miR-378 targets in mouse hearts undergoing pressure overload hypertrophy.Ago2 immunoprecipitation with RNA sequencing (RNA-induced silencing complex sequencing) was used for unbiased definition of microRNA-dependent and microRNA-independent alterations occurring among ?13 000 mRNAs in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Of 37 direct targets of miR-133a defined in unstressed hearts (fold change ?25%, false discovery rate <0.02), only 4 (11%) continued to be targeted by miR-133a during TAC, whereas for miR-378 direct targets, 3 of 32 targets (9%) were maintained during TAC. Similarly, only 16% (for miR-133a) and 53% (for miR-378) of hundreds of indirectly affected mRNAs underwent comparable regulation, demonstrating that the effect of TAC on microRNA direct target selection resulted in widespread alterations of signaling function. Numerous microRNA-mediated regulatory events occurring exclusively during pressure overload revealed signaling networks that may be responsive to the endogenous decreases in miR-133a during TAC.Pressure overload-mediated changes in overall cardiac RNA content alter microRNA targeting profiles, reinforcing the need to define microRNA targets in tissue-, cell-, and status-specific contexts.
Project description:Rationale: MicroRNAs play key roles in hypertrophic stress responses. miR-378(-3p) is a highly abundant, cardiomyocyte-enriched microRNA whose downregulation in pressure-overload has been suggested as detrimental to the heart. Previous studies have utilized systemic anti-miR or microRNA-encoding virus administration, and thus questions regarding the cardiomyocyte-autonomous roles of miR-378 remain. Objective: To examine whether persistent overexpression of miR-378 in cardiomyocytes alters the phenotype of the unstressed heart, whether its overexpression is beneficial or deleterious in the setting of pressure-overload, and to comprehensively identify its cardiomyocyte-specific effects on mRNA regulation. Methods and Results: Cardiac function was compared in young (10-12 week-old) mice overexpressing miR-378 in the heart under the control of the Myh6 promoter (alphaMHC-miR-378 mice), in older (40 week-old) mice and their age-matched wild-type controls. Older alphaMHC-miR-378 mice exhibited decreased fractional shortening and modest chamber dilation with an increase in cardiomyocyte length. When subjected to pressure-overload, cardiomyocyte length was increased in young alphaMHC-miR-378 mice, but fractional shortening declined precipitously over two weeks. Transcriptome profiling of wild-type and alphaMHC-miR-378 hearts in unstressed and pressure-overload conditions revealed dysregulation of several upstream metabolic and mitochondrial genes in alphaMHC-miR-378 hearts, compromising the reprogramming that occurs during early adaptation to pressure overload. Ago2 immunoprecipitation with mRNA sequencing revealed novel miR-378 cardiac mRNA targets including Akt1 and Epac2 and demonstrated the contextual nature of previously described miR-378 targeting events. Conclusions: Long-term upregulation of miR-378 levels in the heart is not innocuous and exacerbates contractile dysfunction in pressure-overload hypertrophy through numerous signaling mechanisms. Overall design: Cardiac polyadenylated RNA (mRNA) or RISC-seq (total RNA-seq of Ago2 immunoprecipitate) profiles were generated from nontransgenic and transgenic mouse hearts of FVB/N background, on Illumina HiSeq 2000 instruments. Male mice 8-12 weeks of age were used in these studies, and subjected to sham surgery or 2 weeks of pressure-overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC). 3 nontransgenic sham, 3 transgenic sham, 7 nontransgenic TAC, 7 transgenic TAC, each with mRNA-seq and RISC-seq data.
Project description:miR-133a-3p is a highly abundant cardiomyocyte-enriched microRNA whose expression is persistently decreased in response to pressure overload (or transverse aortic constriction, TAC) in mice. Overexpression of miR-133a in cardiomyocytes of mouse hearts in vivo (under the control of the Myh6 promoter) decreases pressure overload-induced apoptosis and fibrosis. In previous studies using microarray platforms, we detected numerous mRNAs whose transcript levels were altered by either or both of miR-133a overexpression and pressure overload. The data set presented here builds upon our previous study in these mice by examining mRNA-RISC associations (using Ago2-immunoprecipitated RNA) and global mRNA abundances via RNA-sequencing procedures, and tests the hypothesis that mRNAs targeted by overexpressed miR-133a are dissimilar between sham and TAC contexts. Cardiac polyadenylated RNA (mRNA) profiles were generated from nontransgenic and transgenic mouse hearts of FVB/N background, on Illumina HiSeq 2000 instruments. Male mice 8-12 weeks of age were used in these studies, and subjected to sham surgery or 1 week of pressure-overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC). 3 nontransgenic sham, 7 transgenic sham, 5 nontransgenic TAC, 4 transgenic TAC, each with mRNA-seq and RISC-seq (mRNA-seq of Ago2 immunoprecipitate) data.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) serve a significant role in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The transcriptional regulation of miRNAs is poorly understood in cardiac hypertrophy. We investigated whether the expression of miR-133a is epigenetically regulated by class I and IIb HDACs during hypertrophic remodeling.Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in CD1 mice to induce pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice were treated with class I and IIb HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) via drinking water for 2 and 4 weeks post TAC. miRNA expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and post TAC end points for structural and functional assessment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to identify HDACs and transcription factors associated with miR-133a promoter. miR-133a expression was downregulated by 0.7- and 0.5-fold at 2 and 4 weeks post TAC, respectively, when compared with vehicle control (P<0.05). HDAC inhibition prevented this significant decrease 2 weeks post TAC and maintained miR-133a expression near vehicle control levels, which coincided with (1) a decrease in connective tissue growth factor expression, (2) a reduction in cardiac fibrosis and left atrium diameter (marker of end-diastolic pressure), suggesting an improvement in diastolic function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are present on the miR-133a enhancer regions.The results reveal that HDACs play a role in the regulation of pressure overload-induced miR-133a downregulation. This work is the first to provide insight into an epigenetic-miRNA regulatory pathway in pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis.
Project description:MicroRNA (miR)-133a regulates cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation and plays an important role in cardiac development. Because miR-133a levels decrease during reactive cardiac hypertrophy, some have considered that restoring miR-133a levels could suppress hypertrophic remodeling.To prevent the "normal" downregulation of miR-133a induced by an acute hypertrophic stimulus in the adult heart.miR-133a is downregulated in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy, but not in 2 genetic hypertrophy models. Using MYH6 promoter-directed expression of a miR-133a genomic precursor, increased cardiomyocyte miR-133a had no effect on postnatal cardiac development assessed by measures of structure, function, and mRNA profile. However, increased miR-133a levels increased QT intervals in surface electrocardiographic recordings and action potential durations in isolated ventricular myocytes, with a decrease in the fast component of the transient outward K+ current, I(to,f), at baseline. Transgenic expression of miR-133a prevented TAC-associated miR-133a downregulation and improved myocardial fibrosis and diastolic function without affecting the extent of hypertrophy. I(to,f) downregulation normally observed post-TAC was prevented in miR-133a transgenic mice, although action potential duration and QT intervals did not reflect this benefit. miR-133a transgenic hearts had no significant alterations of basal or post-TAC mRNA expression profiles, although decreased mRNA and protein levels were observed for the I(to,f) auxiliary KChIP2 subunit, which is not a predicted target.These results reveal striking differences between in vitro and in vivo phenotypes of miR expression, and further suggest that mRNA signatures do not reliably predict either direct miR targets or major miR effects.
Project description:MicroRNAs modestly suppress their direct mRNA targets, and these direct effects are amplified by modulation of gene transcription pathways. Consequently, indirect mRNA modulatory effects of microRNAs to increase or decrease mRNAs greatly outnumber direct target suppressions. Because microRNAs are products of transcription, the potential exists for microRNAs that regulate transcription to regulate other microRNAs.Determine whether cardiac-expressed microRNAs regulate expression of other cardiac microRNAs, and measure the impact of microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation on indirect regulation of nontarget mRNAs.Transgenic expression of pre-microRNAs was used to generate mouse hearts expressing 6- to 16-fold normal levels of microRNA (miR)-143, miR-378, and miR-499. Genome-wide mRNA and microRNA signatures were established using deep sequencing; expression profiles provoked by each microRNA were defined. miR-143 suppressed its direct cardiac mRNA target hexokinase 2, but exhibited little indirect target regulation and did not regulate other cardiac microRNAs. Both miR-378 and miR-499 indirectly regulated hundreds of cardiac mRNAs and 15 to 30 cardiac microRNAs. MicroRNA overexpression did not alter normal processing of either transgenic or endogenous cardiac microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated regulation of other microRNAs encoded within parent genes occurred in tandem with parent mRNAs. MicroRNA regulation by miR-378 and miR-499 was stimulus specific, and contributed to observed mRNA downregulation.MicroRNAs that modulate cardiac transcription can indirectly regulate other microRNAs. Transcriptional modulation by microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation, help explain how small direct effects of microRNAs are amplified to generate striking phenotypes.
Project description:Rationale: Excessive myocardial fibrosis is the main pathological process in the development of cardiac remodeling and heart failure; therefore, it is important to prevent excessive myocardial fibrosis. We determined that microRNA-378 (miR-378) is cardiac-enriched and highly repressed during cardiac remodeling. We therefore proposed that miR-378 has a critical role in regulation of cardiac fibrosis, and examined the effects of miR-378 on cardiac fibrosis after mechanical stress. Methods: Mechanical stress was respectively imposed on mice through a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) procedure and on cardiac fibroblasts by stretching silicon dishes. A chemically modified miR-378 mimic (Agomir) or an inhibitor (Antagomir) was administrated to mice by intravenous injection and to cells by direct addition to the culture medium. MiR-378 knockout mouse was constructed. Cardiac fibroblasts were cultured in the conditioned media from the cardiomyocytes with either miR-378 depletion or treatment with sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene and miRNA expression, Western blot analysis, immunochemistry and electron microscopy were performed to elucidate the mechanisms. Results: Mechanical stress induced significant increases in fibrotic responses, including myocardial fibrosis, fibroblast hyperplasia, and protein and gene expression of collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) both in vivo and in vitro. All these fibrotic responses were attenuated by treatment with a chemically modified miR-378 mimic (Agomir) but were exaggerated by treatment with an inhibitor (Antagomir). MiR-378 knockout mouse models exhibited aggravated cardiac fibrosis after TAC. Media from the cardiomyocytes with either miR-378 depletion or treatment with sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869 enhanced the fibrotic responses of stimulated cardiac fibroblasts, confirming that miR-378 inhibits fibrosis in an extracellular vesicles-dependent secretory manner. Mechanistically, the miR-378-induced anti-fibrotic effects manifested partially through the suppression of p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation by targeting MKK6 in cardiac fibroblasts. Conclusions: miR-378 is secreted from cardiomyocytes following mechanical stress and acts as an inhibitor of excessive cardiac fibrosis through a paracrine mechanism.
Project description:Although inadequate intake of essential nutrient choline has been known to significantly increase cardiovascular risk, whether additional supplement of choline offering a protection against cardiac hypertrophy remain unstudied.The effects of choline supplements on pathological cardiac hypertrophic growth induced by transverse aorta constriction (TAC) for three weeks and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cultured cells induced by isoproterenol (ISO) 10 ?M for 48 h stimulation were investigated. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR were used to determine the expression of ANP, BNP, ?-MHC, miR-133a and Calcineurin.Administration of 14 mg/kg choline to mice undergone TAC effectively attenuated the cardiac hypertrophic responses, as indicated by the reduced heart weight, left ventricular weight, ventricular thickness, and reduced expression of biomarker genes of cardiac hypertrophy. This anti-hypertrophic efficacy was reproduced in a cellular model of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes. Our results further showed that choline rescued the aberrant downregulation of the muscle-specific microRNA miR-133a expression, a recently identified anti-hypertrophic factor, and restored the elevated calcineurin protein level, the key signaling molecule for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. These effects of choline were abolished by the M3 mAChR-specific antagonist 4-DAMP.Our study unraveled for the first time the cardioprotection of choline against cardiac hypertrophy, with correction of expression of miR-133a and calcineurin as a possible mechanism. Our findings suggest that choline supplement may be considered for adjunct anti-hypertrophy therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) are expanding our understanding of cardiac disease and have the potential to transform cardiovascular therapeutics. One miR can target hundreds of individual mRNAs, but existing methodologies are not sufficient to accurately and comprehensively identify these mRNA targets in vivo.To develop methods permitting identification of in vivo miR targets in an unbiased manner, using massively parallel sequencing of mouse cardiac transcriptomes in combination with sequencing of mRNA associated with mouse cardiac RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs).We optimized techniques for expression profiling small amounts of RNA without introducing amplification bias and applied this to anti-Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitated RISCs (RISC-Seq) from mouse hearts. By comparing RNA-sequencing results of cardiac RISC and transcriptome from the same individual hearts, we defined 1645 mRNAs consistently targeted to mouse cardiac RISCs. We used this approach in hearts overexpressing miRs from Myh6 promoter-driven precursors (programmed RISC-Seq) to identify 209 in vivo targets of miR-133a and 81 in vivo targets of miR-499. Consistent with the fact that miR-133a and miR-499 have widely differing "seed" sequences and belong to different miR families, only 6 targets were common to miR-133a- and miR-499-programmed hearts.RISC-sequencing is a highly sensitive method for general RISC profiling and individual miR target identification in biological context and is applicable to any tissue and any disease state.
Project description:MicroRNAs are dysregulated in a setting of heart disease and have emerged as promising therapeutic targets. MicroRNA-34 family members (miR-34a, -34b, and -34c) are up-regulated in the heart in response to stress. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of the miR-34 family using an s.c.-delivered seed-targeting 8-mer locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified antimiR (LNA-antimiR-34) can provide therapeutic benefit in mice with preexisting pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction due to myocardial infarction (MI) or pressure overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC). An additional cohort of mice subjected to MI was given LNA-antimiR-34a (15-mer) to inhibit miR-34a alone as a comparison for LNA-antimiR-34. LNA-antimiR-34 (8-mer) efficiently silenced all three miR-34 family members in both cardiac stress models and attenuated cardiac remodeling and atrial enlargement. In contrast, inhibition of miR-34a alone with LNA-antimiR-34a (15-mer) provided no benefit in the MI model. In mice subjected to pressure overload, LNA-antimiR-34 improved systolic function and attenuated lung congestion, associated with reduced cardiac fibrosis, increased angiogenesis, increased Akt activity, decreased atrial natriuretic peptide gene expression, and maintenance of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene expression. Improved outcome in LNA-antimiR-34-treated MI and TAC mice was accompanied by up-regulation of several direct miR-34 targets, including vascular endothelial growth factors, vinculin, protein O-fucosyltranferase 1, Notch1, and semaphorin 4B. Our results provide evidence that silencing of the entire miR-34 family can protect the heart against pathological cardiac remodeling and improve function. Furthermore, these data underscore the utility of seed-targeting 8-mer LNA-antimiRs in the development of new therapeutic approaches for pharmacologic inhibition of disease-implicated miRNA seed families.
Project description:Predictions of microRNA-mRNA interactions typically rely on bioinformatic algorithms, but these algorithms only suggest the possibility of microRNA binding and may miss important interactions as well as falsely predict others. We developed an affinity purification approach to empirically identify microRNAs associated with the 3'UTR of the mRNA encoding Hand2, a transcription factor essential for cardiac development. In addition to miR-1, a known regulator of Hand2 expression, we determined that the Hand2 3'UTR also associated with miR-133a, a microRNA cotranscribed with miR-1 in cardiac and muscle cells. Using a sequential binding assay, we showed that miR-1 and miR-133a could occupy the Hand2 3'UTR concurrently. miR-133a inhibited Hand2 expression in tissue culture models, and miR-133a double knockout mice had elevated levels of Hand2 mRNA and protein. We conclude that Hand2 is regulated by miR-133a in addition to miR-1. The affinity purification assay should be generally applicable for identifying other microRNA-mRNA interactions.